Paper ID

 

Authors. Paper Title

2

 

Mohamad Nassereddine. Smart Grid and Photovoltaic System to Mitigate Blackouts and Load Shedding (, )

Abstract. High voltage (HV) infrastructures are growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. Under certain extreme weather, the required load might exceed the generation capacity, which forces the network operator to execute the load shedding to avoid unwanted blackout. The paper addresses the embedded generation system and how it can be utilized to mitigate the requirements of load shedding. Furthermore, the study also focuses on the complex power transfer with and without the aid of embedded generation with energy storage. Case study is also included

3

 

David Gómez-Camazón, David Borge-Diez and Enrique Rosales-Asensio. Optimization of efficiency and sustainability in existing combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant: tecno-economic impact and environmental benefits. (, )

Abstract. The emissions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere not only should not be decreasing but are increasing over these years. That is why the existing combined cycles, currently one of the least polluting technologies, must adapt to new operating conditions imposed by operators by minimizing their emissions to the atmosphere and ensuring their sustainability in the coming years. A study of the environmental and techno-economic impact has been carried out by applying technological improvements in energy efficiency to these combined cycles, such as the hybridization of solar thermal energy with regeneration in the gas turbine. Regeneration contributes to increasing efficiencies around 2.25% to 3.29% and reduction of fuel consumption would represent 8% implying a significant saving of 4 million €/year approximately. There is a loss of the net power of the new cycle but it is considerably lower if heat from a renewable source is supplied to the steam cycle. This net power loss has an average value of 7.5% with only regeneration and a value of 1% with regeneration and hybridization. In conclusion, partial regeneration with solar hybridization provides an interesting and proven possibility to improve performance, efficiency and possibility of reducing emissions, 26167 Ton/year, in the existing combined cycles.

5

 

Onyeka OkwunduAhmed El-ShazlyMarwa Elkady and Waleed ShaabanResponse Surface Modeling and Optimization of Heterogeneous Methanolysis of Beef Tallow(, )

Abstract. Yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from methanolysis/transesterification reaction is influenced by 5 notable factors: reaction time, temperature, methanol to lipid ratio, catalyst concentration and extent of phase mixing. The aim of this paper is to investigate the optimum conditions for biodiesel production by methanolysis of beef tallow over chicken eggshell derived CaO catalyst, via a 3-level 5-factor modeling using response surface methodology (RSM). Transesterification was performed in 46 duplicated experimental runs. FAME yield was maximized with statistically adequate predictive quadratic model. Interactive parametric effects were studied. An optimum FAME yield of 95.94% was achieved with catalyst concentration of 5.42 wt.%, at 63.07 oC, methanol to fat ratio of 16.39 mole/mole, reaction time of 3.38 hours and stirring speed of 1300 rpm. The optimally produced biodiesel met European standard. At the established optimum process conditions, the heterogeneous catalyst recoverability, reusability and regeneration ability (RRR) were assessed. Only 85.36% of initial catalyst mass was recovered after 5 catalysis cycles, with resulting biodiesel FAME contents > 96.5% and FAME yields > 80% for each cycle. Regeneration by calcination restored the catalyst’s activity. For modeling and optimization studies, choice of factor range is paramount and no factor should be neglected before modeling.

7

 

Enas Muhi Hadi and Safa Luay. Production of Water Filter from Porcelanite by Dry Pressing (, )

Abstract. Abstract: Filtration is the Process of removing Suspended Objects from the Fluid by Passing it Through a Porous Substance . It Was done in this Study the Preparation of a Porous Ceramic body of Iraqi Local Porcelanite from the Addition of Iraqi White Kaolin by(10%)as a binding ,and Natural addives “wheat flakes” by(5,10,15…,35)%.the Characteristics of the Properties of Raw Materials were Studied by (XRF).the Samples were formed by Dry Pressing then Fired at (12000 C),Evaluation of Prepared Filters the Following Tests were Performed.[ Porosity , Water absorption, Apparent Density, Loos in Mass, Linear shrinkage and permeability as Physical properties. and Compressive strength as Mechanical properties. The result show the porosity is 55% ,Loos in mass 24.25%, water absorption50.99% Apparent Density1.07(g/cm3 ), Permeability0.0025(cm2/bar.sec) , Compressive strength 1 Mpa , Linear shrinkage 0.6% with 30% ratio of(W.F)

10

 

Zainab Kassimproduction of metal foams by using powder metallurgy method (, )

Abstract. This search reveals away to produce metal foam from Al powder with fine crystalline sugar powder .foams samples have on sugar content with variables ratio as (30%, 40%,70%),these samples formed by powder metallurgy method by using dry pressing with load 4 ton, the final samples are of disc shapes with diameters (2.5)cm. the foams samples sintered at (600)̊C by using sintered program with a soaking time for 2 hr. Some physical test taken as: Apparent density, apparent porosity, loss in weight, and linear shrinkage).According to the final results that appear increasing in porosity ,and decreasing in density with increasing in sugar content ,which that led to increasing in loss in weight and in linear shrinkage.

12

 

Bedoud KhouloudGraine RedouaneMerabet Hichem and Alimi LatifaStudy of Optical and Morphological TiO2 Nano-Films Properties Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering on Glass Substrate (, )

Abstract. In this paper, TiO2 nano-films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a TiO2ceramic target of pure Ti of 3" diameter and 0.250" thickness with a purity of 99.99%, onto heated glass substrates in a temperature range of 200 to 450°C. This study determines the temperature effect on the structural, optical and morphological properties of TiO2 nano-films. For this, we used X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and optical transmission spectroscopy UV-Visible for optical characterization and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphological characterization of the films produced. The (101), (400), (112), (200), (105), (211), (213), (204) peaks of the anatase structure and the (210), (102), (-112) (710) peaks of the monoclinic structure are observed. In addition, the peaks are sharp and intense which implies a good crystalline structure. Otherwise, the films optical gap variation is proportional to the temperature variation from 3,9eV to 3,92 eV for T=200°C and T=450°C, respectively. The surface roughness of TiO2 nano-films range from 1,031nm to 4,665nm.

13

 

Latifa Alimi, Kamel Chaoui, Nacira Hamlaoui and Khouloud Bedoud. Experimental study of chemically aged HDPE pipe material in toluene-methanol mixture and distilled water (, )

Abstract. Studying the aging phenomenon of plastic pipes presents simultaneously an economic achievement and a technical challenge for water and natural gas transportation systems. Very often, they are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as UV rays, ambient oxygen, acids, bases and some other solvents, altering the material microstructure, its physical and chemical properties. The high density polyethylene (HDPE) material degradation and loss of performance are usually the consequence of unwanted changes in mechanical behaviors leading to lower resistance. In this study, we examine the effects of distilled water (DW) and a mixture of toluene-methanol (TM) in contact with an HDPE pipe. Morphological properties such as crystallinity and oxidation induction time (OIT) are investigated using DSC method. Tensile tests and thermal analysis show that the TM mixture is much more absorbed by the resin as compared to DW. An increase in crystallinity is observed as established from literature for other organic solutions. Finally, the study gives an idea about property variances and their evolution as a function of the pipe thickness which is can be used as an estimation of the structural heterogeneity the product.

14

 

Enas Muhi Hadi and Huda Jabber Abdul-Hussien. Preparation of Ceramic Foam from Porcelanite by using simple direct foaming method (, )

Abstract. Ceramics filters should be porous are contain large amount of air cells. This work has been carried out for the purpose of preparing and studying Iraqi ceramic Foam. Simple and non-expensive method (direct foaming method), by using Iraqi raw material (Porcelanite) and white egg (ovalbumin) as a binder and a foaming agent during the foaming process. Porcelanite particle sizes were less than (≤63) µm, then mixed with white egg (ovalbumin) in ratios between (31.60-73.50) %. Porosity, water absorption ratio, permeability, thermal conductivity and flexural strength were obtained after sintering the specimens at (1100)˚C. The prepared Porcelanite foam contained a large amount of irregular shape microspores; it has high porosity (55.33-78.90) %, high water absorption ratio (35-59.5) %, high permeability (2.50-4.70) cm/min and low thermal conductivity (0.42-0.20) W/m.K. with flexural strength range (3-0.55) MPa. The direct foaming method by using white egg (without water) foam, proved to be an efficient and feasible method for producing highly porous ceramics with good mechanical properties for Ceramics filter applications.

15

 

Hadidi Abdelkader, Yaichi Mohammed and Djamel Saba. An Overview Of The Traditional Irrigation System (Foggaras) In Taouat Region. (, )

Abstract. In the oasis areas where climate and hydrological context is more sensitive because of irregularities in water availability in time and space, water management is of vital importance. The Foggara, considered as a multi-century system, is none other than this original illustration embodying ingenious techniques, certainly traditional and of purely human creation, through which local actors have been able to domesticate nature and have made the Sahara space an environment full of dynamism, witness of time, which owes everything to the effort of the local actors. The inevitable result of the combined action of climate, soil and water, which the traditional and ancient genius of the latter has harmoniously added, by bringing out a local economy based mainly on the palm grove. This traditional water catchment and canalization system has been installed in the outlying areas of Grand Erg Occidental, more particularly in Touat, Gourara and Tidikelt. Our objective is to know the influential factors on the functioning of the foggara and to give recommendation to improve the flows and to safeguard the traditional irrigation system of catchment of the underground water (the foggaras)

16

 

Sabrina Ladjama, Azzedine Grid, Naima Touati, Alima Mebrek, Hadda Rezzag and Sabri Bouchoucha. Characterization of DD1 Algerian Kaolin and the Effect of Potassium Salts on Mullitisation of Kaolinite (, )

Abstract. Abstract. This work aims to characterize local Kaolin from Djebbal Dbagh (DD1), Guelma, Algeria, in raw state and after being sintered to improve its refractoriness by mullitisation of the main phase known as kaolinite in order to exploit DD1 as a basic material to elaborate refractory bricks. The characterization of DD1was carried out by different methods of analysis such as chemical analysis, XRD, DTA/TG analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the measurement of some physical properties such as apparent density, porosity and microhardness of sintered material was performed. The mullitisation was tested without and with addition of potassium salts such as K2CO3, KNO3 and K2SO4 as mineralizers to find out the effect of these salts on transition phase from kaolinite to mullite and the inhibition of cristobalite existence versus sintering temperature from 1300°C to 1450°C. The influence of these mineralizers at the cited temperatures was evaluated using XRD. The results show that the additives K2CO3 and KNO3 have an effective role to accelerate the formation of mullite which is considered as the most favorite phase for high refractoriness.

17

 

Kouadri Saber and Kateb Samir. Hydro-chemical study with geospatial analysis of groundwater quality in ILLIZI region, southeastern Algeria (, )

Abstract. for the aim of evaluate the groundwater physic-chemical quality of ILLIZI in south-east of Algeria and to identify the sources of its chemical composition, 10 samples were collected to measure pH, T°, O2 and salinity, major cations and anions concentrations analyzed in the laboratory. We use scatter matrix method to determinate interrelationships between chemical parameters. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation and other uses was assessed by determining the sodium adsorption ratio, soluble-sodium percentage, total dis- solved solids and total hardness of water samples. The spatial distribution of key parameters was assessed using a GIS-based spatial gridding technique. This analysis indicated that the chemical composition of groundwater in the study area is of Cl–SO4–Mg–Ca mixed facies with concentrations of chemical constituents correspond known guideline values of W.H.O except the Na. Piper diagrams shows that Ca+ is the dominant cation in 50% of samples and there is no anion dominant. Geospatial mapping of hydro-chemical parameters and indices analyzed with the Wilcox log and Wilcox diagrams show distinctive areas of irrigation suitability.100% of samples fall in the suitable category and indicate that the study area is suitable for irrigation.

18

 

Wajeha Abddle Daim and Zahra Al-Timimi. Characterization and Fabrication of Nd: YVO4 Disc Laser System (, )

Abstract. Abstract: The disk laser system is designed to be compact. The design consists of 808nm diode laser used as a pumping source, power supply to produce a different voltage, focusing lens to focus the pumping laser beam, a beam splitter with anti-reflecting face to the pumping beam 808nm and a totally reflecting face to 1064nm. The thin disc crystal was made from Nd: YVO4. The host material YVO4 is doped with 3% at Nd. The crystal dimensions are 4x5 mm with 1 mm thickness placed on Indium material of thickness 0.1 mm. At the pulsed mode, the output energy was increased linearly with the input current and decreased with pulse frequency. The threshold current was increased with the increasing pulse frequency. The maximum output energy from the thin disc laser was 0.98 μJ with 0.49A at 1.3 kHz frequency. In CW mode the threshold current to get output power from thin disc laser was 1A and maximum output power was 22 mW with a conversion efficiency of 2.5% power. In pulsed mode, the threshold current becomes lower with lower pulse frequency and the output energy increases. Also at pulse frequency higher than 1.9 kHz, there was not output energy from the thin disc laser. Best pulse frequency is 1.3 kHz.

19

 

Jinan A. Abd, Wasan M. Mohammed and Akram Jabur. Indium oxide; synthesis and characterization for future industrial applications (, )

Abstract. Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film of 250 nm of thickness has been synthesized on glass substrates of 300 oC by pulse laser deposition technique. Nd-YAG laser (10 ns, 6 Hz and 140 mJ) has been used for the deposition. The structural properties of In2O3 thin film have been examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Polycrystalline structure with preferred plane of In2O3 (222) of the cubic phase and crystallite size of 19.8 nm have been obtained from XRD analysis. The morphological surface properties have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM image shows a homogeneous film and spherical shaped grain of size of 69.9 nm. The (Ra) and (Rq) of In2O3 film have been measured to be 0.413 nm and 0.484nm respectively. The optical properties of the film have been achieved by UV spectroscopy. UV measurements of In2O3 thin film give an indication of a good optical transmission in visible and near infrared regions with an average transmittance over than 90%. The calculated band gap energy value of In2O3 film is 3.6 eV.

20

 

Andres Julian Aristizabal, Arslan Habib, Daniel Hernan Ospina, Mónica Castaneda, Sebastian Zapata and Edison Banguero. RenPower: Software for sizing renewable energy microgrids for academic teaching (, )

Abstract. This article describes the development of the RenPower (Renewable Power) software for sizing of renewable energy microgrids able to be used in academic teaching. RenPower was implemented using the graphic programming language LabVIEWTM, and being freely used, allows students, teachers and researchers to select a geographical location anywhere in the world, define a user's monthly energy demand and obtain the annual photovoltaic and wind energy to meet the needs. The software also allows to calculate the amount of batteries to store the energy of the microgrid, as well as the power of the inverter for connection to the electrical network. The sizing results obtained with the software are identical to those obtained by theoretical calculations. RenPower was developed by the following universities: Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano (Colombia), Northwestern Polytechnical University (China), The University of Oklahoma (USA) and Universitat Politécnica de Valencia (Spain), Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia) and Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó (Colombia).

21

 

Omar Quintero, Juan Mahecha, Andres Julian Aristizabal and Daniel Ospina. Effect of return gas temperature in reciprocating and rotary compressor performance for medium and low temperature applications in commercial buildings (, )

Abstract. Energy efficiency in refrigeration and air conditioning vapor compression systems has been focused on the development of modulation methods allowing variation of compressor energy consumption according to refrigeration requirements, or the use of alternative energies for running those compression systems. However, even when a compressor comes with frequency inverter, improper selection can lead the user to spend more energy during low cooling loads; or force the compressor to work under conditions for which it was not designed. Thus the present article shows how the determination of the return gas temperature of the compressor can affect its performance and may vary according to the type of application. Therefore the operation of reciprocating and rotary compressors was simulated under the same nominal conditions and determined its cooling effect and its compression capacity. The results show that for the same type of compressor, differences in system capacity are approximately constant regardless of the type of refrigerant used in low temperature applications. The compressor capacity for medium and low temperature systems is independent of return gas temperature using R-22.

22

 

Paula Andrea Fajardo, Raúl Ávila, Andres Julian Aristizabal and Daniel Ospina. Transition of energy policy and regulation on distributed generation (DG) in Colombia()

Abstract. In any economic sector, the policy energy and the regulation are fundamental for the progress that has the initiatives that arise to improve the conditions of the participants of the sector. In the Colombian case, the promotion of clean sources of energy has been timidly advancing, however since 2014, the national government and its affiliated entities have joined forces in order to allow and encourage the insertion of the distributed generation (DG) and self-generation to small scale in the electric system. In this process, the country has an energy and regulatory transition that modifies the traditional activities of the electric chain. Therefore, this article outline the transition of energy policy and regulation that the country has had and a brief comparison was made with countries in the region such as Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil, analyzing the similarities and differences in these aspects by applying a promotion of DG and self-generation.

23

 

Wilson Acevedo, Luis Gaitan, Andres Julian Aristizabal and Daniel Ospina. Study Of The Effect On Greenhouse Gas Emissions Of Vehicles Powered By Hydrogen Generators()

Abstract. This article presents four case studies carried out in the city of Bogotá - Colombia, on the reduction of emissions in private transport vehicles using Hydrogen Generators by water electrolysis - GHE (electrolytic cells). The article proposes a possible scenario for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - GHG, as a result of the decrease in regular gasoline consumption due to the use of GHE in the case studies. The analysis focuses on the direct greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide - CO2, methane - CH4 and nitrous oxide - N2O) emitted in the combustion of gasoline engines, because they are gases of slow removal through physical, chemical and biological processes of the earth. The analyzes carried out show that the use of GHE in the case studies allows to reduce the CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2e) per car up to 25%, with an opportunity to reduce CO2e/passenger between 40% and 60%, due to the low number of people who normally move in each car.

29

 

Maher J. Ibrahim and Tagreed M. Al-Saadi. Structural and Optical Properties of Pure and Doped Triglycine Sulphate Crystal Grown by Slow Evaporation Technique(, )

Abstract. Crystal of Triglycine sulfate (TGS) pure and doped crystal was grown by slow evaporation Technique by using deionized water as a solvent at room temperature. The first batch included the growing of pure TGS with five different molar concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 2). The size of the largest crystals was (32.37×24×5.11) mm3 and the lattice constants of the largest crystal were (a= 9.1671Å, b= 12.6524Å, c= 5.7281Å). The second batch included grown crystals of TGS doped with five different molar concentrations (0.001, 0.003, 0.005, 0.007 and 0.01). The size of the largest crystals was (31.80×23.33×3.91) mm3. The lattice constants of the largest crystal were (a= 9.1777Å, b= 12.6243Å, c= 5.7105Å). The structural properties were carried out by XRD technique and found that the grown crystals have a monoclinic structure. The optical properties were studied by using UV-Vis analysis and found that all crystals have high transparency within the visible spectrum, and the FT-IR spectra have been recorded in the range of 500-4000 cm-1.

