TMREES22-Fr. 09 to 11 May, 2022.
CentraleSupélec - Campus de Metz
 2 Rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz-Grand Est, France
Remotly & Onsite Participation
- Comp. or MA: Microsoft Team 
- VC: centralesupelec@m.webex.com /ID 261156063#

Event Materials


Publications:

Energy Reports J. (EGYR UK, IF=3.83, Elsevier)

APC J. (AIP USA, H=60)

Indexed: Web of Science, Scopus, Inspec, CAS, ADS

Copyright © ELSEVIER, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, EURACA

 

#ID

Submissions’ Abstracts

0201

Nur Syahirah Mohamad Hanafi, Wan Aizon W. Ghopa, Rozli Zulkifli, Shahrir Abdullah and Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor. The Effectiveness of Hybrid Nanofuid in Jet Impingement Cooling Application

Abstract. This paper investigates the heat transfer performance of different nanofluid coolants with the employment of a single nozzle, axisymmetric, and confined jet impingement method. A numerical analysis using Ansys CFX 2019 R1 software is carried out. A mixture of hybrid nanoparticles in a fluid further increases the heat transfer performance. The type of coolants used in this study is pure water as the base fluid, Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid, and two types of single-particle nanofluids which are alumina, and copper nanofluids. Although the study of hybrid nanofluid as a coolant has become more prominent among researchers, a specific trend of the efficiency and performance of different coolants used in the jet impingement method is still not widely available. The results from this study showed that in comparison with water as the base fluid, there is an increase in the average heat transfer coefficient of the target surface of about 22.35% for hybrid nanofluid, 2.55% for Al2O3 nanofluid, and 0.66% Cu nanofluid. Hybrid nanofluid shows the highest heat transfer performance and reduces the greatest amount of heat from the surface to the fluid.

0304

Aleksei Khimenko, Dmitry Tikhomirov, Aleksey Kuzmichev, Stanislav Trunov and Olga Shepovalova. Selecting the shape of air channels in heat storage cells of electric heat storage unit

Abstract. Application of electric heat storage systems belongs to one of the effective solutions of the energy efficiency improvement problem, in heat supply systems. Dynamic-type electric-thermal storage (ETS) units were chosen as the target of research. Among the positive energy-related effects of the mass-scale application of ETSs in heat supply systems are: peak reduction and load leveling in energy systems, electric energy loss reduction in power networks during the night hours and specific daily fuel consumption reduction at CHP stations leading to the improvement of their operation efficiency. Application of ETSs in combination with energy generating equipment on the basis of RES shall be considered as an effective concept, as well. This article deals with the theoretical and experimental research of the thermal processes that take place in the operation modes of both heat accumulation and discharging, in ETS units. The thermophysical properties of solid-phase heat-storing materials (HSM) applied in ETS have been studied and the thermal conditions have been analyzed for premises where ETS units are used in heat supply systems of heat-storing type. Calculations for non-stationary thermal operation conditions of dynamic-type heat-storing cells of ETS units have been made for both heat accumulation and discharging cycles. A two-dimensional mathematical model for heat exchange processes adopted to ETS operation in the heat accumulation and heat discharging modes has been developed. Calculations for the non-stationary thermal field have been performed using the finite-element method. The temperature distribution in heat-storing ETS units during the heat storage and heat dissipation cycles of ETS has been obtained, for air velocity in the channels of heat-storing cells in the range of 2 m/s to 3 m/s. The role of the air channels’ geometric parameters of heat-storing cells, air velocity in the channels and temperature driving force on the temperature distribution in heat-storing cells and on the ETS operation efficiency during the heat accumulation and discharging cycles has been studied. It has been found out that placing the tubular electric heaters and air channels in the central part of the heat-storing cell is the optimal design configuration in which case the area with the maximal temperature values is located close to the air channels. Temperature values of air channel walls, that of heated air in the channels and the heat dissipation rate in the air channels of the heat-storing cell have been calculated. The energy-efficient design of the heat-storing cell having round-shaped air channels has been selected insuring the maximum heat exchange rate between the channel wall and the heated air flow.

0382

Mohanavel V and Ravishankar Sathyamurthy. Analysing the performance of combined solar photovoltaic power system with phase change material

Abstract. Under the influence of cosmic improvement, photovoltaic (PV) container power capability decreases. In this case study, several passive and active chilling exploratory studies are carried out on a PV container to determine their effects on the energetic and warm depiction of a PVT scheme. All experiments are carried out on a cosmic person who poses as an expert while working with a wide range (regular-condensed) of energy from the sun's capability. The temperature of the PV container rises as heat is generated along its course, resulting in a lower power delivered. The heat produced during the operation can be eliminated by attaching phase change material (PCM) to the PV committee afterward, which can retain the PV heat for a long time to increase overall effectiveness. Fins may be secondhand inside the PCM canister to improve the heat transmission. In research, it is noticed that as directly as PCM is melted entirely, the heat ancestry rate of PCM reduces that repeated leads to development in PV hotness. An oily acid was preferred as the PCM with a development change hotness. For the time being the investigation, research inspected two various sporadic warm requirement approaches utilizing a water distribution loop in the PV/T-PCM arrangement to boost the overall solar energy exercise effectiveness, and particularized contrasting were accomplished. The results showed that using PCM in a solar-powered battery can essentially reduce the PV committee's hotness vacillation and improve photoelectric efficacy. Using the warm regulation method's low hotness backdrop, excess heat may be extracted from the PCM in the solar panel. It was decided that an acceptable thermal management policy might improve the overall energy exercise percentage of the PV/T-PCM plan; however, more effect on the commerce research of the system that regulates organization is still needed. The research is developed to analyze a combination of solar Photovoltaic power systems using the PCM performance is analyzed.

0383

Ghadeer Almamouri and Mustafa Al-Alwani. Developing a strategy for post-war cities reconstruction (The City of Mosul)

Abstract. The need for a deeper, there is a growing awareness of the factors that influence post-war reconstruction success. Moreover, there is a requirement for plans that emphasize a strategy. and its potentials for the post-war reconstruction of cities. This study aims to develop an urban reconstruction strategy in urban reconstruction in a post-war city. This study firstly, reviews the research literature on the post-war reconstruction process. Case studies that have been well-documented will be analyzed to find patterns and make practical lessons. Following the collection of important insights from prior research and models from the case studies that were chosen, a list of key concerns will be presented and useful recommendations. This led to propose a strategy for post-war reconstruction of cities which was then evaluated at the urban area of Mosul as a case study because It is Iraq's most important war-torn city. Qualitative and quantitative methods will investigate the city's longstanding challenges and residents' hopes in blighted areas. Generally, this study effectively contributes to one of the most important problems of humanity, which can be helpful to future research that deals with the urban and environmental degradation caused by wars.

0440

Taiwo Babarinde. Performance evaluation of graphene-enhanced LPG in a vapour compression refrigeration system: An experimental approach

Abstract. Hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants will be phased out of domestic refrigeration shortly, by the Montréal and Kyoto Protocols, due to their high global warming potentials (GWP), making them environmentally unfriendly. This study looked into the possibility of using graphene-nanolubricant in a domestic refrigerator device to improve liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of propane and butane mixtures. In a 50-70 g charge of LPG refrigerant, the graphene-nanolubricant was investigated. To monitor the temperature of the device, four Type K thermocouples were connected to the refrigerator components. Two pressure gauges were also mounted in the compressor to assess the domestic refrigerator's suction and discharge pressure. With graphene-nanolubricant concentrations, the COP was found to be higher. The refrigerator system’s compressor input was reduced by 13.1 % to 32.5% and refrigerating effect increased by 3.5 % to 17.2 %. As a result, graphene-enhanced LPG can replace LPG with the base lubricant in a vapour compression system.

0658

Abdelkader Aissat. Improved mobility of the InxGa1-xAs1-y-zNySbz/GaAs structure

Abstract. The principal objective of this work based on modeling and simulation is to study the transport properties of Ga1-xInxAs1-y-zNySbz /GaAs structure. This investigation also contains the temperature effect on the electrons and holes mobility as a function of carrier concentrations. The obtained results were validated by experimental data. We started this work by simulating the ternary and quaternary electrons and holes mobilities. In this study, we find that an alloy structure with In = 38%, N = 2% and Sb = 1% has the best mobilities, for electrons μn = 104 cm2 /V.s and for holes μp = 400 cm2 /V.s at 300 K. This work gives the ability to manufacture fast materials in order to realize high speed laser diodes as well as optoelectronic components.