31

 

Maha Jasim Al-Bahate, Kadhum Muttar Shabeeb and Bassam I. Khalil. New Synthesis Polyvinyl Chloride – graft – Acrylamide Membrane for Wastewater Treatment(, )

Abstract. In this study, dehydrochlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was performed with alkaline solution in different molarity (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 M) then the acrylamide (AM) monomer grafted onto pure PVC and dehydrochlorinated PVC (DHPVC) backbone by free-radical graft copolymerization. Membranes from polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride –graft–acrylamide were prepared via a phase inversion method. The success of AM grafting onto PVC was investigated by CHN elemental analysis, DSC, TGA and DTGA analysis. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, pore size, porosity and contact angle measurements. The CHN data showed that the PVC-g-AM displayed various nitrogen percent, indicating the introduction of the AM on PVC, also DSC, TGA and DTGA curves shows changing in thermal behavior among pure PVC, DHPVC, and PVC-g-AM. All the new synthesis grafting membranes shows excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling performance confirmed by higher pure water flux and simulated wastewater rejection. The grafted membrane with 3 molarity exhibited the highest pure water permeate flux was about 230 L/m2 h at 28 °C of feed temperature and 1bar of pressure, i.e. was improved by about 115 times compared to the unmodified PVC membrane.

32

 

Nassira Mebrouki and Messaoud Hacini. GEOMODELING AREA IN HASSI MESSAOUD FIELD (, )

Abstract. Hassi Messaoud is considered as one of the largest fields of raw oil in the world. It is a part of a set of structures forming the northern part of the Triassic province. Its reservoir consists primarily of quartzite sandstone of Cambrian-Ordovician age. The area in Hassi Messaoud field is located in the North-East of Hassi Messaoud field. The study showed that both uni modal and bi modal distributions of porosity and permeability in the drains which not affected by erosion are totally exploited. The three-dimensional geological and dynamic modelling made from the PETREL, has shown that the reservoir properties: structural, petrophysical are closely related to tectonic movements. Besides, the aforementioned properties prevailed in the area nearby the faults and their structural position by contribution to the water.

34

 

Aziza Atbir, Fatima Zohra El Wardi, Abdelhamid Khabbazi and Moha Cherkaoui. Experimental characterization of the thermal properties of a developed, ecological and durable composite material formulated from sheep's wool and clay for thermal insulation (, )

Abstract. Thermal insulation allows a reduction in energy consumption, it is a major challenge to face the scarcity of fossil energy resources. Building sustainably with ECOMATERIAUX will help to reduce excessive energy costs to provide hygrothermal comfort in homes and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this sense, several scientific studies have dealt with ecological composite materials. It is in this perspective that our present work is based. The main objective of this stady is to develop a multilayer clay-based brick and thin layers of a network of sheep's wool yarn. The latter has excellent thermal insulation properties and is naturally designed for this purpose. This network of meshes will also increase the mechanical qualities of the developed composite materials. In this article are provided the results of the physico-chemical characterization of the clay used using the DRX Powder, MEB- EDX method as well as the thermal characterization of composite materials according to the number of layers inserted in the clay using the asymmetric hot plate, hot wire and flash methods. Also the experimental results were compared with the equivalent thermal conductivity calculated using different theoretical models. The results are encouraging and show a significant improvement in the insulation properties of the developed composite materials.

35

 

Zuhair Jabar, Assel B.Al.Zubaidi and Ashraq Abd Alrazaq. Enzymatic Degradation of Chitosan blend for Tissue Engineering Application (, )

Abstract. . Chitosan has adaptable applications in skin, cartilage and bone tissue engineering. This study was concentrated on the enzymatic degradation of chitosan. The degradation was carried out during four weeks of incubation at (37 ᵒC) temperature in media phosphate buffer saline solution containing lysozyme. The samples were characterized using Fourier transformations infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), degree of swelling, antimicrobial activity. Through the degradation interval, higher and slower weight loss of chitosan films was remarkable in medium degradation. The degradation behavior of chitosan was important parameters that utilized for bone tissue engineering.

36

 

Afif Ghaith, Roberta Ivaldi, Milad Fakhri, Paolo Ciavola and Elie El Jbeily. Evolution of canyon heads on the Lebanese continental shelf and slope (, )

Abstract. Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow to deep sea regions. Different transport processes and triggering mechanisms involving various time-scales can operate through them. While canyon-head areas are incision-dominated during the lowstand, they are morphological key features to: 1) better understand the sedimentary dynamics and processes from shelf to canyon, and 2) evaluate the main hydrodynamic participating in shaping their morphology. Despite the fact that Lebanese submarine canyons belong to the same continental margin, share the same morphological characteristics and are located just a few kilometres apart, they display relevant differences in sedimentary processes. These canyons are all strongly influenced by tectonic processes such as faulting, uplifting and seismic activity. The different interplay between tectonics and sedimentary processes is recognised as the main geological factor for distinguishing the evolution of canyons, where heads are thought to trap a large proportion of the sand that is carried along the shore by coastal drift. Although slope failures represent an increasing hazard for offshore development and exploitation of marine resources, they are one of the main processes that shape the canyon’s morphology, re-mobilise sediment and initiate long-distance sediment transport in submarine canyons. The primary goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the causes of slope failures in Lebanese submarine canyons, to determine the morphological and dynamic characteristics of individual failures and potential slip planes, and to analyse how these affect canyon’s morphological evolution. High-resolution multibeam bathymetries are being conducted at various heads of canyons in the area between Jounieh and north of Beirut, to recognise their specific morphological features. The repetition of sounding profiles along precise survey lines at the heads of the canyons will define their evolution discriminating seasonal variability of nearshore dynamics such those that occur on local beaches as a response to storm waves.

39

 

Nadia M. EshraEnvironmental Impacts Assessment of Proposed Pipeline Project System from AHD to Esna (, )

Abstract. Study area is east side Aswan High Dam (AHD) of first reach from reservoir (discharge point) to Esna barrage with total length 169 km. The proposed project is eliminating the existing irrigation pump stations and replacing there by pipeline to irrigate around 86810.64 hectare of agriculture lands and utilizing in green energy generation. This paper aims to study the impacts of the proposed project as; impact on AHD turbines generations and the power gained from the proposed project. Hydraulic impacts on; change in water level and its effect on navigation path, water quality, and the intakes of thermal and drinking water stations in the study area. Existing irrigation system in Egypt constructed since early nineteenth century, its technique is very old and lead to lost large amount of water and electric power, east side of first reach contain around 55 pump stations or more. The recommended location of pipeline intake at latitude=23.973738° and longitude=32.894077° upstream AHD with distance far from the body of the dam by around 1.08 km. Data are collected over 32 years from different authorities for pump stations; discharge, head, suction and expulsion levels, commission date. GIS tool is used to assembling and analyzing the data. Two mathematical models are applied to estimate the hydraulic impacts, losses and gained power. Bottlenecks along the navigation path of first reach due to the project are specified.

40

 

Bouhamla KhedidjaBourebia MouniraGharbi AmelMaouche HichemChaour Mohamed and Belhadi SalimEffect of heat treatment temperature on tribological behaviour of forged steel balls (, )

Abstract. The grinding balls work under severe conditions and are subjected to stresses that can alter their life expectancy. Different stresses occurring during the grinding operation can generate a wear of the material whose rate differs from the type of materials or its manufacturing process. As a result, cast balls differ from forged balls in several aspects, among which we mention the microstructure. Heat treatment is a recommended solution to improve the wear behavior of grinding balls. It promotes the formation of desired microstructural phases and therefore better mechanical properties. The scope of this work is to study the effect of the austenitization temperature on the tribological behavior of forged steel balls intended for grinding of raw material used in cement industry. Three austenitization temperatures are used: 870°C, 950°C and 1150°C. A normal load of 10 N is applied to estimate the wear mechanism induced during a travel of 20 meter. Microhardness measurements, optical and SEM macrographs, 3D views and roughness measurements were carried out on the generated wear grooves for each heat treatment cycle. The results obtained relate the effect of the heat treatment temperature and the applied force on the tribological behaviour of the studied samples.

41

 

Elie El Jbeily, Afif Ghaith, Massimo Verdoya, Paolo Chiozzi and Roberta Ivaldi. Geothermal Flow and Water-Load Seafloor Depth of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (, )

Abstract. We used bathymetry, sediment thickness and terrestrial heat-flow data to investigate the nature of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea lithosphere. We processed bathymetric data by removing the subsidence caused by sediment deposition to obtain the water-loaded seafloor depth. Terrestrial heat flow measurements were corrected for sedimentation and climatic changes to infer the purely conductive steady-state geothermal flow. Water-load seafloor depths and thermal data were then compared to reference models of continental lithosphere stretching and ocean plate cooling. The results argue that the Levantine Basin is floored by a continental stretched crust that thinned by a factor of 1.6-2.7, whereas the Herodotus Basin crust is of oceanic type. The water-loaded seafloor depths in all the Eastern Mediterranean are consistent with geological ages of > 250 Ma. The mantle heat flow in the Herodotus Basin (33 mW m-2) is consistent with that of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere, whereas in the Levantine Basin (26 mW m-2) is comparable to that of the Sinai continental microplate.

42

 

Ahmed H. Abed, Ziad T. Khodair, Tagreed M. Al-Saadi and Tariq A. Al-Dhahir. Study the Evaluation of Williamson–Hall (W-H) Strain Distribution in Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol-Gel Method (, )

Abstract. In the present study, Silver nanoparticles were prepared by Sol-Gel Method using Ag (NO3).3H2O as a precursor and a citric acid as a fuel. The nanoparticles of Silver were prepared at several of temperatures' calcination of (as prepared, 300, 500, and 700°C). Three of Williamson-Hall models, namely model of Williamson-Hall uniform deformation (UDM), model of Williamson-Hall uniform stress deformation (USDM) and Williamson-Hall and model of Uniform deformation energy density (UDEDM), have been used to estimate some of the parameters of the microstructure like the deformation stress (σ), strain (ε), crystallite size (D) and deformation energy density (U) from X-Ray Diffraction data of silver nanopowder.

43

 

José Alvarez Merino and Kazuo Hatakeyama. Impacts of the Renewable Energy Laws in the Peruvian Regional Development ()

Abstract. The problem that is focused in this paper is the dispertion of law and normatives about renewable energies in the Peruvian case, that is an onstacle for a more dynamic development. The methodology consists in the revision of the normative about renewable energy analizing their impacts at the regional level. The results of the research conduce to have important inputs for a renewable energy policy and a coherent planning of the research and development in renewable energies.

45

 

Hadj Kouider Mohammed and Nezli Imed Eddine. THE GEOTHERMAL POTENTIALITIES OF SOUTHERN ALGERIA (, )

Abstract. Geothermal energy is interested in the exploitation of hot springs in depth. It constitutes one of the main renewable energy resources in the world. The Southern Algeria is a vast flat geologically stable for almost 600MA (Pan-African orogeny), the geothermal potential is enclosed in sedimentary basins and specifically in hot aquifers (Albian aquifer) that are low energy geothermal resources. To identify areas of significant geothermal potential, maps and geothermal gradient and heat flow curves are established. In this study we used the well oil drilling data (BHT, DST) for calculating the average geothermal gradient and the variation of change of the temperature curves with depth through southern Algerian. The interpretation of the observed temperature anomalies takes into account the geological and hydrogeological criteria of the region. Indeed, and according to the used data, two separate geothermal areas are highlighted through these maps, one in the eastern part of the Algerian Sahara with a relatively low gradient (Hammam Zelfana, Ouargla and Touggourt) and another in the southwest part hotter than the first (Hammam Ouarka); both are low energy geothermal sources.

46

 

Tianyu Xi, Qiaochu Wang, Shu Wang and Xiaowei Lv. Adaptation to outdoor thermal environment of tourists and local people in winter in Harbin (, )

Abstract. Outdoor thermal comfort is known to be influenced by adaptations, which leads to different outdoor thermal environment preferences due to climate change by locations. This paper compared the reactions to outdoor thermal environment between local people and tourist in winter in Harbin, which locates in typical severely cold climate zone in China. It was found that, in winter, compared with local people, the thermal comfort vote (TCV) of tourist is more sensitive to thermal sensation vote (TSV), and the satisfaction vote (ST) of local people is more sensitive to thermal comfort vote (TCV), which means that, for the tourist in Harbin in winter, the change of thermal sensation will strongly influence people's thermal comfort, but the satisfaction vote to the environment will stay in a high level range, and the local people react against that. For the local people, the satisfaction vote (ST) and thermal sensation vote (TSV) shows a liner positive relationship, and for the tourists, the satisfaction vote (ST) and thermal sensation vote (TSV) shows a quadric relationship, and when TSV equals to -2 (cool), the ST of tourists get a peak value, which should be due to people's travel expectations to Harbin climate.

47

 

Nahida Hameed Hameed, Adawiya Haider and Riyam Hawy. Optical properties study for PS/PMMA blend as laser active medium (, )

Abstract. Polystyrene / Polymethyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) blend with different ratios (0, 25, 40, 50, 60, 100) % were prepared by casting method. The prepared samples were spectrophotometer evaluated; the result found that the absorption spectra increase with PS ratio up to 50% PS/ 50% PMMA, and shifted towered the longer wavelength. Also, was seen the decreasing in energy gap with PS ratio increasing. From the optical properties were calculated all constants such as: dielectric constant parts, refractive index these results proved enhancement in optical constants. The optical microscopic examination was investigated.

50

 

Tianyu Xi, Shu Wang, Qiaochu Wang and Xiaowei Lv. Colleague students’ subjective response to outdoor thermal environment in a severely cold climate city (, )

Abstract. People’s subjective response to outdoor thermal environment cannot be directly interpreted by environmental influence factors (temperature, humidity, radiation and wind, etc.), thus thermal comfort indexes (PET, UTCI, SET*, PMV) were needed to evaluate impact of outdoor thermal environment on human beings. Due to influence of people’s adaptation, the reactions to environment varied by climate and locations, and many related research has been carried out by researchers all of the world. This work aimed at studying on the colleague students’ subjective response to outdoor thermal environment in winter in severely cold climate city. Questionnaire survey was carried out in university campus in Harbin, which is a typical severely cold climate city in China, and 553 effective questionnaires were collected totally. By choosing Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) as thermal comfort index, the relationship between thermal sensation vote (TSV) and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) was analyzed. The result of this study was compared with a former study (more than 2000 samples) carried out in winter in Harbin before, and it was shown that, when PET equals to -8.7℃, both of young colleague students (age rages from 18 to 24 year old) and the large scale samples (a wide covered age range) felt cool (TSV equals to -1.8). When PET was over -8.7℃, the colleague students felt cooler, and when PET was lower than -8.7℃, the colleague students felt warmer, revealing that the young colleague students’ thermal sensation was not sensitive as the result of large scale samples, conducting that the research of outdoor thermal comfort in winter in severely cold climate cities may also take people’s age into consideration as influence factors.

51

 

Kabir Abdullahi, Alaa H. Salah and Hassan E.S. Fath. Transient Operational Performance of Integrated Solar Greenhouse - Desalination System: Case study of Mediterranean Mild Winter Conditions (, )

Abstract. Agricultural greenhouse (GH) systems provides suitable microclimatic environment for maximum plant growth (quality and quantity) and protect plants from adverse atmospheric agents using appropriate technology. This will influence and ultimately modifies the crop microclimate, thereby improving the plants growing condition, improving their quality and permitting high yields; thus, lengthening the market availability of the products. This paper describes the basic operation of a sustainable agricultural greenhouse suitable for the mild winter climate of the Mediterranean region for air heating, solar energy utilization, water desalination and plant production. The numerical analysis of the dynamic model for determination of various GH performance was done for a typical winter day of December of Borg El-Arab, Alexandria Egypt. A GH heating control strategy based on MATLAB and CFD simulations for energy saving, suitable microclimate maintenance and better performance of the GH systems were studied. The GH transient performance and uncertain microclimate conditions depend on air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration and solar radiation. A mathematical model was developed using MATLAB/Simulink to compute the transmitted hourly solar radiation, air cooling by the outlet condenser, air and wall temperatures, water production from TSS and condenser and air recirculation ratios. Computed air and wall temperatures were then introduced to ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate the microclimatic conditions of the GH cavity. Flow vectors, relative humidity and temperatures stream lines are presented for the whole GH. Results shows that the south wall receive the greater amount of solar radiation in the winter periods. The results also predicted over 4 L/m2.day of water to be produced, with inside air temperature average of 18 °C.

52

 

Oluyemi Fayomi and Ehiagwina BraimahAssessing the Migration Dynamics in the Context of Agriculture and Human Development in Nigeria (, )

Abstract. Migration presents challenges and opportunities for both origin and destination communities. It should be emphasized that much of the migration discourse has only focused on the origin more than the destination. Hence, the dramatic changes in the flow of migrants across international borders, as well as accelerating internal movements of rural migrants towards cities, are reshaping our world. Agriculture and human development are key to addressing the root causes of migration. By 2050, over half of the populations in the least developed countries will still live in rural areas. Three-quarters of the extreme poor base their livelihoods on agriculture or other rural activities. In Africa alone, 11 million young people will enter the labour market every year for the next decade, (FAO, 2018). Thus, Agriculture can be categorised as the backbone of human subsistence. Its stanchion for human existence surpasses any other area of endeavour. It provides employment to individuals and business support to organisations. However, despite its importance, there has been a continuous reduction in the number of people directly involved in agriculture, especially in developing countries. In Nigeria for example, the attraction to the city which is the ‘Pull factor”, white-collared jobs, price instability, income instability, herdsmen/farmer crisis, general insecurity, government intervention among others have reduced the number of people participating directly in agriculture. Economic issues such as trade deficit, food insecurity, income generation, poverty reduction and employment creation could be addressed by the government by enacting pro-agricultural laws and providing incentives in various forms which includes provisions agricultural technology, tax reliefs, easy access to loans, security of lives and livestock, infrastructural development, irrigation trenches in desert areas, supply of fertilisers, control of usage of insecticides. Nigeria should come up with functional, pragmatic and implementable agricultural plan and policy to harness the massive possibility of agricultural commercialization to fulfil the internal consumption demands and also for the purpose of export. There is also the need to process raw materials into finished products. For many smallholder farmers and herders, moving away from rural areas is an attractive opportunity to diversify livelihoods, escape slow-onset events such as climate change and environmental degradation, seek improved social services, and reunite with family members. This paper will interrogate instances of policies in receiving countries that empower the displaced and capitalize on opportunities that can arise from a global population shift. This paper assesses the linkages between migration, agriculture, and human development. The paper will also raise and answer question on how we enhance the development potential of migration to achieve zero hunger? Therefore, this paper concludes with the prospects and limitations of agriculture commercialization and provides suggestions of some way forward using Nigeria as an example. It also seeks to suggest ways to make agriculture more vibrant and robust, which if attained, will reduce reliance on oil and gas as the predominantly sources of income.