0692

Asmae Chakir, Meryem Abid, Mohamed Tabaa and Hanaa Hachimi. Demand side management strategy in smart home using electric vehicle and hybrid renewable energy system

Abstract. The residential area represents a sector that consumes more electricity especially with the rapid urban growth and the transition towards the automation and electrification of several daily activities of human beings, namely: urban mobility and the residents' indoor comfort. As a result, meeting this increased demand requires a proportional rise in fuel use to generate energy. This type of conventional power production has significant impacts on the environment. The eco-friendly alternative is the use of renewable energies in its distributed form on buildings. However, this solution gives rise to some issues related to energy management especially with the penetration of a new domestic device, namely: the plug-in electric vehicle. For this purpose we propose in this work a management system of a future household equipped with controllable electric loads and an electric vehicle that is equipped with a PV-Wind-Battery hybrid renewable system connected to the national grid. The proposed management system is based on a linear programming model with non-linear constraints solved with MATLAB toolboxes. The simulation is based on a database of meteorological conditions resulting from TRNSYS and processed to achieve a frequency of one hour. The system decisions provide switch control states of the connection architecture as well as the variation according to the V2H (vehicle to home), H2V (home to vehicle) and involved G2V (grid to vehicle) scenarios when grid comes into play during H2V mode.

0705

Mounira Bourebia, Soumaya Meddah, Sihem Achouri, Oulabbas Amel and Lakhdar Laouar. Effect of shot peening parameters on variation fractal dimension - Case study of paint coating adhesion

Abstract. Abstract. Steel surface preparation is an important step in coating processes where different techniques may be used, as the shot peening process. In order to assess this technique, the surface condition can be evaluated by the fractal dimension. The objective of this work is to study, by the means of the fractal dimension, the influence of the shot peening regime parameters on the surface condition and the coating adhesion. The factorial designs 23 have been adopted in this experimental work. Each of the three used factors: the pressure (P), the attack angle (θ) and the time (t) have been considered at two levels (min, max), and surfaces have been characterized by the fractal dimension (Df). After the shot blasting operation, a paint layer has been applied to the surfaces, and adhesion tests have been carried out on these coated surfaces. A mathematical model has been established to allow a correlation between the input parameters (P, θ, t) and the output parameter (Df) in the study field. 3D and contours curves have been deduced from the fractal dimension (Df) evolution model. The results show that the angle has no significant effect on "Df", and the most apparent interaction is between the impact angle and time. Furthermore, it has been found that the sample 3 presents the highest adherence strength of 4.25 N/mm² and whose fractal dimension (Df) characterizing the surface condition is equivalent to 1.605.

0723

Tamer A. Abdelmigid, Ahmed S. Shehata, Mostafa Abdel-Geliel, Yasser M. Ahmed and M. A. Kotb. Improved Short-term Significant Wave Height Forecasting Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Coupled with Linear Regression

Abstract. Short-Term significant wave height (SWH) forecasting is essential for many wave energy-related tasks. SWH forecasting techniques may be clustered into three categories: namely, classical, statistical, and data-driven techniques. Data-driven techniques offer less computational burden than classical numerical forecasting methods and improved forecasting capabilities than statistical methods. However, deep learning techniques - even though offering state-of-the-art accuracy in forecasting - long training time and un-interpretability prevent its mainstream adoption. These issues can be mitigated by proper data preparation. this paper proposes a fast and efficient technique that offers excellent forecasting accuracy and fast training time. A combination of Ensemble-Empirical-Mode-Decomposition and Linear Regression (EEMD-LR) is used to forecast the 1 Hr. SWH, with input features’ lag chosen using Bayesian optimization. Several National Buoy Database Center (NDBC) buoys were used to validate the model. The proposed technique outperformed many published techniques, achieving an average improvement of 3.5% and 50.9% in coefficient of determination and mean absolute error metrics, respectively eight state-of-the-art deep learning techniques. Additionally, it offered a short training time with fewer data required for training.

0759

Ahmed M. Diab, Ahmed S. Shehata, Ali I. Shehata and Amr A. Hassan. Optimum Design of OTEC Cycle Performance Enhanced by PCM for Egyptian Costal Condition

Abstract. The concept of converting ocean thermal energy has been around for a long time. The viability of OTEC power plants as prospective sources of renewable energy has been examined. However, because the temperature difference between the surface and the deep sea is modest, the OTEC system has low efficiency and high investment costs, and it has a long pipe line and high pumping costs for using cold deep water. The OTEC depend on the temperature difference between the surface and the deep waters. Therefore, we suggest using PCM to store heat during the day and operate the system for more working hours. As a result, the OTEC system is used in conjunction with a solar system and PCM in this research. The aim of this paper is to reach an optimum design and optimum layout for experimental model to raise and improve the efficiency of the OTEC by using Mathematical model. It is expected to increase the number of operating hours of the system by greater percentage after using the phase change material in the tank of the ideal size and with a specified amount of phase change materials. And based on the increase in the number of operating hours at night when the temperature difference decreases, the efficiency of the overall system will increase.