53

 

Oluyemi FayomiEhiagwina Braimah and Felix ChidozieEngendering Regional Integration in West Africa: A Policy Analysis (, )

Abstract. The significance of regional integration is an extremely appropriate issue in Africa, especially in light of existing political and economic shortcomings (Kouassi, 2016:88). Regional integration is considered as a strategy of the collective economic existence of countries around the world has gained prominence in recent times. It has provided the platform for countries the options of cooperation and competition. Saku (2016:2) maintains that Africa is swarmed with the most profound levels of destitution, least offer of world exchange, and weakest advancement of human capital and foundation, without a doubt. It is a direct result of this that regional integration is required in Africa, as this will help with upgrading economic development (Saku, 2016:2-3). Hence, the Economic integration strategy in West Africa is patterned along the lines of the European Union. It should be noted that the ECOWAS Protocols on Free Movement of Persons, Goods and Services, Rights of Residence, and Establishment. divulged compilation that is similar to the EU Protocols in so many respects. The ear of globalization has brought countries with closely knit ties and economic engagements across different borders, it follows therefore that the factors that affect the integration process in the European Union has great potentials of spilling over to the other economies and more particularly West Africa. This paper seeks to evaluate and elicit the factors that have encumbered the development of the ECOWAS experiment in attaining the anticipated goals of sub-regional integration and further espouse the potential gains of moving on with the strategy as a solution to the current unacceptable and intolerable economic conditions in the sub region.

54

 

Sayad Bouthaina and Alkama DjamelStudy Of The Microclimate Behavior In Spaces Between Buildings: Which Strategy To Adopt During Cold Season In Guelma’s Public Spaces? (, )

Abstract. Urban microclimate depends on a number of inter-related factors: urban forms, physical phenomena like winds, sunshine, and shading, Urban furniture, and natural elements as vegetation, water,and soil. The aim of this study is to study the behavior of the microclimate, in cold season discomfort is generally caused by unwanted cooling, previous studies have shown that the wind speed has the enormous impact on microclimatic variations. This study aims to determine the impact of vegetation and urban morphology on controlling wind speed and subsequently on moderating the urban microclimate in winter. The two spaces between buildings shown in the figure were selected to conduct the investigation. It is a residential space for public use, located in the city of Guelma, Algéria, overlooking on the principal avenue. The scientific methodology of this study is to simulate (03) scenarios, as follows: the first (1) the current outdoor space including the design planting (grass and trees), the surrounding and existent buildings. The second (2) the current space with removing vegetation. The third (3) the current outdoor space including the design planting (grass and trees), the surrounding but we remove buildings. The range of results of this study will allow us, on the one hand to determine which climatic factor (vegetation or urban morphology) influence the wind velocity and affects microclimate cold season on the other hand to develop a strategy for better outdoor adaptation during cold season in Guelma’s public spaces.

55

 

Ammar Jawad, Entisar E. Al- Abodi and Tagreed M.Al-Saadi. Investigating (Fe3O4) Magnetic Nanoparticles Impregnated onto Tri-Sodium Citrate to Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous (, )

Abstract. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is the most promising of dyes waste adsorption that has been studied during the past years. Tri-sodium citrate (TSC) was selected to functionalize the MNPs surface. The performance of (TSC-MNPs) as adsorbents for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions within variable experimental factors like. The effects of temperature, pH, amount of nanoparticles and stirring time, were investigated. The data obtained from this study revealed that higher efficiency was observed of (MB) dye adsorption from aqueous solutions and showed the adsorption follows second–order kinetics.

56

 

Dimitrios Tsiko, Christina Papadimitriou, Constantinos Psomopoulos and Pericles Papadopoulos. An estimation study on different EVs penetration scenarios based in prognostic tools. (, )

Abstract. European policy on reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be particularly supported by Electric Vehicles’ market penetration in the following years. This paper overviews the so far penetration of the Electric Vehicles Technology in Europe and at the same time aims to provide an estimation about the future penetration based on appropriate prognostic tools. For this reason, the authors analyze the so far statistical data of the Electric Vehicles sales and use both the linear regression and Brown method to estimate their foreseen market penetration within the next decades. Given the results of the above prognosis tools, an estimation of emissions’ reduction and certain assumptions based on their comparison are made. The results of this study can provide an insight about the future of Electric Vehicles penetration and their potential contribution in climate change mitigation and ancillary services to the grid.

61

 

Abbas Hadj Abbas, Hacini Messaoud and Aiad Lahcen. Wastes Of Oil Drilling: Treatment Techniques And Their Effectiveness (, )

Abstract. In Hassi-Messoud’s oil industry, the systems which are water based (WBM) are generally used for drilling in the first phase. For the rest of the well, the oil mud systems are employed (OBM). In the field of oil exploration, panoply of chemical products is employed in the drilling fluids formulation. These components of different natures and whose toxicity and biodegradability are of ill-defined parameters are; however, thrown into nature. In addition to the hydrocarbon (HC, such as diesel) which is a major constituent of oil based mud, we also can notice spills as well as a variety of other products and additives on the drilling sites. These wastes are usually stored in places called (crud wastes). These may cause major problems to the ecosystem. To treat these wastes, we have considered two methods which are: solidification/ stabilization (chemical) and thermal. So that we can evaluate the techniques of treatment, a series of analyses are performed on dozens of specimens of wastes before treatment. After that, and on the basis of our analyses of wastes, we opted for diagnostic treatments of pollution before and after solidification and stabilization. Finally, we have done some analyses before and after the thermal treatment to check the efficiency of the methods followed in the study.

63

 

Raif Mazeh and Radu Chiriac. The operation of a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline-hydrogen mixtures in dual-fuel mode (, )

Abstract. A lot of research studies have concluded that for the near future practically, it is almost impossible to replace the internal combustion engine which has become an essential part of the transportation, industrial and agriculture sectors. However, taking into consideration that the internal combustion engine is a main factor of pollution problems and sometimes the amplitude of oil crises is producing turbulences on petroleum derived fuels market, many researchers suggested that hydrogen could be one of the promising alternative energy carriers due to its many excellent combustion properties. This fuel could be used for improving combustion and emissions performance of internal combustion engines since it is carbon clean. In this paper, the operation of a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline-hydrogen mixtures in dual-fuel mode was studied and compared with pure gasoline fueling. The base line engine used, was a turbocharged 1.6L Renault K4M SI model engine, which has been theoretically modified to be able to reach the Ford EcoBoost 1.6L engine performance, delivering 180 hp at 5800 rpm. The simulations were performed for full load condition, using different mass fractions of hydrogen mixed with gasoline as following 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 95% and 100% directly injected in the cylinder by a special dual gas-liquid fuel injector.

64

 

Fouad Abd Ul-Mohsen Al-Jebouri. Detecting Financial Fraud and Squandering of Public Money in the Education Sector According to International Auditing Standards()

Abstract. Financial fraud is a picture of the corruption that hits the Iraqi government sector and one of the reasons for its economic problems. Despite the multiplicity of bodies responsible for combating it and the clear financial instructions for disbursement, the financial fraud and waste of public money in most government institutions were increased in multiple ways by the management and accountants of those institutions. To achieve the research objective; The concept of financial fraud and waste of public money were discussed. Also, some of the practical reality of this study and the procedures that have been necessary to limit it according to the legal responsibility of the supervisory bodies were presented in one of the institutions of higher education and scientific research according to the international auditing standards. The research concluded several conclusions such as; the weakness of the role and seriousness of the external oversight institution in detecting the financial fraud and misusing the job and authority. Several recommendations were included like the necessity independence of internal control and sending a copy of their monthly reports to the Office of the Inspector General to investigation of irregularities.

66

 

Emad Al-Hassani. Effect of Laser Pulses on Ion Release Behavior of Ti-Base Alloys (, )

Abstract. Modifications achieved by laser irradiation on titanium-base alloys were studied to promote their surface properties in addition to the ion release behavior. Laser pulses was use for three different types of Ti-base alloys; commercial pure Ti alloy, Titanium-Tantalum alloys, and Nickel-Titanium alloys. The alloys were manufactured by using powder technology then the Nd: YAG laser pulses were used. The characterizations of samples have been done which includes; microstructure observation, XRD, surface roughness (AFM), and ion release analysis. The microstructure observation show that the use of Nd: YAG laser pulses was effective method to provide energy focused on one spot especially at the surface which produce complex microstructures and roughening the surfaces to increase effective surface area. XRD showed the sintering process under controlled atmosphere produced samples with complete sintering reaction. AFM results show the same response to the laser irradiation and the slight differences in the roughness values was observed. From the results of ion release analysis it was found that the release of Ti ion rise in first three days and after that released of Ti ions begin to stabilize after the laser pulses. The appearance of a slight differences in the amount of titanium ions that released from the samples for each group was due to the influence of the surface activation process that have been employed as a primary treatment which effect on the stability and thickness of the titanium oxide

67

 

Faleh Mahmood, Ali Resen and Ahmed Khamees. Wind characteristic Analysis Based on Weibull Distribution of Al-Salman Site, Iraq (, )

Abstract. The results of evaluating the potential of wind energy using Weibull distribution for Al-Salman site (Al-Muthana Province) in Iraq are presented. Windographer software was used to analyze the raw data. The Weibull probability distribution function using data source from November 2014 to March 2017 for 10 minute time interval. The data have been measured at (50 m) height. Daily, seasonally, and annual mean wind speed and power density variations are obtained. The cumulative distribution function is plotted. Dominant wind direction was determined by the wind rose. The results showed that the annual mean wind speed is (5.9) m/s and power density is found (225) W/m2. Weibull scale parameter and shape parameter is (6.69 m/s, 2.08) respectively.

68

 

Ali Resen, Angham Mahmood and Jawad Nmr. Statistical Calculations of Wind Data Utilizing WAsP Model (, )

Abstract. Wind energy as a clean, source free and environmentally friendly alternative source of energy can be used for providing sustainable power supply to remedied an epileptic and unreliable power supply system. This paper carried out an analysis of wind data at Al-Najaf province using the WAsP model to estimate the wind potential in this location. Najaf site was chosen to be studied due to available real data from a metrological tower and planning to erect small wind turbine farm. Twenty-nine months real available data measured at 50m height were collected for statistical analysis and extrapolated to 65m height level for estimated the annual energy production of a suggested wind turbine and measured the Weibull parameters at this height. The mean wind speed was found to be 6.47 m/s, the Weibull scale parameter and shape parameter was found to be 7.3 and 2.38 respectively. Keywords: Wind speed, Power density, Weibull distribution, WAsP, Al-Najaf.

69

 

Rana Athab, Bushra H. Hussein and Sameer Makki. Effect of In on the Properties of AlSb Thin Film Solar Cell (, )

Abstract. AlSb thin-film solar cell consisting of p-type AlSb was prepared on n-type Si substrate by using thermal evaporation. The effect of the preparation and partial replacement of Aluminum with Indium of the Al1-xInxSb were studied to obtain the best properties. Thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at R.T with ratios (X=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) under the vacuum of 10-6 Torr with (150) nm thickness. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated, I-V characteristics studies as ratios of Indium increased, measurements indicate formation of good quality thin films of AlSb having band gap within the range reported in the literature.

70

 

Nassr Najm, Hanan Hassun, Bushra Al-Maiyaly, Bushra H. Hussein and Auday Shaban. Highly Selective CdS:Ag Heterojunction for Photodetector Applications (, )

Abstract. Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were equipped by thermal evaporation at thickness t (500 ± 30)nm then doped with Silver (Ag) with ratios (X=0.0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05). The Substrates were used glass and single crystal silicon substrate with direction (111) of the ( p-type) to study the (structural, optical and photoelectric) properties. The ratios of alloy studied by EDS and the thin films structure deliberate by X-ray diffraction were polycrystalline cubic phase. Direct band gap values with rang (2.4 eV -2.25 eV) were gotten from optical absorption measurements. The photodetector shown a in height responsivity and touched at (0.43 A/W) with the bias voltages of (4V) and the detectivity of the fabricated CdS: Ag/Si UV detector at wavelength of 551 nm is found to be 2.58244x1011cm Hz 1/2 W-1.

71

 

Haider Haider and Kareem Jasim. Studying effect of the methods of various preparation of Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu2.8Zn0.2O10+δ superconducting compound (, )

Abstract. The superconductor compound (Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu2.8Zn0.2O10+δ) prepared by solid state reaction method(SSR), sol-gel method (SG) and pulse laser deposition method (PLD). We used the X-ray diffraction technique(XRD) which shows an orthorhombic crystalline system for all the specimens, also shows that some methods of preparation leads to increment in concentration of (Bi-2223), and the other methods leads to decrement in (Bi-2212) &(Bi-2201) with appearance of some impurities. Behavior of samples is investigated for electrical resistivity and critical temperature, and all samples show the superconductor behavior. The electrical properties (Real dielectric constant, Imaginary dielectric constant, Loss tangent and Alternating conductivity) are measured as a function of frequency with rang(50Hz-1MHz) at room temperature, The results are demonstrate the evident change in the dielectric properties with changing in methods of preparation.

72

 

Haider Haider, Kassim Wadi, Hind Mahdic, Kareem Jasim and Auday Shabanb. Studying the effect of Partial Substitution Barium by Cadmium oxide on the Electrical and Structural properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ superconductor (, )

Abstract. we have detailed investigations on the influence of synchronous substitution Cd at the Ba place of HgBa2-xCdxCa2Cu3O8+δ cuprate superconductor with x=0 to 0.15, have been synthesized samples via using solid state reaction(SSR) method, All the specimens in the existent investigation were exposed to total characterization of structural via XRD. The X-ray diffraction information collected of different specimens correspond to (Hg-1223) phases and the analysis showed that tetragonal structure. Resistivity of electrical was utilizing the 4-probe technique to find the temperature of critical and found that Tc increase at addition Cd from (116 to 134)Ko .

73

 

Fouad Ali, Ridha Risan, Auday Shaban and Kareem Jasim. Comparison Study of transition temperature Between the Superconducting Compounds Hg0.8 Sb 0.2Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ δ and Hg0.8Sb0.2Ba2Ca1Cu2O6+ δ (, )

Abstract. Tow high temperature superconductors namely Hg0.8 Sb 0.2Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ δ and Hg0.8Sb0.2Ba2Ca1Cu2O6+ δ have been successfully prepared by Two-step solid state reaction method. The sintering was within 800 C0. Electrical resistively, using four probe techniques, is used to find the transition temperature Tc. The transition temperature at zero resistivity Tc(offset) were 131and 119K, onset superconducting transition temperature Tc(onset) were 139and 132 K for Hg0.8 Sb 0.2Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ δ and Hg0.8Sb0.2Ba2Ca1Cu2O6+ δ respectively.. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a tetragonal structure with changes of lattice parameters for these samples.

74

 

Adnan Jasim and Abdalhameed Al-Sarraf. Study the tribologycal Properties of (Polyester/Epoxy blend) composite reinforcing with Nanomaterial's. (, )

Abstract. In this study, a number of Nano composites materials were prepared by using different ratio of unsaturated polyester (UPE) and Epoxy (Ep). Samples were subjected to hardness, impact strength and wear testing, and we found the (UPE/Ep) (80:20) % ratio was the best ratio depending upon hardness and wear test. We take (UPE/Ep) (80:20) % ratio and supported with Nanoparticle size of kaolin and ZnO each separately with weight fraction {1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%}, and MgO weight fraction {1%, 2%, 3% and 4 %,}. The tribology properties which is wear resistance and surface hardness, on the other hand, study the impact of these composites. It was found that the reinforcement of 3% from MgO and 5% from ZnO lead to improvement wear of (UPE/Ep) (80:20) % sample. Also, we found the reinforcement of 4% from MgO lead to improving the impact strength for the same sample.

76

 

Wafaa Al-Wattar and Abdalhameed Al-Sarraf. Studying the possibility of extending the life span of paper documents and archives using the polymer coating method.(, )

Abstract. Paper is a widely used material that is affected by environmental stresses and makes paper prone to damage. The paper is characterized by the absorption of water and moisture due to porosity .We have overcome this problem by employing polymer materials as water-resistant coatings acting as barrier to protecting paper. Polymer paper coating forms a clear membrane on the fiber forming a bridge of monomers on the surface of the paper. Two polymer coatings were used as a treatment, namely Polystyrene and sealer (alkyd resin) The results showed the possibility of enhancing the durability of the paper and preserving it from damage and deterioration. The treatment gave a decrease in moisture content, response to abrasion and scratching while increased folding tolerability, the burst strength, tear resistance, hardness compared to untreated paper and the paper porosity important indicator to overcome. The degree of brightness ,degree of color and visible and ultraviolet radiation effect of the specimens werestudied in detail.

77

 

Zinah Abbas and Suad Aleabi. Studying Some of Mechanical Properties (Tensile, Impact, Hardness) and Thermal conductivity of polymer blend reinforce by magnesium oxide (MgO) (, )

Abstract. In this research prepared the polymer blend as a matrix from epoxy resin ( EP) mixed with unsaturated polyester resin ( UP) by different ratios (10, 20, ,40 , 50)% for (EP/ UP) Blends, achieve better ratio for impact strength as a function of well toughness; we can observed that the optimum value of this ratio (80:20)% for (EP/ UP) blend , reinforced this blend by the magnesium oxide powder( MgO) by the different weight percentage (4,8,12)% as composite material , the mechanical properties tested (Tensile, Impact, Hardness) , and thermal conductivity after and before reinforced .The results showed the increase impact strength and tensile strength after the reinforced but the increase nonlinear where the best value in ratio 8% and also hardness increase after reinforced by(MgO) and the result for thermal conductivity decrease thermal conductivity after reinforced by the (MgO) and when increase the ratio of (MgO) decrease the thermal conductivity.

78

 

Salima Sarikh, Mustapha Raoufi, Amin Bennouna, Ahmed Benlarabi and Badr Ikken. Photovoltaic System Fault Identification Methodology based on I-V Characteristics Analysis (, )

Abstract. In the photovoltaic field, regarding the importance of sustainability, monitoring systems are a paramount component for yield assessment. Yet in the industrial production, fault detection remains a manually handled issue. However, faults are responsible for significant power loss and sometimes, even dramatically damages are reported such fire hazard or material deterioration. This paper presents a methodology for fault detection in the photovoltaic system regarding the different impacts of faults on the I-V curve. Indeed, fault classification is a crucial step for the failure diagnosis. The proposed method mainly covers uniform dust faults, partial shading faults, short circuit faults, and aging. The proposed algorithm relies on electrical indicators extracted from single diode model and measured I-V curves that are used as assessment parameters, the shape assessment parameter is recognized by training a neural network. This method is assessed through a simulation and validated using experimental I-V curves measurements in faulty cases.

79

 

Mohsin Hassooni. Theoretical Analysis of Charge Flow Rate at Dye Sensitized -Semiconductor Interfaces Cell System (, )

Abstract. The dynamics of charge flow at the interface of the Dye/Semiconductor cell have been investigated using a quantum transfer theory. At the interface between the N3 and CV dyes complex such as CdS and InAs semiconductor, the potential determines the flow charge transfer rate and indicates the efficiency of the devices. The flow charge rate at N3/CdS, N3/InAs , CV/CdS and CV/InAs increases along with decreasing the energy of transition and increasing the coupling parameter. The potential at the interface also indicates the effect of the structure of the material on the flow charge rate in DSSC devices. The flow charge rate at DSSC system is polar dependent region. In this study, the flow charge rate was found to be higher compared to InAs.

80

 

Rajaa Mohammad, Mohammad Mohammad and Duha Ahmed. Ab initio study of the solvent effects on the electronic and vibrational properties of formic acid molecules(, )

Abstract. Density Function Theory ( DFT ) method was achieved by studying solvent effect such as water and ethanol on the electronic and vibrational spectra of formic molecule by using the B3LYP functional and the 6-31G basis set. The optimized structure, energy gap, electron affinity, ionization potential, zero point, Infrared (IR) and UV-Vis spectra were computed. All these properties have been calculated by using Gaussian09 program and Gaussian view 5.08 program according to density function (DFT) method, while the UV-Vis spectra have been computed by using TD-DFT method.

81

 

Enas Jawad. Critical reduced electric field strength for Sulfur hexafluoride and its Mixtures with N2 and SiH4 (, )

Abstract. Abstract: The essential parameter to foretelling performance of dielectric breakdown (BD) for SF6 with gas admixtures N2 and SiH4 is critical reduced electric field (E/N) crt . This paper aims to analytically study and compare the BD characteristic of SF6–N2 and SF6–SiH4 mixtures for different concentrations at a pressure 760 Torr and room temperature. Current results were calculated from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation (BTE), the electron transport coefficients (ETC) that have been studied is (Effective Ionization Coefficient (EIC) (α-η)/N , ionization Coefficient ( IC) α /N and Electron Attachment Coefficient (EAC) η/N ) in the gaseous mixtures of SF6 with N2 and SiH4 for a wide ambit of the E/N from 50 to 700 Td , On the other hand , clearly shows the effect of adding SF6 to the mixture on the ETC values. As It turns out that (α−η)/N is increasing linearly with E/ N. moreover, Note through the results that value (E/N)crt for the SF6 - SiH4 gas mixture is upper to that of SF6–N2 mixture are 375 and 350 Td respectively, these higher critical (E/ N) for SF6 mixture with SiH4 and N2 for concentrations (40/60)% When the mixture is (SF6-SiH4) and (90/10)% When the mixture is (SF6 - N2). These gas mixtures are being considered for utilizing in many industries, depending on the mixture proportion and the special applications of the gas and the electrical instrument. In this study, the results showed that the electron transport coefficients and the E/N crt show up a perfect conformity with empirical results

82

 

Anaam Watan, Hind Mahdi, Kassim Wadi and Kareem Jasim. Comparison and Synthesis of TlSr2Ca2Cu3O9-δ Superconducting Ceramic Material via sol-gel and Conventional Solid State reaction (, )

Abstract. Abstract: The manufacture of high temperature superconductors for TlSr2Ca2Cu3O9-δ crystallized materials was successfully achieved by sol-gel using metal acetate precursors and physical mixtures of oxides and carbons in the solid state reaction methods (SSR). The Sol-gel sample requires 24 hours of heat treatment while the SSR sample needs 96 hours and sintering at 860 ° C. We compareTlSr2Ca2Cu3O9-δ superconductivity characteristics in both ways. Resistance vs. temperature measurements (R-T) showed that all samples showed very good metal behavior. The transformation temperature, Tc (R = 0) for Sol-gel samples was found to be at 114 K while it occurs at 111 K for the SSR sample. X-ray diffraction data (XRD) showed one phase of orthorhombic structure for all samples. Atomic Force Microscope AFM image showed that Avg. Diameter92.36nm and 108.24nm were randomly distributed in all highly compressed samples. However, the sample prepared over Sol-gel showed smaller pores compared with those found in SSR a sample. The Sol-gel method simplifies the preparation process, and gives a sample of good quality with a shorter time of preparation than the sample quality prepared by conventional solid state. It was notes from the table that each of the values of the oxygen content, lattice parameters a and c of the sample prepared by sol-gel method is larger than prepared by the solid reaction, While the compression ratio c/a on axis c was decreased.

83

 

Mohanad Waheeb Mahdi Alzubadiy, Asmaa Mohammed Salih Almohaidi and Ammar Ahmed Sultan Sultan. Virulence Gene of Pseudomonas aerogenosa with Nanoparticle(, )

Abstract. Phenotypic identification of P.aeruginosa from specimens of Diabetic Foot patients carries a high risk of misidentification. The present study was target virulence gene as specific gene, for the accurate and rapid identification of P. aeruginosa from Diabetic Foot Patients using sequencing for specific virulence genes as Cup A gene. This technique was evaluated against 20 clinical isolates that were suspected as P.aeruginosa. The results were compared with those obtained using a standard of P.aeruginosa isolates from clinical samples. This reliable technique may offer a rapid tool that would help clinicians to initiate an appropriate treatment earlier. Further investigations are needed to assess the clinical benefit of this novel strategy as compared to phenotypic methods. Genetic variation for adhesion genes for bacterial infection that may facilitate the infection as Cup A gene. Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to target bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. Nanotechnology may be particularly advantageous in treating bacterial infections. The antibacterial mechanisms of NPs against bacteria and the factors that are involved for comparison. Comparison the positive and negative aspects of the interactions between NPs and drug-resistant bacteria. Evaluation the result of nanoparticles on Bacteria by studying the genetic variation in bacterial genome before and after treatment was the aim of present study

85

 

Joseph Dirisu, Enesi Salawu, Joseph Azeta, Muyiwa Fajobi, Imhade Okokpujie and Oluseyi Ajayi. Development of a Time-Saving Precision Plantain Cutter (, )

Abstract. A precision plantain cutting device is developed which will save time of traditional approach. This apparatus will be very convenient, easy and safe to operate. Simulation analysis was carried out to determine the strain and displacement of the cutter. The device was able to slice up to 4 fingers of ϕ5mm plantain at once in 2-3 seconds with each slice of plantain having about 5mm thickness. This is compared to 20-30 seconds with a kitchen knife which gives non-uniform thickness. The device cut the plantain the expected size of 0.5mm.

86

 

Rula Abbass, Doaa Al-Mousawi, Khaleda Al-Azzawi and Abdalhameed Al-Sarraf. The Interference Effect for Synthesis and Development of Urea-formaldehyde by Adding Different Type of Sawdust and it Effect on Their Thermal coefficient Resistivity and specific gravity (, )

Abstract. In this study Urea Formaldehyde (UF) resinswere prepared, modified and non-modified to formation composites reinforced with waste sawdust particle, with consideration the urea purity as a main composite factors and formalin life span. These are directly contributing factors that influence on composites properties such as Thermal coefficient Resistivity and specific gravity. Plastic wood was prepared by used (Quercus , pear, Tectona, Fagus, Jew, Spruce,MDF ) sawdust powder as reinforce phase with particle size less than (

87

 

Muhammad Althubaity. Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles doped with divalent metal: Application for heavy metals removal from waste water (, )

Abstract. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanopowders were successfully prepared via a hydrothermal route. In the present study the effect of divalent metals M (Cu, Zn, Co and Ni) adding on the structural properties of the hematite is investigated. During the powder preparation, the used solution was composed of 75 % of iron chloride as iron source and 25 % of M (Cu, Zn, Co and Ni) chloride. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized nanopowders were analyzed by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis reveals that no spinel phase was formed. Moreover, no secondary oxide phases such as CuO, ZnO or CoO are formed suggesting that these atoms are diluted in the hematite network. The TEM and SEM observations results, indicated that the prepared powder is mainly composed of agglomeration of homogeneous spherical grains with average size ranged from 140 to 280 nm. The prepared nanoparticles were tested in waste water treatment. The nanoparticles are added to a real polluted water extracted from the university waste water. After a sintering during one hour. The water composition was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP). The obtained results indicated that the based ferrite nanoparticles have reduced the amount of the contaminant heavy metals such as Pb, As, Cs and Al present in the waste water. We noticed that Co: Fe2O3 and Cu: Fe2O3 nanoparticles were more efficient, this is due to their lower grain size that enhances their specific surface.

88

 

Rabeb Toujani and Nahla Bouaziz. Exergy Efficiency Study Case of Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Cooling Refrigeration System Using Organic Fluid Mixtures (, )

Abstract. At present, much interest is being shown in hybrid absorption refrigeration cycles driven by low temperature heat sources, such as solar energy or low-grade waste-heat. In the present work, an exergetic investigation of a novel configuration double-lift absorption/compression refrigeration system is developed. The potential of the organic mixture (R236fa/DMAC) in the low grade heat pump is discussed. In this paper, a modeling and simulation of the proposed configuration is presented. The ammonia-water system was used for comparison purposes. The results show that the performances of the proposed configuration are improved significantly when using the above mentioned organic mixture. Coefficient of performance of the cycle with R236fa/DMAC is 15% higher than with ammonia/water. Exergetic performances of the system are also improved by about 10% with the use of the proposed new mixture. The most important result given in this study is that the above system operates at low generator temperatures between 50°C and 80°C, which makes it a good alternative of the ammonia-water systems in the low grade heat refrigeration field. The use of such an organic fluid makes it possible to adapt the machine to sources of low energy value, among the possible solutions it was considered to install a hybrid photovoltaic unit that will meet the electrical needs of the heat pump. A simulation was also done to consolidate the results. Results of such a system show that the energy demand of absorption / compression refrigeration machines can be insured by about 80 % by solar energy. The proposed model is efficient in predicting the performance of the machine at different working conditions such as: temperature variation of the generator and evaporator, change in climatic conditions... To conclude, this study will allow making an economic optimization, an approximation on the lifetime as well as the annual production capacity of the unit.

91

 

Akram Jabur, Tiba Y. Jasim and Manar A. Najim. Improving the Mechanical Properties of Chitosan/Polyurethane Electrospun Blend Scaffold Used for Skin Regeneration(, )

Abstract. Burns and skin necrosis is considered as one of the major problems faced in the medical field and a lot of researches are focusing on developing tissues as substitutes for damaged skin using many fabrication methods. Electrospinning is one of the most important fabrication methods used for scaffold preparation, by providing fibrous structure which enhances cell adhesion through the high surface area to volume ratio. Besides, the porous structure with open porosity will allow the cells to penetrate to form a 3-D tissue. In this study, the mechanical properties (tensile strength) of electrospun polyurethane (PU) scaffold were improved by blending polyurethane with chitosan. This natural material will enhance the cell adhesion since it is a hydrophilic material. Blending polyurethane with chitosan highly increased the tensile strength of the prepared scaffolds, The first specimen with ratio [1:6] [chitosan:PU] revealed medium increase in the modulus of elasticity but with non-uniform fibrous structure. Increasing the ratio of polyurethane to chitosan in other specimens [1:10] and [1:20] [chitosan:PU], highly increased the modulus of elasticity of pure polyurethane from 2.092 Mpa to 9.09 and 9.375 Mpa relatively with more uniform fibrous structure.

92

 

Youssef El AsaadAbdelhamid Khabbazi and Omar Elmachichiseawater desalination system based on the process of humidification and dehumidification of the air combined with a water-water heat pump powered by solar energy (, )

Abstract. The world is increasingly experiencing water stress due to the growth in demand for fresh water and the limit of resources. Seawater desalination is a process that meets part of this demand. There are several seawater desalination processes that can be categorized into membrane and thermal processes The purpose of this essentially experimental work is to carry out an energy study of a seawater desalination system based on the humidification and dehumidification (HD) of humid air in order to optimize its energy consumption. Our contribution is to increase the production of the distillate by increasing the temperature difference between the seawater evaporation surface and the condenser walls, using a water-to-water heat pump to guarantee this function. The electrical energy consumed by the heat pump will be provided by a solar panel. We have carried out several tests to monitor the thermodynamic behaviour of humid air and its influence on distillate production and we have obtained encouraging results from a daily production of up to 60 letters/day/m2, which completely exceeds the production of conventional solar distillers, as well as several improvements on this system will still be made, especially in terms of compressor heat recovery, which will be the subject of a future study. Distillate production for this system is limited and depends on the temperature difference between the condenser and the seawater evaporation surface.

95

 

Raad Majeed, Ali Jawad Souad and Akram Jabur. Temperature Dependence Energy Distribution Function for Proton-Tritium Fusion Reaction (, )

Abstract. The physical behavior for the energy distribution function (EDF) of the reactant particles depending upon the gases (fuel) temperature are completely described by a physical model covering the global formulas controlling the EDF profile. Results about the energy distribution for the reactant system indicate a standard EDF, in which it’s arrive a steady state form shape and intern lead to fix the optimum selected temperature.

96

 

Rasha Munir Chellab, Khalid Hellal Harbbi and Akram Jabur. The Correction of the Line Profiles for X- Ray Diffraction Peaks by Using Three Analysis Methods (, )

Abstract. In this study used three methods such as Williamson- hall , size-strain Plot, and Halder-Wagner to analysis X-ray diffraction lines to determine the crystallite size and the lattice strain of the nickel oxide nanoparticles and then compare the results of these methods with two other methods. The results were calculated for each of these methods to the crystallite size are (0.42554) nm, (1.04462) nm, and (3.60880) nm, and lattice strain are (0.56603), (1.11978), and (0.64606) respectively were compared with the result of Scherrer method (0.29598) nm,(0.34245),and the Modified Scherrer (0.97497) . The difference in calculated results Observed for each of these methods in this study.

97

 

Hussam Kadhum, Abdulkareem Abd and Ahmed Al-ShammariHPLC Analysis and Chemical Composition Identification of Isolated Flavonoid Fraction of Althaea Officinalis from Iraq ()

Abstract. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the flavonoid components of the plant Althaea Officinalis were done by using HPLC. The identifications were made by comparing the retention times obtained at identical chromatographic conditions of analyzed samples and authentic standards, while the quantity of each compound was estimated by measuring area percent under the curve. The flavonoid fraction of the aerial parts of the plant showed the presence of Quercetin, Rutin, apiginine, isorhmntein, scopoletin, coumarins, and Kaempferol. In our work, the HPLC analysis of flavonoid fraction of Althaea Officinalis from Iraq showed that the plant contain about two-third of the active components of standard flavonoid fraction.

98

 

Nada Karam and Ahmed Khaleel. Generalized Inverse Rayleigh Reliability Estimation for the (2+1) Cascade Model (, )

Abstract. In this paper derived the mathematical formulas of the Reliability for Special (2+1) cascade model, expression for model reliability are found when strength and stress distributions are generalized inverse Rayleigh random variables. The estimation for the reliability function (R) of model is done by Sixth different methods (ML, Mo, LS, WLS, Rg and PE) and make the compare between them in simulation study with the program made by (MATLAB 2016) using two statistical criteria MSE and MAPE , where it found that best estimator between the six estimators is ML.

99

 

Ghada Karam, Ali Al-Hamadani, Faten Zainulabdeen and Ziad Abood. Study the effect of Apodization on the imaging properties of optical systems with coma aberration(, )

Abstract. Strehl-Ratio is one of the important image quality assessment parameters, especially when the optical system has some aberrations. The effect of pupil shapes on the image quality of an optical system was evaluated. These systems are apodized with the Hanning amplitude filter under the influence of the coma aberration. The analytically computed results are illustrated graphically in terms of point spread function curves under various considerations of the coma aberrations and a different degree of amplitude apodization. This study shows that system with a square aperture of half diagonal = 1 has the high Strehl ratio value. And systems with a square aperture of half diagonal = √(□(π/(2 ))) , is, the less affected by the apodizted Hanning filter.

100

 

Raja Idlimam, Abdellah Bah, Asbik Mohamed, Mustapha Malha and Halima Kazdaba. Effect of Receiver Shape on a Parabolic Solar Concentrator System Thermal Behavior(, )

Abstract. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of the receiver’s shape on a parabolic solar concentrator system thermal behavior. It was done by using Comsol Multiphysics as simulation software, based on the finite element method. Indeed, three receiver shapes (cubical, conical and cylindrical) made from copper, are considered to analyze the captured flux distribution and also the temperature on the receivers’ surface. The values of ambient temperature and direct normal irradiance are gotten from Meteonorm 7 software, and the rim angle value is equal to 45°. The simulation results have proved that the conical shape gives better thermal performances compared to other geometrical forms. It presents internal energy reaching 79.04 kJ/kg and a maximum temperature of 230°C on the surface of the absorber. The obtained results could contribute to the improvement of parabolic solar concentrator thermal performances.

101

 

Hernan Hernandez, Jorge Ivan Silva-OrtegaMario Mejia TaobadaAlfredo Diaz Jacomed and Melissa Torregroza-RosasNatural Ester Fluids applications in Transformers as a sustanaible dielectric and coolant (, )

Abstract. New requirements for a better sustainable energy policy around the world is easy to observe, many projects in sustainable energy are developed wherein the academia works together the authorities and commercial firms such as electrical grid utilities. In distribution transformers one of the suggested solutions is to replace mineral oils used as dielectric and coolant for natural ester fluids, they provide improved technical properties making them a safe substitute of mineral oil. Natural esters are based on clean technology in order to guarantee requirements from utilities. The main goal of the present paper is to present a technical-economic analysis obtained from five years of applications of oil-immersed transformers using natural ester fluids in Colombia. The methodology considers forty-four oil-immersed distribution Transformers, a half use mineral oil and the other side use natural ester, operating under the same load regime. Results evidenced the feasibility of implementing this technology because the costs are very similar and the reduction of risks and environmental impact is considerable.

102

 

Zeane Rheem and Bashair Saied. Interaction of Heavy Ions with Brain Tissue (, )

Abstract. Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. The success of radiotherapy depends on the ability of the therapy system to concentrate the quantity (dose) of radiation on the target region (tumor). Ideally, a lethal while minimizing the irradiation of healthy adjacent tissues. In this study, the measurements of the mass stopping power and range of heavy ions in Brain Tissue of human with energy interval (0.025- 1000) MeV were done using (SRIM 2013, Casp 5.2 , PASS 4.2) programs ,also mensuration the Range and stopping time were calculated by using Matlab language.

103

 

Khalid J., M. Jassim and Enas Jawad. Study The Effect Of Addition Of Ar To N2 Gas On The Eedf And The Correspondent Coefficients Of Electron Transport (, )

Abstract. We investigate the influence of Ar and N2 gas mixtures on the electron energy distribution EEDF function and the corresponding electron transport coefficients ETCs, by utilizing (EEDF) program to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The study has an importance in the studies of N2 glow discharge to determine the appropriate best mixtures ratio to work in such devices. The calculations were carried out in steady-state standard conditions. The effect of reduced electric field E/N for the range covered between (10-600) Td on EEDF and ETCs are studied by drawing graphical plots for different calculated data to compare among different concentrations of gases using Matlab. It is also performing some of the fittings for calculated data of ETCs for pure gases using Igor Pro program software. According to the proposed cross section provided by the (EEDF) program there is an excellent agreement of the calculations with some of the previously published data, e.g. for the drift velocity.

104

 

Naeem Abd Ali, Enas Jawad and M. Jassim. Theoretical Calculation for sputtering yield of Beryllium Copper alloy bombarded by Argon, Nitrogen and Oxygen Ions.(, )

Abstract. The sputtering yield was calculated for the BeCu alloy, which were bombarded by N_2 ,O_2 ,and Ar ions in energy range (0.1-50) Kev. The TRIM was used to get the sputtering yield of BeCu alloy target. TRIM is founded on Monte Carlo simulation (MCs) method. The results showed the sputtering yield depends on the incident ions energy, the incident angle, atomic number of incident ions and Concentrations of elements used in alloy. In this study with the rise of incident ion energy the Sputtering Yield increases, reaches a maximum and then diminution. We have reached that the Sputtering yield for BeCu alloy were the highest value of argon Comparative to nitrogen and oxygen that which are very close when the same angle, and In general, the ion energy corresponding to the highest sputtering yield increases by increasing the incident ion angle. In all the situation investigated, the yield increases with the ion incidence angle because the acquired energy distribution is transfer nearer to the surface. At an angle between 60o and 80o there is a supreme yield and then reducing swiftly for angles larger than 80o. Is believed to be caused from the increase of ion reflection from the target alloy surface. We note the SY increase with increasing atomic number of ions (Ar, N2, O2) that bombardment the BeCu alloy. And the sputtering yield decreases with increasing the concentration of Beryllium in alloy. Moreover, were fit the accounts and found curves coefficients by Semi-experimental equations.

105

 

Nikolaos Nikoloudakis and Maria RangoussiOn the role of (vocational) education in the adoption of green and recycling practices: a case study on WEEE (, )

Abstract. The cultivation of environmentally aware and sensitive attitudes and the promotion and embedding of green and recycling culture and practices are critically dependent on Education. Early introduction of learners to the notions of ecosystems, sustainability, recycling and the cyclic economy ensures a life-long adoption of such practices at the individual, the professional and the social level. In the present paper, an innovative educational method and scenario is proposed that is based on laboratory experimentation aimed at the reclaiming of components/parts from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) devices and the design and construction of new objects/products from these. The method is proposed for vocational education at the Upper High School level and for the electrical and electronics engineering curriculum; it is generic enough, however, to be reconfigured for other ages or curricula. The learning process is set up as a collaborative, learning-by-doing activity in the lab, where an analysis (disassembly and component reclaiming) phase is followed by a synthesis (construction of a prototype new object) phase. A pilot application is described along with its evaluation and results. The positive results as to the learning outcomes achieved and as to the environmentally sensitive culture actively promoted among students indicate that the proposed educational method is worthy of further research through full-scale deployment and formal evaluation.

107

 

Hawraa Al-Waelly and Hameed Abduljabbar. The Interpolation Effect on the Spare Sinogram for 3D Image Reconstruction (, )

Abstract. The effect of using three different interpolation methods (nearest neighbour, linear and non-linear) on a 3D sinogram to restore the missing data due to using angular difference greater than 1o (considered as optimum 3D sinogram) is presented. Two reconstruction methods are adopted in this study, the back-projection method and Fourier slice theorem method, from the results the second reconstruction proven to be a promising reconstruction with the linear interpolation method when the angular difference is less than 20o.

108

 

Hazim Al Janeri and Hadi Al-Agealy. Investigation the Flow Charge Rate at InAs/D149 and ZnO/D149 System Using Theoretical Quantum Model (, )

Abstract. In this ongoing study, we investigated a theoretical study of flow charge transfer at semiconductor–liquid interfaces. The quantum method has employed in obtaining the flow rate of InAs and ZnO semiconductors with D149 interface. The both system have maximum flow charge rate with DichIoroethane solvent, the ZnO/D149 has large flow charge rate compare to InAs/D149 system for the same overlapping coupling. Flow charge rate was decreasing with increasing the potential barrier and vice versa for both system and the flow rate increasing eith decreasing the orientation transition energy

111

 

Duha Jumaah, Abbas Saadon and Akram Jabur. Prepared and measuring the structural and dielectric properties of PbTiO3 and PbZrO3 (, )

Abstract. Lead titanate(PT) and lead zirconate(PZ) were prepared by mixed oxide (solid state reaction) at sintering temperature 900c of (PT) and 1100c of(PZ) .Structure of the piezoelectric ceramics (PT)and(PZ)has been confirmed. by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The particle size and strain are calculated from X-ray peak broadening analysis by using Williamson-Hall plot and Debye-scherrer's formula. our result indicates the dielectric measurements that decrease in dielectric constant with increase in frequencies.

112

 

Muayad M. Abed, Khalid H. Mahdi, Weam S. Al Hamadany and Akram Jabur. Estimation of Uranium Concentration in Blood Samples of Kidneys Failure Patients in Al- Muthanna Governorate (, )

Abstract. Precise the measurement of uranium concentration in human urine is quite important in assessment of occupational and public exposure to uranium. In the present work, the fission track technique was used to determine uranium in blood of Kidneys Failure Patients in Al- Muthanna Governorate. The uranium concentration values in blood samples of Kidneys Failure Patients ranged between 0.119 p.p.m to 0.31 p.p.m, while Healthy group results were ranged 0.117 p.p.m to 0.199 p.p.m. The some parameters used to explain the results of uranium concentration. Results showed that the concentration of uranium in the blood increases in kidney failure patients.

115

 

Faeza Toama, Rakan Hussein and Bafreen Raza. The Spleen Histopath in the Pregnant mice Exposure to Acetaminophen Drug (, )

Abstract. The Acetaminophen drug used in some purposes ( Headache , Fever and Arthritis ) , The pregnant animal in this study were injured with two concentrate of the drug by oral , one group injured with ( 0.12 ) ml, another group with (0.24 ) ml , while the last group , control not treated . the animals were given the drug in the morning for 11 days , The Results show some disorders in the spleen animals , in weight and tissue structure changing , the spleen show significant decrease in the weight in both concentrate but large decrease in 0.24 ml concentrate compare with control. The histopath , included necrosis of some cells , number of giant cell and macrophage present , inflammatory cells infiltrated , hemorrhage ,these disorder high in in (0.24) ml compare with control , Another disorder in this concentrate , destroyed some fibroblast in spleen trabeculae extremely noted.

116

 

Marwa Shamal and Auday Shaban. Estimation of groundwater pollution in Baiji / Salah Al-Deen province Iraq (, )

Abstract. This study aims to determine the degree of pollution of the groundwater of the city of Baiji in the province of Salah al-Din for the period (2012-2014 (using geographic information systems) GIS). The samples were taken from 24 wells located within the area to be studied. Analyzes of some pollution indicators were conducted for the years of research. Based on the results, these analyzes were followed by indicators that exceeded the permissible values according to the Iraqi standards for drinking water. This study found a strong impact of industry on groundwater pollution.

118

 

Bari Mohammed, Thekra Hamada and Nehan Jafar. Evaluation of Haemolytic activity of some Candida species (, )

Abstract. The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and other candida species. A total of 100 Candida isolates representing 4 species were examined for their respective responses to an in hemolytic test. All strains of Candida species, isolated from the vaginal infection of women in Jumhuri Hospital in Kirkuk city. The four species isolated were: : C. albicans , C. glabra , C. krusei and, C. kefyr . Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candida culture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h . Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. 10 strains of C. albicans , 4 strains of C. glabra, 43 strains of C. krusei and 1 strain if C. kefyr subsequently that were studied produced hemolysins. Over all, this study showed that hemolytic activity was detected in all isolates with minor differences seen between them , the highest hemolytic activity detected in C. krusei (20-35mm) ,followed by C. albicans produces (25-33mm) , while C. glabra (19-31mm) and the lowest hemolytic activity was detected in C. kefyr (14-16mm).

119

 

Spiru Paraschiv, Gelu Coman and Lizica Simona ParaschivSimulation of plume dispersion emitted from industrial sources based on Gaussian model ()

Abstract. Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation which describe the way in which pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. These dispersion models are used to estimate the concentration of air pollutants emitted by industrial plants and also can be used to predict future concentrations when the parameters of emission sources are changing. Parameters used in the dispersion model include: weather conditions such as wind speed and direction, atmospheric turbulence ("stability class"), ambient air temperature; source parameters (source location and height, source type, gas exit velocity, exit temperature and mass flow rate).

120

 

Dimitrios KalyvasPanagiotis PapageorgasKyriakos AgavanakisIoannis Dogas and Dimitrios PiromalisBuilding the Internet of Energy infrastructure: The Distributed Ledger Technologies approach (, )

Abstract. The drawbacks of the current centralized energy market render it necessary that a decentralized architecture -consisting of entities such as microgrids, utility companies, financial institutions and consumers- is developed. Distributed ledger technologies provide an immutable, tamper proof and secure way of automating and recording complex transactions. They can be used in conjunction with smart energy meters to create collaborative economy business models in energy, thus, energy production and consumption measurements can be authenticated in a secure way and the optimal balance between supply, demand and their pricing can be achieved. Moreover, the decentralized structure of blockchain enables business processes to become automated via smart contracts and decentralized applications, contributing to a viable energy market. This study attempts to technically evaluate different start up approaches in the Decentralized Energy Internet domain, review their current progress in engineering, security, regulatory and societal aspects, and examine their future challenges and the potential of using a Unified and Adaptable Model.

121

 

Hajir Shareef, Nehan Jafar and Rosure Abdulrahman. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticales by MoringaOleifera and its antibacterial activity (, )

Abstract. The study was amid to synthesized and characterization of silver Nanoparticales from Moringaoleifera leaves and seeds extract, and to investigation the antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staph.aureus and Enterococcus feacalis) and gram negative (E.coli, Shigella spp. , Citrobacter spp., Alkaligenes spp., and pseudomonas aeruginosa). The synthesized nanoparticale was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared( FTIR) ,. The result of UV-visible reveal broad band absorbation for both leaf and seed extract . The FTIR analysis showed that AgNPs contains the functional groups. The antibacterial activities against mentioned pathogens were done by using agar well diffusion method, the considerable inhibitory actionfor both leaf and seed extract were observed both in gram positive and gram negative bacterial isolates.

122

 

Andrea Mennuni, Sonia Castellucci and Maurizio Carlini. Modelling of a Low-Enthalpy DHE Geothermal System for Greenhouses Heating: Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Analysis with FEM Approach (, )

Abstract. Energy demand has been growing during the last years, increasing environmental pollution. For this reason, international and European awareness in terms of energy efficiency and pollution reduction by using renewable energy sources changed, resulting in new goals to be achieved in the very next years. Low-enthalpy geothermal systems could provide a smart alternative solution to fossil-fuel-based heating systems, so far as no high temperatures are needed. Underground heat sources should be enough to fulfill low temperature systems demand, such as greenhouses or small buildings. In this work, a simulation scenario is validated by comparing both numerical results and experimental data, obtained by a DHE geothermal plant used for greenhouse heating. The scenario reaches a high accuracy level if compared with the experimentally acquired in-pipe fluid flow temperatures, resulting in a less than 1,1% divergence between numerical and experimental acquisition. The temperature difference between numerical model results and experimental acquisition are 0,6°C and 0,4°C for serial and parallel pipes configuration, respectively. The discussed FEM scenario model is a useful design evaluation tool for DHE plants once geometry and temperature gradient of the thermal aquifer are given.

123

 

Petros KaraisasSpace-harmonics modeling of an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine (, )

Abstract. Abstract –The content of space harmonics in axial-flux permanent-magnet machines (AFPMMs) is a important concern to the machine designer due to its impact on the performance. In AFPMMs, the harmonics are related to the flux-density and the MMF distributions in the airgap, which are mainly determined by the permanent- magnet excitation. This paper proposes two different approaches to study the flux density in the air gap. The finite-element and analytical method are jointly developed in order to model, compare and optimize the flux density waveforms. Many optimization methods have been proposed in order to optimize the design of permanent magnet machines. In this paper, the authors investigate the optimal permanent-magnet design in order to minimize the space-harmonics distribution using the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) optimization algorithm. By selecting the appropriate PM shape and size, it is possible to remove the undesirable harmonics. Using the SQP, the permanent-magnet shape is optimized, and the harmonics content is notably reduced. The optimal solutions given by the analytical and finite element model are then validated.

124

 

Bahjat Kadhim, Ridha Risan, Auday Shaban and Kareem Jasim. Electrical Characteristics of Nickel / Epoxy - Unsaturated Polyester Blend Nanocomposites (, )

Abstract. Electrical characteristics of epoxy – unsaturated polyester (EP – UPE) composites reinforced with Nickel nanoparticles were investigated in terms of alternative current (A.C) subject to changes in different Nickel volume fraction. Hand lay - up technique was used to prepare the composites as well as blend specimens using flash molds at standard conditions. Epoxy resin - unsaturated polyester resin (80 – 20) Vol. % is the blend composition selected for investigation. The epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester resin were added together and thoroughly prepared mixed to obtain the polymer blend required; the Nickel nanoparticle were then added in volume fraction (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%). The mixture is casting in Teflon mold and finally left overnight at room temperature for complete curing. The results show the electrical properties for Ni / (EP – UPE ) nanocomposites, conductivity increases with increasing frequency, conductivity increases with increasing Nickel volume fraction, and it has a maximum value of (2.41x10-9 (ohm.cm)-1) at frequency (15MHz) for (5% Ni). We note that at increasing the frequency, all of the dielectric constant (έ) and loss (ἕ), dissipation factor tanδ and capacitance will be decreased. Information’s of measurements for A.C electrical properties could be beneficial as capacitors to energy storage in the laser systems.

126

 

Waleed Raja. Measurement of Radon concentrations in water around the northern areas of Baghdad and calculation of the annual effective dose using the CN-85 track detector. (, )

Abstract. This study comprises of the measurements and analysis of effective parameters involved in the environmental pollution of Al- Tarmiyah water in the north of Baghdad. Thirteen water samples were taken from various places in the region. The Radon concentration was measured in all these samples using CN-85 track detector with accuracy adequate to be compared with available data presented by WHO and USEPA which gives the allowed annual dosage levels. Typical concentration values of 0.98 Bq/L, 1.47 Bq/L, 1.70 Bq/L and 3.20 Bq/L were recorded corresponding to tap water, river banks water, regional well water and pest water respectively. From these measured values, the average effective annual dosage, allowed for the whole body, stomachs and lungs were then calculated. In comparison, pest water and well water with average effective annual dosage level were found higher than the allowed ones and their water cannot be used for drinking.

127

 

Lamees Abdullah. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal Doped with Different Concentration of Carbon Nanotubes (, )

Abstract. The nematic liquid crystal (LC) N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-n-butylaniline (MBBA) doped with different concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 wt%) of multi walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient) using Z- scan technique at the He- Ne laser wavelength 632.8 nm. The experimental results showed that the nonlinear optical properties of MBBA LC sample can be change by varying the concentration of CNTs. A small concentration of CNTs can be enhanced optical nonlinearity and the highest nonlinearity was observed at the sample doped with 0.1 wt% concentration of MWCNT. The values of nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient in the order of 10-7cm2/mW and 10-2cm/mW, respectively.

128

 

Emad S. Al-Hassani, Jawad K. Oleiwi and Alaa A. Mohammed. Nanomechanical Characterization and Tensile Test of Polymer nanocomposites for Bioimplants (, )

Abstract. Nanoindentation is a powerful technique to determine various mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, such as for example young’s modulus and hardness. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a material that is widely used in medicine because its mechanical properties show excellent similarity to those of human bone. PEEK is a synthetic polymer being used increasingly as a implant material due to its iso-elastic nature and enhanced mechanical properties. This study presents the effect of PEEK specimens incorporated with (0, 0.5,1&1.5) wt% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA) and nano titanium oxide (nTiO2) processed by compounding and hot press. The main objective of this study is to conduct a manufacturing experiment nano polyetheretherketone composite for characterization of its mechanical properties using a tensile test and nanoindentation techniques of mechanical tests. The results of mechanical tests exhibit improvments of youngs modulus, hardness and ultimate tensile strength at 1.5 wt % for two types of reinforcement but the higher values obtained when reinforced by (nHA). In addition the elastic modulus determined by the nanoindentation technique differs from the results obtained from tensile test by (14-38)%. The results also showed that the highest value obtained for ultimate tensile strength and hardness was (79.457Mpa, 0.3256743 GPa) respectively.

129

 

Massimiliano Manfren, Benedetto Nastasi, Edoardo Piana and Lamberto TronchinOn the link between Energy Performance of Building and Thermal Comfort: an example(, )

Abstract. This paper investigates the relationship between Indoor Environmental Quality index (IEQ): thermal comfort index and indoor temperature trend in moderate thermal environments, in buildings that belong to the Class A with reference to the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD). The work consists of the measurement of IAQ and energy efficiency in a residential building located in centre-north of Italy, namely Ravenna. The results of the measurements, as well as the PMV-PPD indexes, are presented and commented. These indexes could be a criteria to test if EPBD labelling building could be coherent with EN 15251 requirements.

130

 

Petros KaraisasEMI Filters, Ancillary Equipment for Active Filters (, )

Abstract. The paper analyzes an EMI filtering solution to diminish the effect of harmonics generated by PWM converters in active filters. Throughout this paper, a few specific problems regarding the design, simulation and validation of the model by testing EMI filters are presented. It can be mentioned that the tests of the experimental model were performed in a laboratory, using the existing conditions of a non linear consumer, by synthesizing distorted waveforms.

132

 

Alima Mebrek, Sihem Benayache, Afef Azzi, Hadda Rezzag, Ouafia Ghabbeche, Amina Grairia and Thaounza Chabi. Structural properties of sintered zinc titanate ceramics(, )

Abstract. The main of this work is to investigate the structural properties of zinc titanates ceramics obtained by solid state reaction. The powders of composition (98 mol% ZnO + 2 mol% TiO2) were mechanically milled for 3 h in high energy planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere. After, the ball milled powders were calcined at 900°C for 2 h, pressed into pellets and then sintered for 4 h at 1100°C in air. The microstructural transformations were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The X-ray results exhibit a composite structure where about a small amount of rutile nanograins are dispersed into the ZnO matrix and a formation of a cubic inverse spinel Zn2TiO4. Raman and FTIR results confirm the multiphase character of the sintered pellets.

133

 

Athanasios Volikas and Konstantinos Nikas. Turbulence Modeling Investigation of Airfoil designed for Wind Turbine Applications ()

Abstract. The present work deals with the numerical investigation of the flow around a two-dimensional geometry of an airfoil type NREL S809, which has been designed for wind turbine applications via the CFD technique. The turbulence models employed and evaluated for angles of attack ranging from 0° to 20° were the Spalart-Allmaras, the k-ε Realizable, the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) and the Transition SST. The results of the simulations for the lower angles of attack generally agree with the available corresponding experimental data. However, decreased accuracy of the models is observed once flow separation starts to occur. In sequence, for this purpose, the modified versions of the k-ω SST and the Transition SST models were adjusted significantly improving the models’ performance over the whole range of angles of attack.

134

 

Bensaci Mohammed Abdellatif, Hadjadj Aoul Elias and Abbas Hadj Abbas. Impact of optimization of integrated maintenance actions Over the life time of strategic machines (, )

Abstract. In this article we study the impact of the maintenance actions optimization integrated over the life time of the strategic machines in the hydrocarbon sector .Based on the quantitative study towards “ reliability, maintainability ,availability ” (FMD) and of “pareto diagram method “ (ABC), and also based on the qualitative study to words the " analysis of the failure modes, their effects and their criticality “ “AMDEC “ This study based on the principle of collecting and analysing the available data with the type of “ break down history, experience feedback “.In order to permit and to have the optimization impact of these maintenance actions over the life time of the strategic machines of the oil zone specifying the critical element in the machine a developed approach vise the first time to apply , two optimization procedures " calculation code , Simulink model " in MATLAB .implementing in an executive interface. “ executive dash board “. These procedures use two estimate methods of “graphic , analytic “ setting of survival law weibull law has two and three settings, in order to obtain the optimal settings , as well as to permit the evaluation of other performance indicators of various strategic machines. The obtained results through calculation code that is based on the graphic method for weibull law has two settings according to the criterion of evaluation which is almost so far than the other. The Simulink model through “maximum of possibility “of weilbull that has three settings, is relatively close with a small advantage of “realism “. Secondly, we present these optimal settings impact on the evolution update of the failure rate to categorise the breakdown types realised. In the last part of the study , we exploit directly this categorization breakdowns in order to optimize their criticalities through “ AMDEC “ application which will permit us to locate the critical element (s), to define the preventive systematic time of change , to bring the maintenance strategy evolved and adopted by “ AMDEC” to cope with these breakdowns varied according to the zone update during the life time of the studied machine .The developed approach based on an algorithmic modelization where the results will be integrated into a mathematical model. An application case permits to validate the proposed study objective.

135

 

Thair Alaish, Rasheed Jawad and Hanady Kamil. Design and Simulation A High-Energy Free Electron Laser HEFEL (, )

Abstract. At present, there is a significant growth in the number of research completed to take advantage of the free electron laser FEL beam in all applied scientific fields. These applications depend on the unique characteristics of free electron laser such as the virtue of the tuneability, short pulse length and micropulse energy/peak. In this paper, it has been designing a new model of High-Energy Free Electron Laser HEFEL within the ultraviolet range with an energy beam about 380 MeV. Also, it has been the optimized design for the amplifier of the output power by using a suitable resonator. All results have been obtained by designing a program that contains many parameters, through which a complete simulation of nature and shape for output laser beam has been created.

136

 

Abbas Saadon and Hadi Al-Agealy. Study of Photoemission and Electronic Properties of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (, )

Abstract. We have investigated the photoemission and electronic properties at the PTCDI molecules interface on TiO2 and ZnO semiconductor by means of charge transition. A simple donor acceptor scenario used to calculate the rate for electron transfer of delocalized electronics in a nondegenerately TiO2 and ZnO electrodes to redox localized acceptors in an electrolytic. The dependent of electronic transition rate on the potential for interface of system has been discussion using TiO2 and ZnO electrodes in aqueous solutions. The charge transfer rate is determine by the overlapping electronic coupling to the TiO2 and ZnO electrodes, the transition energy ,potential and polarity media within the theoretical scenario of the electronic transition ,it can be expected the transition rate at electrodes interface with PTCDI dye using MATLAP program .

138

 

Abdulnasser Al-Gebori, Hamsa Eassa and Mohammed Haider. Estimation of some immunological parameters and trace element in patients with head injuries (, )

Abstract. Objective: Trauma is the result of several kinds of accidents such as crashes of vehicles but mostly, in certain conditions, military operations and the effects of explosions can cause head injury. Interleukins and some trace elements have a role in head injury patients. Our study was conducted to clarify the effect of serum IL-6, IL-8 and copper levels in head injury patients. Materials and Methods:Our study included 60 patients with head injury who were attending the Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. Their ages ranged 20-50 years matched to 30 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected about fourteen hours after injury. ELISA and AAS methods were used to measure serum ILs and Cu respectively. Results: serum level of IL-6 was 177.45 ±55.12pg/mL and of IL-8 was 181.19 ±61.77 pg/mL in patients, which were higher significant than those in the control group (83.43 ±22.98and 49.99 ±15.32 pg/mL, respectively). Cu levels in patients with head injury was 0.84±0.16µg/mL, which was lower significant than that recorded in the control group(1.34±0.15µg/mL).Conclusions:Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were higher and Cu was significantly lower in patients with head injury as compared with control group and, therefore, they can be used as markers associated with the head injury.

139

 

Petros KaraisasComputer Simulation of the Synchronous Generator Steady-State and Dynamic Regime (, )

Abstract. The stability of a power system is determined by the dynamics of its interconnected synchronous machines. Hence, the study and analysis of the steady-state and the dynamic behaviors of the power system depend highly on the synchronous machine modeling. Dynamic analysis of synchronous machines is of great importance to show how all control and protecting elements must react for any abnormalities on machine terminals. In this paper is presented an analysis and a full simulation to predict the electromechanical dynamics of a synchronous generator, with and without considering the saturation effects.

140

 

Fatima Zohra El Wardi, Asmae Khaldoun and Abdelhamid KhabbaziMechanical reinforcement of an ecological material of good thermal properties with thin layers based on cement mortar and plaster (, )

Abstract. Several scientific studies concerning building thermal insulation materials prove that the clay-cork composite material has good thermal properties. Indeed, the intervention of this composite in building applications allows considerable energy savings. But, the real problem in the application of this material as a construction material lies in its low mechanical strength. To cope with this problem, authors in this work add layers of mechanical side reinforcement and simultaneous protection of clay-cork composite external climatic conditions. So the new material is a sandwich material. The clay-cork composite constitutes the intermediate layer. The inner layer is composed of plaster and the outer layer of cement mortar. A complete thermal measurement using Asymmetrical Hot plate and the Flash methods and a mechanical characterization were made in this work. In addition, an observation via the scanning electron microscope was made to observe the morphology of the clay-cork composite. The new material developed allows keeping thermal characteristics better by improving the mechanical resistance of clay-cork composite which makes its application in building sector possible.

141

 

Lakhdar Saihi. Hybrid Control Based on Sliding Mode Fuzzy of DFIG Power Associated WECS (, )

Abstract. In this paper, the robust algorithm based on the coupling of sliding mode control and the fuzzy logic control is concerned to ameliorate the robustness and the performances of a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) connected to electric power grid with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The control independently of stator active and reactive powers is used by stator flux orientation strategy. The active power reference derived from turbine’s mechanical power. The hybrid fuzzy sliding mode control permits to enjoy the advantages of these two techniques in order to reduce the chattering phenomenon. The proposed approach is analysed and compared between SMO and SMOF by Simulink/Matlab environment. The simulation results show good performances and robustness of SMOF.

142

 

Osi Fayomi, M Julian, Ig Akande, Oe Atiba and Os Ohunakin. DEVELOPING A LOW CARBON ELECTRICITY ECONOMY: SMART GRID AND SMART USERS (, )

Abstract. Low-carbon electricity economy has become the major area of research for many countries that have made great efforts towards ensuring its gradual development in their society. A great level of understanding of the various features and benefits that the smart grid system offers to both the power producing company and the smart users (i.e. consumers who are aware of the benefits that the system offers) is a major contribution to the interest of these countries in ensuring its development to full functionality at maximum efficiency. Various researches have indicated that complete development and satisfactory function of new smart grid systems can be accomplished, although there may be some technical constraints. Therefore, this research was carried out to create a level understanding of the low carbon electricity economy (smart grid system) review the development progress that have been attained by some major countries of the world.

143

 

Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande, So Ohunakin, Oo Ajayi and So Oyedepo. ORGANISATIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE ADOPTION OF WIND ENERGY IN AFRICA (, )

Abstract. Although fossil fuels uncomplicated are easy to use energy sources, the issues associated with their use are numerous; it affects political, economic, health and environment. The current energy problems result from the way fossil fuels are consumed at an exponential rate, and the world demand of these fuels is expected to go up each year for several decades to come. Renewable energy deployment is steadily growing in Africa, a continent with abundance of resources- wind, water, sun, and biomass. Investing in the long term solutions that these renewable energy sources have to offer would be advantageous and beneficial to all African countries by helping to avoid economic and sustainability problems. These truths show us that the wind can provide a lot of our present and future world energy requirements.

144

 

Ig Akande, Osi Fayomi, Oe Atiba and So Oyedepo. INSTITUTIONAL SETTING OF ENERGY COMPANIES IN AFRICA: A REVIEW (, )

Abstract. Energy availability is a major prerequisite for physical and socio-economic development in both the rural and urban settings. There is a need to foster the assurance of energy security in the power sector, its availability and reliability in other to uphold any meaningful development as well as pave way for more research and technological advancement to bring about evolution of man’s world. Access of the population of a nation to adequate electrical power supply for domestic and industrial or business use is one of the major determinants which separate developed countries from developing countries. Without question, Africa as a continent; and to be more specific Sub-Saharan Africa, is the least developed area in the world. This study reveals that slow rate of development can be traced to low access to modern energy in the region, as a result of inadequate reform programs, poor energy policies, low level of investments, outdated energy infrastructure and low technology transfer rate. The use of renewable energy technologies is also minimal in the region and electrical power generation is majorly dominated by hydroelectric power generation and conventional fossil fuels. This report reviews the current institutional setting of some energy utility companies in African nations in order to highlight problems they face as well as look towards a solution.

145

 

Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande, Rt Loto and So Ongbali. SUSTAINABLE NEED IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA TOWARD QUALITY, POLICY AND PLANNING (, )

Abstract. The manufacturing industry is a vast industry that undertakes series of jobs, which include the production of different items, machines, equipment etc. There are a lot of sections of the manufacturing industry some of which range from the managerial section down to production, maintenance and even inspection department. The manufacturing industry encompasses a whole lot of subsets. Taking a cue from the role of banks in the development of the manufacturing industries, the investment of the funds in time past for the rehabilitation of the manufacturing industry has not added much to the nation’s GDP. The banks lend little to the agricultural sector compared to how much they lend to manufacturing industry. There is also need for measuring knowledge intensities in the manufacturing industry. The growth of employment also noted to be a factor of employment rate is dependent on numerous factors. One of the major and perhaps the most striking of these factors to consider is the start-up of a new business. Formation of new businesses affect the growth of employment in a different way than one can imagine. The manufacturing industry is ever changing and due to the competition between corporations, industries, businesses, firms and organisations there is always the desiring need for something new. Every industry or firm must have some sort of leadership to ensure that they are always on the right part. This leadership could be transformational in nature. While there may be people occupying leadership positions, most of the behaviour they exhibit while in such position has been questioned. There are many questions about the effectiveness of a supply chain, hence the resolve to carry out a research to ascertain the degree of effectiveness of the automobile supply chain. In other for manufacturing industries to compete favourably with one another, they must be innovative.

146

 

Zakaria Elmaazouzi, Mustapha El Alami and El Ghali Bennouna. A comparative analysis of the performance of LHTES systems- case study: cylindrical exchanger with and without annular fins (, )

Abstract. The Thermal Energy Storage (TES) occupied an important role in the reasonable use of energy, because it allows the decoupling between the production and the energy demand in the applications with intermittent energy production. In recent years, many researchers have highlighted the use of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) systems, this is especially because the high energy density can be stored during phase change. Notwithstanding this great potential, the feasibility of LHTES with PCM is still limited, mainly due to a low thermal conductivity. In this sense, the exchanger with fins is the most effective proposal which is based on the increase of the exchange surface. After a review of recent advances in LHS systems with a focus on methods for improving the thermal conductivity of MCPs, and a selection methodology (Exchanger + PCM) adequate. The main objective of this paper is to develop, perform and compare a numerical study of a new finned exchanger (double pipe with Longitudinal fins on the external pipe, Phase Change Material in the annular space between the two pipes and HTF in the inner pipe) with a classic exchanger without fins. This comparative study was done according to the process of heat transfer during melting (charging) at average temperature (180-280 °C). In addition, the results obtained were adapted for an implementation of Fresnel solar power installed at Green Energy Park (1 MWe) in Morocco. This study has shown that the first exchanger has a good compactness, can store enough latent energy, and significantly overcome the problem of low thermal conductivity related to the second heat exchanger.

147

 

Ghuzlan Ahmed and Bushra Al-Maiyaly. Annealing Effect on Characterization of Nano Crystalline SnSe Thin Films Prepared by Thermal Evaporation (, )

Abstract. Tin Selenide (SnSe) Nano crystalline thin films of thickness 400±20 nm were deposited on glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique at R.T under a vacuum of ~ 2 × 10− 5 mbar to study the effect of annealing temperatures ( as-deposited, 100, 150 and 200) ºC on its structural, surface morphology and optical properties. The films structure was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed that all the films have polycrystalline in nature and orthorhombic structure ,with the preferred orientation along the (111) plane. These films was synthesized of very fine crystallites size of (14.8-24.5) nm, the effect of annealing temperatures on the cell parameters, crystallite size and dislocation density were observed. Surface morphology of SnSe films as-prepared and annealed are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, the grain size of these films vary in the rang from (60.12 to 94.70)nm with increasing annealing temperatures. The results obtained from XRD and AFM indicated that these films were Nano crystalline. The optical constants like absorption coefficient, loss factor, quality factor and optical conductivity of these films has been evaluated. The optical properties revealed that SnSe films have optical energy band gap values increase from (1.5-2.2) eV upon annealing temperatures and high value of absorption coefficient which implies choosing them in solar cell application.

148

 

Vincenzo Vodola. An exergy metric for building performance evaluation (, )

Abstract. Building energy performance evaluation is a key action to comply with EU Directive on Energy Efficiency in Buildings as well as the regulations’ adoption at National level for Energy Certificates and Label assignments. As a matter of fact, a comprehensive and detailed analysis of heat exchange in existing buildings and new ones is still missing due to the complexity of established procedures and huge amount of buildings to assess. For this purpose, an exergy audit considering the designed indoor temperature, the building envelope behavior and heating production and distribution systems allows computing the building performance with more detail by including the exergy consumption of the whole system. This method could provide more detailed calculations in the summer season even by simplifying the shadows and natural ventilation effects on the cooling demand due to their contribution to the amount of variables and complexity. The method here described starts from the LowEX tool developed in the IEA ECBCS Annex 37 framework to elaborate a final new metric. Accounting for the energy conservation principle, the total amount of exergy exchanged by the building is obtained as the addition of the exergy exchanged in each sub-system, i.e. the building envelope, the energy generation and the distribution system. Finally, the efficiency of the system could be calculated, comparing the amount of energy consumption and exergy exchanges. By using the exergy approach, other indicators could be analyzed, i.e Tonne of Oil Equivalent (TOE), CO2 emission and fossil fuel consumption. Among those ones, the ratio between TOE produced by the heating system and the exergy exchanged by the system represents the new exergy parameter. This latter is tested on an existing building as case study

149

 

Hiba Abdullah, Mohammad Abid, Raed Hwayyin and Akram Jabur. Study on a UV-microreaction process (, )

Abstract. Polyaniline was synthesized under UV-solar light using a catalytic continuous microreaction process. The polymerization of aniline was performed via a photochemical method. The synthesis method yields a polymeric material that has been characterized by FTIR analysis. It was shown that the functional groups are affected by solar incident energy where the polyaniline main vibrational bands become wider resulted in higher concentration of rings. Results showed that solar intensity enhanced the average yield by 5% over that of indirect solar while the average time of polymerization is reduced by 17%. The polymerization time was reduced by 20 to 27% when increasing temperature from 5 to 25 oC under indirect solar and direct solar, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that a pseudo-first order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model is well expressing the oxidation rate of aniline over TiO2. The amount of the constants for equilibrium of adsorption, and for surface reaction rate, are 0.0209 (L g-1) and 0.791 (L-1g min-1), respectively. The present work revealed the feasibility of using solar energy to boost the synthesis of polymers.

150

 

Massaab El Ydrissi, Hicham Ghennioui, El Ghali Bennouna and Abdi Farid. A comparative study of N-Phase shifting algorithms and their application on optical quality control of solar concentrators (, )

Abstract. Solar thermal systems are the most promising renewable energy source to cover the big electrical demand of the society and the industrial sector. The optical errors of solar collectors, which represents a considerable part of the total investment of a solar plant, has a direct impact on the optical and thermal efficiencies. For that sake, it is important to evaluate their optical quality before installation and during operation. This analytical study provides a comparative and comprehensive overview of the N-Phase Shifting algorithms used to calculate slope errors in solar mirrors. As a matter of elaboration, these algorithms constitute the main core of the Fringe Reflection Technique or otherwise called the Deflectometry technique. The accuracy of this technique strongly depends on the precision and insensitivity of the N-phase shifting algorithm used. The main objective of this work is to compare the N-phase shifting algorithms according to their accuracy, rapidity, sensitivity to the phase errors, and to the total time consumed to qualify a single solar mirror. As a final phase, the appropriate algorithm that meets our needs is selected and used to evaluate the optical quality of a solar collector installed in the Green Energy Park research platform, Morocco.

151

 

Fouad Ali and Kareem Jasim. Optimize Superconductor Properties by Controlling Sintered Time (, )

Abstract. In this paper we studied the effect of sintered time on phase purity, crystal structure and electrical resistivity of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+ δ superconductor, synthesized by usual solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed all sample structures are orthorhombic and the changing of sintered time from 70 to 130 produce a change in lattice parameter, ratio c/a and mass density ρm. Four probes technique were used to find the critical temperature Tc and the results proved that all samples had a metallic behavior when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. There was also a change in transition temperature when the sintered time increased

152

 

Alyaa Ali, Abdul Kareem Ali and Kareem Jasim. Influence of simultaneous doping of Ag on the transition temperature and the lattice parameters of Tl1.6 Hg0.4-xAgx Ba2 Ca2Cu3O8+δ Superconductors (, )

Abstract. In the present study we have reported investigations on the effect of simultaneous substitution of Ag at the Hg site in the oxygen deficient HgOδ layer of Tl1.6 Hg0.4-xAgx Ba2 Ca2Cu3O8+δ superconductor. Bulk polycrystalline samples have been prepared by the solid state reaction process. It has been observed that the as grown Tl1.6 Hg0.4-xAgx Ba2 Ca2Cu3O8+δ corresponds to the 1223 phase. Electrical resistivity, using four probe technique, is used to find the transition temperature Tc. The highest Tc(0ffset) were 95, 98 and 100K for Tl1.6 Hg0.4-xAgx Ba2 Ca2Cu3O8+δ with x = 0.0, 0.05and 0.1 respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a tetragonal structure with an increase of the c-axis lattice constant for the samples doped with Hg as compared with these have no Hg content. It was found that the change of the Hg concentrations of all our samples produce a change in the, c/a .

153

 

Faiza Salim, Rawnaq Ghadhban, Khansaa Aklo and Kareem Jasim. Physical Properties of HgX Sb1-X Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ Superconducting Compound: Effect of Fast Neutrons Irradiation (, )

Abstract. Applications of superconductor compounds were considered as a modern and important topics, specially these which are exposured to one of the nuclear radiation kinds. So, we gone to investigate the infleunce of fast neutrons irradiation on electrical and structural characteristics of HgxSb1-x Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ Superconducting compound at (x = 0.7) in ratio. The superconducting specimens were synthezied using solid state technique. Specimens were exposured to the nuclear radiation using fast neutrons with doses (0, 9.06 x1010, 15.3 x 1010 and 18.17 x 1010 ) n/cm2 respectively. Electrical and X-ray diffraction properties of superconductor specimens before and after irradiation were investigated under standard conditions. Results of X-ray diffraction show that the structure of HgxSb1-x Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ has tetragonal structure according to the 1223 phase. Besides to increasing of the ratio c/a as a results of the effect of fast neutron irradiation. The transition temperature Tc(on) as well as Tc(off)) were decreased from (117 to 85) K and from (133 to 101) K, respectively.

154

 

Safaa Radhi and Ahmed Hassan. Effect of Machinable Glass Ceramic (MACOR) Nanoparticals Addition on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Si alloys (, )

Abstract. Alloys and composites were developed to exhibit the desired properties of modern engineering materials required for advanced technological applications. This paper presents the influence of the Machinable glass ceramic nanoparticles addition on the mechanical properties of aluminum-silicon casting alloys base particulate composites. Increase in the composition of glass particles from 0 to 15% caused the percentage elongation at fracture of specimen to decrease from 10.2 to 7.4, respectively; this could be attributed to the improved internal stress, due to the particulate reinforcement having an adverse effect on the ductility of the specimen. However, within the same MACOR particles reinforcement range, the ultimate tensile strength increased from 180 MPa to 246 MPa, respectively. Reduction in fatigue stress amplitude was found to increase the number of cycles-to-failure, which is a measure of the fatigue life of the specimens. Also, fatigue life was observed to decrease with the increase in MACOR particles addition. In morphology of surface distribution of MACOR nanopartials in Al-Si matrix and homogeneous precipitation in grain boundary, the portion of cleavage facet was decreased with increasing the MACOR content.

156

 

Jean-Paul Sawicki, Pierre Petit, Zhixue Zheng, Fabrice Maufay and Michel Aillerie. Simulation of Solar Optimizers in Parallel Coupling (, )

Abstract. The main objectives of this paper is to verify, in a first time, the possibility to model a solar optimizer developed in laboratory and connected to an un-shaded photovoltaic (PV) module whose behaviors are simulated by Proteus software. For two different PV modules (a roof PV module and a PV module dedicated to 12 V battery recharge) virtual scanning of I-V characteristics is compared to experimental curves. The very small differences between simulation and experiment lead us to consider that such modelling is realistic for simple configuration, namely a solar optimizer supplying a load lonely. In a second time a virtual association is realized by output parallel coupling. Large data files produced by software simulation oblige us to reduce duration of studied phenomenon. But behavior as current injection of small PV module in spite of no gathered physical conditions can be considered as very astonishing while other behaviors encountered in simulation comply perfectly with physical reality. So, to verify the real behavior of parallel coupling an experiment is designed to highlight variations of electrical variables like PV module voltage and current without forgetting load voltage. This last experiment confirm effectively how PV modules with different specifications influence mutually. Partial mismatch between simulation and experiment implies future strengthening in modeling process with Proteus software, hoping that reason is not the complexity of the parallel association when electronical circuit begins to be heavy to treat. As other tracks of investigation, DC-DC converter model has to be improved, particularly with a more precise characterization of the autotransformer which is the key component of high voltage step-up. Finally, much more experiments have to be also imagined with various loads (pure resistors and electronical load) to confirm or infirm phenomena encountered when using particular load as incandescent lamps.

157

 

Aimen Zeiny, Maje Haruna and Dongsheng Wen. Aqueous Lithium Bromide Nanosolution For Solar Absorption Refrigeration Systems (, )

Abstract. Solar-driven absorption refrigeration technology has the potential to reduce the peak electricity demand and the greenhouse gas emission. The optimisation of the generator and the absorber performance is crucial to develop this technology. Recently, seeding refrigeration working fluids with nanoparticles has attracted intense interest of research groups to develop existing technologies. In this study, the proposal of seeding aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solutions with nanoparticles was investigated. Well-controlled experiments were performed to assess the effect of adding nanoparticles, i.e. carbon black (CB) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on the optical properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity, steam absorption and photo-thermal conversion of aqueous LiBr solutions. Contrary to previously reported, the steam absorption rate was not enhanced by adding nanoparticles to the aqueous LiBr solution, which revealed that grazing and Brownian motion have negligible effects on the mass transfer. A negligible nanoparticle effect on the effective thermal conductivity was also observed. However, a low nanoparticle concentration of 0.005 wt.% decreased the aqueous LiBr solution transparency to 0%, which significantly increased the photo-thermal conversion of the samples. Contrary to CB, MWCNTs increase the viscosity significantly. Therefore, seeding cheap commercial CB in aqueous LiBr solution has the potential to contribute into the development of solar-driven refrigeration technology.

158

 

Marwah Subhi Attallah, Reem Alaa Mohammed and Aseel B. Al-Zubidi. Flexural , Compressive and Thermal Characterization of Hybrid Composite Materials (, )

Abstract. In this research, investigate the effect of weight fraction (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%) industrial waste (silica gel particles) as fillers with 3% carbon fiber in unsaturated polyester resins on some properties such as flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity. Specimens composite was conducted by using the hand lay-up method and tested according to ASTM standards. The average particle size of the silica gel was 136.4 µm. Analyzed of the mechanical and physical properties that examined using SPSS with Tukey test and One Way ANOVA to know effect weight fraction of (carbon fiber/silica gel particle) on those properties, where statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. From results , it is observed that the addition of silica gel particles up to 4% with 3% carbon fiber as strengthening materials to unsaturated polyester resins, leads to increase values the flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength ( 293.00 ± 4.000 MPa) , (5.4300 ± .04560 GPa) , (124.67 ± 5.033 MPa) respectively, while the values of thermal conductivity decrease with addition 4% silica gel to (.0300 ± .02000 W/m.Kº) compare with specimen unsaturated polyester (.3367 ± .03215 W/m.Kº). The results of (SPSS) showed that the values (P) calculated from One Way ANOVA for flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity were (0.02, 0.001, 0.0001 and 0.04) respectively, less than (0.05) this indicates that the filler material has a clear effect on those properties that have been examined.

159

 

Marwa Abdulrahman and Farouq Hussain. Synthesis of Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor by auto-combustion reaction (, )

Abstract. (YBa2Cu3O7) and (Y3Ba5Cu8O18) superconducting materials were synthesized using auto- combustion method and then sintering at 850°C for 24 hours. The structural properties of the resulted compounds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the results confirmed the formation of the orthorhombic structure. The lattice parameters (a), (b), and (c) and the crystallite size of the synthesized compounds were calculated using the d-spacing values, Debye Scherrer equation and Williamson-Hall methods. The grain size of the synthesized (YBa2Cu3O7) and (Y3Ba5Cu8O18) compounds was also measured using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrical properties represented by the relationship of the frequency with the real dielectric constant, imaginary dielectric constant, conductivity and the loss factor was determined using the (LCR)Meter and show. The results showed that the optimum value of the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) was found to be higher than 100 Kelvin for both compounds sintered at 850 ° C.

160

 

Iman Fadhal and Mohammed Thejeel. Effect of Addition of (Cu and CuO) on the thermal properties of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (, )

Abstract. We have investigated effect adding of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) with Concentration 10 Wt. % on the thermal Conductivity and thermal stability of poly (Methyl Methacrylate) PMMA. The (PMM-Cu) and (PMMA-CuO) Composites have been prepared by hand lay-up method .the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test has been carried for PMMA, Cu, CuO, (PMMA-Cu) Composite and (PMMA-CuO) Composite for Characterization them which were matched with ASTM. The (Cu and CuO), Particles destitution into PMMA- Matrix were illustrated by optical microscope images. We have measured the thermal conductivity for all sample by using Lee‘s disc .the results showed increasing of thermal conductivity for composites compared to the pure PMMA, Moreover , the (PMMA-Cu) has biggest value .the activation energies (Ea) determined by Flynn-Wall- Ozawa (FWO) method by using thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA) in an inert atmosphere at varied heating rates . The results have showed that increasing of (Ea) for PMMA,(PMMA-Cu) Composite , and (PMMA-CuO) Composite Consequently.

161

 

Halima Kazdaba, Abdellah Bah and Raja Idlimam. Effect of Using different Mono nanofluids and Hybrid Nanofluids in Solar Collector (, )

Abstract. Globally there is profuse literature on the continuous developments of solar based thermal storage system. The performance characteristics of a solar based thermal storage system can be effectively improved by using circulating fluid in different types and content. The conventional solar collector is a well established technology which has various applications such as water heating. However, the thermal efficiency of these collectors is limited by the absorption properties of the working fluid, which is very poor for typical conventional solar flat plate collector. Recently usage of nanofluids, which is basically liquid-nanoparticle colloidal dispersion as a working fluid has been found to enhance solar flat plate collector thermal efficiency maximum. In this paper an effort has been made to present a comprehensive overview on thermal performance of solar flat plate collector for water heating using different Mono nanofluids, and Hybrid nanofluids. To analyse the behaviour of a solar flat plate collector trough operating with nanofluids, and compare its performance to the more traditional ones using water, a model for the thermal analysis of the system has been developed and implemented in TRNSYS. The simulations have been performed for a suspension of Al2O3, CuO, CNT , Al2O3-Cu and MWCNT-Fe3O4 in synthetic water and its characteristics compared to the corresponding basic liquid used by itself.

162

 

Andrea Mennuni, Maurizio Carlini, Sonia Castellucci, Stefano Ferrelli and Maurizio Angeli Felicioni. Application of a Circular & Green Economy Model to a Ceramic Industrial District: an Italian Case Study (, )

Abstract. The APEA (Italian acronym which describes and ecologically equipped production area) is the result of an environmental policy aimed to combine economic growth and environmental protection. APEA is usually applied to industrial, artisanal, commercial, agricultural and tourist districts in order to solve companies’ requirements using closed loop product life cycles and green economy solutions. In this case, some industries of the “Zona Industriale Prataroni”, a ceramic industrial district located in Civita Castellana, joint the APEA ZICC (Zona Industriale Civita Castellana) to realise a circular economy created by an industrial symbiosis, by means of both circular and green economy-based applications. Involved companies made available to the partnership their wastes, plants and knowhow, to produce water for ceramics manufacturing and thermic and electric energy for self-consume. Industries involved in this strategic partnership, aimed to preserve environment characteristics and equilibrium, are in different businesses, such as ceramics, carpentry, ecological services and engineering services. This makes possible a transversal approach to the APEA requirements and goals. The aims of the whole system could be reached building proper plants to exploit companies’ resources and providing APEA aims and results, attracting external investors and industries to join and extend to other industrial scenarios this kind of partnership.

163

 

Aimen Zeiny and Dongsheng Wen. Solar Evaporation: Nanofluids vs. Porous Media (, )

Abstract. Water vaporisation through direct volumetric solar collectors has recently attracted a significant attention of the scientific research community. Many studies suggested plasmonic nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles, to produce solar clean water effectively. However, there is a lack of studies comparing the feasibility of using gold nanoparticles for solar applications with other cheap materials at the same operating conditions. In this study, well-controlled experiments were performed to clarify the mechanism of the solar evaporation process using gold nanofluids and micro-sized porous medium. The results show that gold nanofluids are not feasible for solar evaporation applications especially solar still technologies. This infeasibility is mainly due to the high cost and the low absorbance of gold nanofluids comparing to the porous medium. High nanofluid concentration is needed to trap the solar energy in a thin layer at the liquid-gaseous interface. Using carbon-based, micro-sized thin porous medium produces solar water vapour at higher rates than that produced by gold nanofluids. Also, increasing the solar intensity enhances the evaporation rates, but unavoidably reduces the efficiency due to the increase in the heat losses related to the accompanied high temperatures.

164

 

Asmaa Agrama. Spatial Distribution Mapping for Groundwater Quality Index, East and West Delta, Egypt (, )

Abstract. One of the challenges for shortage in surface water due to climate changes and population increase is through used groundwater. The most portion of groundwater extracted is used for agriculture, so the groundwater plays a necessary role in agriculture. The water quality assessment for special use is the main target for any water quality monitoring studies. The present work is aimed for investigation the groundwater quality for agriculture uses in east and west Delta, Egypt. This is carried out through an integrated approach of water quality index (WQI) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping this index. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation technique was used to produce the spatial distribution of water quality index. WQI calculated according to FAO guidelines for using water in agriculture. WQI calculated in west Delta for mapping at El-Sadat, El_Delengate, and Badr districts and in east Delta for mapping at Dayarb_Nagm and Bylbis districts. The population variation and cultivated land area in the study districts compared with WQI. For calculating the WQI, the water quality data collected for 43 wells in west Delta and 28 wells in east Delta. The WQI for El-Sadat district ranged between 2.49 to 88 and El_Delengate as well as Badr districts ranged between 1.99 to more than 100 and between 1.95 to 56 respectively. In east Delta, WQI in Dayarb_Nagm district varied from 35.77 to more than 100 and in Bylbis district from 1.66 to more than 100. According to the WQI categories the water quality in El-Sadat district is changed from excellent to very poor and in Badr district is excellent, good and poor, while in El_Delengate changed from excellent to unsuitable. In Dayarb_Nagm district is varied from good to unsuitable for using, while in Bylbis district is excellent, good, poor, very poor and unsuitable for using. The WQI results reveals that the groundwater in east Delta is more polluted than in west Delta, especially in Dayarb Nagm district, its most area (99.94%) is poor, very poor and unsuitable for usage. The groundwater especially in east Delta needs some degree of treatment before using, and periodic groundwater quality monitor are recommended. According to the perils of groundwater contamination, the groundwater should be protected.

165

 

Zainab Sadeq, Saif Alshrefi and Dunia Mahdi. Study the Nonlinear Behavior of MWCNTs and ZnO/Se/MWCNTs (, )

Abstract. MWCNTs and hybrid nanocomposite ZnO/Se/MWCNTs have been prepared via Solvothermal technique using Parr reactor at the temperature 180°C and SeCl2 as a catalyst. The obtained MWCNTs and ZnO/Se/MWCNTs are investigated using the FE-SEM, XRD, UV-VIS Spectroscopy and Z-Scan. The novelty of this research is studying the nonlinear optical properties for these prepared materials and the results exhibit that the thickness of the deposited film for hybrid nanocomposite ZnO/Se/MWCNTs is increased, which in turn, increase the nonlinear phase shift of the laser beam compared with the MWCNTs.

166

 

Alae Azouzoute, Ahmed Alami Merrouni, Mohammed Garoum, El Ghali Bennouna and Abdellatif GhenniouiThe impact of optical soiling losses on the electrical production of CSP power plant. (, )

Abstract. The development and deployment of a concentrated solar power plant are growing all over the world. The most important part of a CSP project is the solar field that consists the most expensive components of the plant. Moreover, the operation and maintenance (O&M) is the second important parameter that influence directly the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). According to the investigation carried out by the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratories) the operation and maintenance of the solar field is about 23% from the total O&M costs. In fact, the most suitable sites for the installation of CSP plants such as in MENA region are commonly affected with harsh climatic conditions especially those related to the accumulation of dust. Dust is an important factor that affect the optical efficiency of solar mirrors (the solar filed) and consequently the thermal and the electrical productivity of the plant. In this study, we will evaluate the impact of dust on the optical efficiency and therefore the electrical production of a solar power plant. To do this, we have one year measurements from the Tracking Cleanliness Sensor (TraCS) developed by scientists from DLR and commercialized by CSP Services. This monitoring system includes two pyrheliometers; one pyrheliometer measure reflected DNI from a mirror mounted on a solar tracker (SOLYS2 from Kipp and Zonen) noted ρd and the other one measure the DNI coming directly from the sun ρ0. The ratio between the two measurements ρd and ρ0 is the cleanliness index; this parameter will be used to evaluate the effect of dust on solar mirror reflectors for a 5 MW Linear Fresnel power plant. The cleanliness index measured of one year at the site of Green Energy Park in mid-south of Morocco will be generated with the meteorological data to have inputs for the SAM software (System Advisor Model developed by NREL) in order to simulate the electrical production. Indeed, we will simulate the electrical production for two cases, the first one when the solar field was clean and the second when is going dirty, and therefore evaluate the effect of dust deposition on the electrical production.

167

 

Soukaina Hrifech, Hassan Agalit, El Ghali Bennouna, Abdelaziz Mimet, Abdelmajid Jarni and El Mostafa Mouguina. Preliminary Characterizations of Natural Rocks as Storage Materials for a Medium Range Temperature TES (, )

Abstract. . Natural rocks are attractive storage materials for packed bed configuration, as they are inexpensive, available, ecologically friendly and the most important they are not limited to working range of temperatures. However, their suitability is based on various criteria, which include thermo-physical and mechanical properties, stability and compatibility with both the heat transfer fluid and the container. This work aims to investigate the potential of three natural rocks namely (leuco-gabbro, dolerite and wherlite), which were collected from the region of Kettara near to the site of Green energy park Benguerir Morocco from where the prototype of dual thermocline will be constructed. This prototype will be related to Fresnel collectors with an operating temperature from 100°C to 300°C with thermal oil as heat transfer fluid. For that, a deep literature review was cited to determine the parameters influencing the mechanical and thermal stability of rocks. Additionally an experimental study was conducted to define the petrographic characterizations by using the optical microscopy light. Moreover, the SEM/EDX techniques were used to analyze their chemical compositions and structures. Finally, their thermo-physical properties (density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity) were measured .As a conclusion, all the studied rocks are good potential candidates for this target application, yet their long-term stability and compatibility must be determined to confirm their suitability.

168

 

Alaa B. Hassan, Areeg A. Osman and Tagreed M.Al-Saadi. Simulation of hexagonal segmented mirror of adaptive optics by using Zemax program (, )

Abstract. The adaptive optical system has been designed and simulated by using ZEMAX optical design program. The design includes 19 hexagonal segmented mirrors, the segments are arranged to be an adaptive reflecting telescope. The adaptive optical design overcomes of atmospheric effects like temperature and pressure causing deformation of the light wave front, so this design gives a perfect image. This work compares between an image formed in the adaptive optical system and traditional optical system affected of atmospheric effect. The results show overcoming of adaptive optics in all analysis performance method that used in zemax program.

169

 

Anil Kumar, Sunil Kumar and Rajesh Maithani. Effect of Flow Attack Angle in V-Passion Rib Surface Triangular Solar Air Collector Channel (, )

Abstract. This work deals with the experimental investigation on Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal hydraulic performance in a triangular solar air collector channel with V-type ribs fitted in the absorber plate. The experiments were conducted in a turbulence flow regime with Reynolds number ranging from 3500 to 17500 using air as the working fluid under uniform wall heat flux boundary condition. The rib roughness parameter such as flow attack angle varied from 35o to 65o other parameters are kept constant relative pitch and relative rib height. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer and friction factor of the triangular solar air collector channel with V-type rib were significantly higher than those of the plane surface triangular solar air collector.

170

 

Sunil Kumar, Anil Kumar, Neeraj Gandotra, Robin Thakur and Rajesh Maithani. Prediction of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Helically Perforated Twisted Tape Heat Exchanger Tube Using Fuzzy Logic (, )

Abstract. In this study, a fuzzy logic model is proposed for the prediction of heat transfer as well as pressure drop along a helically perforated twisted tape inserts in circular heat exchanger tube. Significance of helical perforated twisted tape parameters like diameter ratio, relative pitch ratio, perforation index and Reynolds number on the heat transfer and pressure drop in circular heat exchanger tube has been analysed. Also fuzzy logic relevant to air flow, heat transfer and pressure drop are generated for different sets of helical perforated twisted tape insert and flow parameters. The maximum error of fuzzy logic technique as compared with experimental data was found to be 1.05%.

171

 

Anestis Anastasiadis, Georgios Poulimenos, Apostolos Polyzakis, Nikolaos Manousakis and Georgios Vokas. Algorithms development for the energy management of a CHP system in a Microgrid (, )

Abstract. In the past few years, a lot of research has been done in the field of Smart Grids (SG) and Microgrids (MG). The goals of them are to make the power infrastructure more reliable, effective and to incorporate Distributed Generations (DG) for example Renewable Energy Sources (RES), Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, Batteries in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Nowadays, roof top solar systems and micro CHP have become really popular for home usage. With the installation of solar PV, and micro CHP users are already participating in the operation of DC-AC systems. Therefore, it is important to control their usage. This can be done using an Energy Management System (EMS). The whole system (home and power grid) can be controlled on various parameters. These parameters can include power generated from solar PV, micro CHP and power grid, state of charge of battery, AC and DC load demand, price of power, selection of renewable or grid power by the user, etc.. The purpose of this paper is to develop appropriate control algorithms for the energy management of DG units in an AC/DC Microgrid which mainly incorporated Photovoltaics Units (PV), CHP and Batteries. The main focus is on the energy control and management of the CHP system in order to meet the consumers’ electrical and thermal needs and to minimize the power flow from the main power grid. All algorithms have been implemented with the Matlab program.

172

 

Anestis Anastasiadis, Georgios Poulimenos, Apostolos Polyzakis and Georgios Vokas. Application of energy management algorithms in a AC/DC Microgrid with integration of Photovoltaic and Combined Heat and Power Units (, )

Abstract. Nowadays, Smart Grids (SG) and Microgrids (MG) achieve optimum and reliable integration of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the existing electricity distribution network. An AC-DC hybrid MG system is proposed in this paper in order to integrate the Photovoltaic (PV) home system, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) with the appropriate size, a Boiler and Batteries within the power infrastructure. Furthermore, three different types of consumers with large, medium and small electrical and thermal demands are examined. The purpose of this paper is to draw conclusions from the application of control and energy management algorithms of DG units in an AC/DC Microgrid which mainly incorporated Photovoltaics Units (PV), CHP and Batteries. Especially, the main focus is on the energy control and management of the CHP system in order to meet the consumers’ electrical and thermal needs and to minimize the power flow from the main power grid. The different simulation scenarios aim to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the AC/DC MG in different power generation conditions from PV systems and CHP, electrical and thermal consumptions as well as the power supplied by the external power grid. The AC/DC MG responds to the needs of its users for electricity and heat and also operates according to the needs of the market. Finally, the results show significant reduction of power flow from the electricity distribution network. All simulations have been implemented with the Matlab program.

173

 

Robin Thakur, Anil Kumar and Yashwant Singh. Exergy Analysis Using Titanium/water Based Nanofluid Flow Through Protrusion/v-pattern Ribbed Square Channel(, )

Abstract. In current work, authors have investigated response of protruded/V-rib surface square channel when conventional working fluid, water is replaced by nanofluids. The selected nanofluid is TiO2 with H2O base. A methodology has been developed for the prediction of exergy analysis. Based on the values of exergy performance, an optimization has been carried out to determine the set of values of protruded/V-rib parameters that correspond to maximum performance for given values of operating parameters of the square passage.

174

 

Ravi Datt, Anil Kumar, Sita Ram, Ashok Kumar and Rajesh Maithani. Optimization of Geometric and Flow Parameters of Circular Heat Exchanger Tube with Square Wing and Combined Solid Ring Twisted Tape Inserts by Taguchi method (, )

Abstract. Optimization techniques in manufacturing sector have been applied to arrive at novel manufacturing product at low cost. The Taguchi method and analysis of variance have been applied to investigate Reynolds number (Re) varied from 5000 to 21000, twisted tape parameters such as ring pitch ratios 〖(d〗_R⁄(D_T)) from 0.5 to 2.0 and wing pitch ratios 〖(P〗_W⁄(W_T)) from 2.0 to 3.5 respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach has also being applied to conclude the effects of the various parameters on the turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow inside the circular tube. The experiments conducted by using Taguchi’s L18 factorial design experiments, and then each response is changed to signal- noise (S/N) ratio. The investigation revealed that heat transfer is increased around 5.66 times higher than plane circular heat exchanger tube.

175

 

Huda Kttafah and Adil Khadim. The Effect of Dates Palm Trunk particles as Improvement Reinforcement Material of Polymeric Composites and Sustainable Environmental Material (, )

Abstract. For a sustainable environment and minimizing pollution, dates palm trunk residues were used as natural strengthening (reinforcing) particles to improve the mechanical properties of silicone rubber as the matrix material, The particles of the palm trunks were used in three sizes and three concentration concentrations of 1% 3% and 5%, where the reinforced with the particles increases the tensile strength from 1MPa to be about 2 MPa, and from the hardness value raised from about 32 MPa to be about 39 MPa of the polymer silica polymer, in addition to and that means the reinforcing particle of dates palm trunk exhibit high resistant to moisture absorption. The results of the search clarify that the composite samples reinforced at 1% and 75 particle size gives the best results for tensile and hardness tests in addition to moisture absorption test.

176

 

Kyriakos AgavanakisGeorge KarpetasChristos MichailEvangelia Pappa and John FilosPractical machine learning based on cloud computing resources (, )

Abstract. Machine learning is a domain highly influenced by the rapid evolution of the cloud computing and has reached nowadays a maturity point where a plethora of data processing capabilities is widely available. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practical application of machine learning (ML) algorithms in several scientific areas, such as i) the quality evaluation metrics for the tomographic image reconstruction of positron emission tomography (PET) images, ii) the investigations of the demographic determinants influencing the perception of corruption incidents within different industry sectors, and iii) health implications of the vitamin D absorption function and Results showed that commercially available cloud resources are over sufficient to consolidate results from a variety of teams and applications and contribute to the built up of a valuable shared knowledge repository. Using the suggested approach in the context of a widely available cloud service for feeding the training algorithms, will contribute to more accurate automation and successful operation of related activities in the application domains, breaking thus the knowledge silos and contributing to a more sustainable environment

178

 

Zainab Abdul-Ridha, Ali Al-Jasim and Ali Radam. Improvement of Electrical Features of SnO2 Based Varistor Doped With Al2O3 (, )

Abstract. One of the important objectives of the varistor is for a sustainable environment and reduce the pollution resulting from the frequent damage of the electrical devices and power station waste. In present work, the influence of Al2O3 additives on the non –linear electrical features of SnO2 varistors, has been investigated, where SnO2 ceramic powder doped with Al2O3 in three rates (0.005, 0.01, and 0.05), the XRD test improved that SnO2 is the primary phase, while CoCr2O4, and Al2O3 represent the secondary phases. The electrical tests of all prepared samples confirmed that the increasing of Al2O3 rates and sintering temperature improves and increase the electrical features, where the best results obtained at Al2O3 (0.05) and 1000℃, the non-linear coefficient (49), energy absorption capability (3890Joul), and breakdown voltage (4040Volt), while the leakage current passes through the varistor decreased to the minimum value (41μA).

179

 

Uwe Schmidt Paulsen, Asger Bech Abrahamsen, Ewen Ritchie, Krisztina Leban, Ionut Trintis, Florin Valentin Traian Nica, Ciprian Biris and Stoyan Shivachev. On the Design and Performance of a Power Electronics Converter for the DeepWind project (, )

Abstract. DeepWind is a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept, with the turbine rotor mounted on a floating spar buoy with the generator at the bottom up to 300 [m] below the sea. To control the starting, variable speed and overspeed limitation operation of the VAWT, the only method available is to control the torque and speed of the generator. A four quadrant, three level, neutral point clamped inverter configuration is proposed and the design of this discussed. Various operational features are tested on a small scale laboratory version. Sample test results are given. The challenges of the DeepWind marine application are presented and discussed and some solutions are proposed.

180

 

Uwe Schmidt Paulsen, Asger Bech Abrahamsen, Ewen Ritchie, Henning Bjerregaard, Kristian Sloth and Rune Ryberg Thygesen. On the Design, Laboratory Model and Performance of the Controlled Magnetic Journal Bearing for the DeepWind project (, )

Abstract. DeepWind has attracted scientific attention. This is due to its design simplicity, which will reduce costs for installation, operation and maintenance of a deep sea offshore wind generator system. Using this design offers advantages of alternative ways to manufacture the turbine rotor parts, introduce new materials, a novel way to implement a direct drive, Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) and bearing technology, and a design that offers a reduced cost of energy. DeepWind uses a generator and bearings module, supported by controlled magnetic bearings technology. However, many technologies implemented in DeepWind are well known from other applications (e.g. Wind Energy, Sub-sea installations, Offshore installations). This paper presents the controlled magnetic bearings proposed for DeepWind.

181

 

Uwe Schmidt Paulsen, Asger Bech Abrahamsen, Krisztina Leban and Ewen Ritchie. Specification, Design and Performance of the Generator for the DeepWind project (, )

Abstract. The generator of the DeepWind VAWT concept is reviewed, discussing special challenges, detailing the function specification, briefly presenting the design tool, some results, the proposed construction and some aspects of the generator performance.

182

 

Uwe Schmidt Paulsen, Asger Bech Abrahamsen, Elin Andersen, Helge Ågaard Madsen and Daniel GriffithA review of state-of-the-art in torque generation and control of floating vertical-axis wind turbines (, )

Abstract. Large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines have great potential for offshore applications. This paper will review the recent developments for generating torque and controlling vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) specifically for floating applications. The phenomena presented include dynamic stall and pitching of the blades, as well as design of airfoils for VAWT applications.

183

 

Intehaa Mohammed, Ayser Ibrahim and Auday Shaban. Studying The Sintering Behavior of Y2O3-SiC Composites Ceramic materials (, )

Abstract. Yettµria, silicon carbide powders of (99.99) purity having (80-100) µm grain size were used to form different combinations of the system Y2O3- Sic. Silicon carbide was added in weight percent ranging (5, 10,15and 20) .Sintering proses were done for all the combinations at different sintering temperature (800, 1000, 1200 and 1400)Ċ under static air and for three hours . XRD test reflect the formation of new phase which is Y5Si3C (Unique) .Sintered density ,theoretical density and microstructure were investigated too .Improvement was noticed for all the combinations after adding Sic ,and sintered at different sintering temperature .This was detected maximally at the combination (Y2O3 80-SiC20)Wt.% ,sintered at 1400 Ċ .

184

 

Noor Jalal, Akram Jabur, Mohammed S. Hamza and Shrok Allami. Sulfonated Electrospun Polystyrene as Cation Proton Exchange Membranes for Hydrogen fuel cells(, )

Abstract. Cation exchange membranes have been prepared and characterized using expanded polystyrene (PS) from waste packaging (PS) . In the present study electrospun polystyrene PS membranes were synthesized by electrospinning . The electrospun PS membranes were chemically modified by sulfonation reaction . Electrospun PS membranes were immersed in (20%) diluted sulfuric acid (H2SO4) , as sulfonating agent , for different periods (1, 2, 3, and 4) hr. Sulfonating reaction successfulness was demonstrated by FTIR investigations . SEM and EDS were used to detect the Sulfonating and desulfonating reactions regarding the sulfonating time . Ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and the proton conductivity were reported and discussed with respect to different sulfonation time. IEC increased with increasing the sulfonation time, the results showed that the membrane sulfonated for 2 hr have the highest IEC, which was equal to (2.857) mmol/g . The proton conductivities of electrospun membranes increased with increasing sulfonation time. Maximum proton conductivity was (8.8 x10-4) S/cm resulted after 3 hr sulfonating .

185

 

Derrouazin Ahmed, Mouhoub Birane and Michel AillerieArduino Controller based on Fuzzy Logic of a Hybrid Renewable Energy Production System Applied to a Dwelling in Northern Algeria. (, )

Abstract. This work consists to a novel economic smart strategy energy flow management system based on multiples inputs and outputs fuzzy logic technic applied for hybrid photovoltaic solar panels with wind turbine and storage system assisted by the electric grid. A priority order is given to the renewable and storage energy sources allowing a non-interrupted energy supply for typical dwelling consuming up to 4000Wh per day. This system is governed by an Arduino 2560 mega microcontroller where has been implemented the core fuzzy logic program with event display. A sizing of the hybrid system and parametric study of the system and simulation have been developed to highlight the proposed and applied control strategy to guarantee a continuous home accommodation. The preliminary results concern the electronic switches output control signals which convey the energy via single-phase DC/AC inverter to power the alternative current load for accommodation.

186

 

Stefano MazzoniSean Ooi and Alessandro RomagnoliCogeneration Power Plants for Smart-District Optimal Operations - CO2 and Primary Energy Savings in a real industrial application (, )

Abstract. In the transition process between the tradition generation based on gas turbine combined cycle and the distributed generation, the call for primary energy savings and for CO2 pollutant emissions mitigations moves the scientific community to look at innovative arrangement for accomplishing the end-user needs in terms of electricity consumption, cooling and heating demands. In this context, cogeneration units arranged in CHP layout are able to generate concurrently the assets required by the user, allowing for higher global system efficiencies and reduced CO2 emissions, especially when integrated in smart-district where energy storage technologies are also adopted. The multi energy mixing on the primary source and on the demand sides requires advanced algorithm in order to optimally design and operate the cogeneration smart district. The paper deals with the setup of a cogeneration smart-district simulation tool based on a mixed integer quadric programming technique for solving the optimal dispatch problem, by optimizing the primary energy consumption and the CO2 emissions related to the smart-district design and operation. A real test-case related to an industrial site in the port area of Singapore has been assumed as reference for demonstrating the capabilities of cogeneration smart-district to reduce the primary energy consumption and the greenhouse emissions. The simulation tool has been firstly validated among the data available by two end-users (User A and B), constituting the industrial plant, then it has been adopted for exploring the optimal smart-district design, demonstrating that the cogeneration layout, in which User A and User B are served as a unique User A+B, allows for achieving 15% primary energy saving and up to 18% CO2 pollutant emissions. Furthermore, the advanced mathematics embedded in the cogeneration simulation tool has been used for establishing the best control strategy for a reference week of operations. Accordingly, components sized and capacities and optimal dispatch profile are presented and discussed.

187

 

Massimiliano Manfren and Benedetto Nastasi. From in-situ measurement to regression and time series models: An overview of trends and prospects for building performance modelling (, )

Abstract. Data analysis methodologies are crucial to learn insights from data and to create more trust in the assumptions used for energy performance assessment. Indeed, continuous performance monitoring should become a more diffuse practice in order to improve our design and operation strategies for the future. This is an essential step to reduce incrementally the gap between simulated and measured performance. In fact, assumptions in simulation represent a significant source of uncertainty when estimating the energy performance of buildings. This uncertainty affects decision-making processes in multiple ways, from design of new and refurbished buildings to policy making. The research presented aims to highlight potential links between experimental approaches for test-facilities and methods and tools used for continuous performance monitoring, at the state of the art. In particular, we start by exploring the relation between in-situ measurement of thermal transmittance (U) and regression-based monitoring approaches, such as co-heating test and energy signature, for heat load coefficient (HLC) and solar aperture (gA) estimation. After that, we highlight some recent developments in simplified dynamic energy modelling using lumped parameter models. In particular, we want to underline the scalability of these techniques, considering relevant issues in current integrated engineer design perspective. These issues include, among others, the necessity of limiting the number of a sensors to be installed in buildings, the possibility of employing both experimental and real operation data (and compare them with design data as well) and, finally, the possibility to automate performance monitoring at multiple scales, from single components, to individual buildings, to building stock and cities.

188

 

Chawki Lahoud, Joseph Al Asmar and Marwan El Brouche. Models of performance of a CCHP system integration (, )

Abstract. Cogeneration and trigeneration systems are in development and their benefits and effects have been studied in many works. In this work a study of the economic and environmental objective functions of a trigeneration system will be carried out. new factors will be added to the old objective functions of a cogeneration system and their impact will be showed by comparing the new functions with the old ones. The added factors are imperative for decision-making related to integrating CCHP systems into a smart grid.

190

 

Birane Mouhoub, Derrouazin Ahmed and Michel AillerieSimulation and Evaluation of Shading Effect on GPV Connection of Two DC-DC Converter Configurations (, )

Abstract. This paper investigates different photovoltaic configurations and their effect on the PV array efficiency, while this paper focuses in the optimization of the efficiency of photovoltaic power conversion chain. It provides different improvements on the electrical architecture and evaluation of shading effect in fact, for this latter we use two configurations, the series and the parallel connection of a converter that involves a major power transfer capability. Obviously, these two topologies have some advantages. Each power converter can control the power conversion of each module individually, which results in increased overall energy conversion of the entire system. The MPPT control system in this case can react effectively to atmospheric variations and to study the influence of the effect of partial shading different values of solar radiation concerning performance of PV cells. Taking the effect of irradiance into consideration, the output current and voltage characteristic of the photovoltaic system are simulated using the proposed by the different numerical methods in order to find the best method. We simulated and compared the different conversion configurations in order to find the best one in terms of efficiency and produced energy. The obtained results are very interesting; it allows the selection of the best PV topology and the best method evaluation of shading for a given application.