0782

Dimitrios Rimpas, Stavros Kaminaris, Dimitrios Piromalis and Panagiotis Papageorgas. Design and Implementation of a Small-Scaled Hybrid Storage System for Optimal Sizing in Electric Vehicles

Abstract. Following the pact for zero emissions until 2035, electric vehicles are continuously increasing their share in the market. To power the motor, EV’s use lithium batteries, which suffer from peak and high frequency currents, marginal temperature values and low exploitation of regenerative breaking. To address that issue, a simplified and inexpensive hybrid system consisting of batteries and ultracapacitors is designed and implemented. Ultracapacitors can support every battery inability but because of their low energy density cannot operate on their own so hybridization of the two sources is employed. The module is consisted of 8 lithium batteries and 10 ultracapacitors with a buck boost converter to power a 12V 100W BLDC. Total experimental time is over 90 days, with 100,000 values to ensure validation. The results show a clear 25% improvement in terms of sizing when 30% of the energy pack is consisted of ultracapacitors, without the utilization of any smart or complicated component. Therefore, the addition of those parts will improve the efficiency and enhance scaling to the maximum.

0827

Abdullah H. Harby, Ahmed S. Shehata, Rola Afify and Ahmed A. Hanafy. Experimental Investigation for Suction Slots of Wells Turbine and Shapes of Point Absorber

Abstract. Wave energy is a suitable renewable energy extracting mechanism in a world determined to achieve fever carbon emissions. Wave energy has great potential to unravel the unrelenting energy deficiency. It's zero emissions and is therefore environmentally friendly energy. It is often used at any time because it is renewable energy. During this work, the suction slots have been experimented on the Wells turbine blades to investigate the performance for the Wells turbine. The Wells turbine blade used the NACA0015 as the turbine’s airfoil. In the experimental setup for buoys, comparison between different body shapes is arranged. The setup consists of a floating buoy in the laboratory to interact with wave motion. Results showed that the three slots achieved the maximum turbine efficiency, good turbine coefficient and pressure drop coefficient behavior. For point absorber, the buoy (5) and the buoy (3) had the best characteristics with corresponding to the involved parameters.

0831

Edoardo Alessio Piana, Francesco Palone, Simone Sacco and Roberto Spezie. Evaluation of the limit condition for tap-staggered autotransformers through noise and vibration analysis

Abstract. The growing demand of electric energy and the development of green sources such as photovoltaic and wind power, are requiring an integration of new systems in the already developed distribution network. This task it is not always straightforward, since when a large amount of power is not used, it gives rise to reactive loads. Such kind of unwanted effect can be noticed not only locally, but even on a national scale. Usually, to put back into phase the voltage and the current, specific devices such as reactors are applied at the electric station level. Such devices are expensive and may be difficult to integrate in the grid or in the sub-station. For this reason, one of the practices that is becoming increasingly common is to use two autotransformers adopting the tap-staggering technique. In this way, already existing devices, such as autotransformers, can be used to rearrange the electric line parameters. One of the downsides is that, due to the high magnetic flux, the core of the transformer is subject to magnetostriction. The magnetostriction generates vibrations that can be extremely high and can bring to damages that in some cases can cause an impairment of the device. The aim of this article is to show the characteristics of the vibrations and of the noise emitted by the autotransformers during the tap staggering procedure.

0863

Snunkhaem Echaroj and Nattadon Pannucharoenwong. Supercritical ethanol liquefaction of rice husk to bio-fuel over modified graphene oxide

Abstract. Due to the fluctuation in the price of petroleum related energy source many research are now devoted to finding an alternative and renewable source of liquid-based energy for growing demand in electricity production and transportation sector. This research aimed to investigate supercritical ethanol liquefaction of rice husk under the presence of modified graphene oxide catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by N2 Sorption and thermal gravimetry analysis technique. It was found that the largest surface area (110.5 m2/g) was exhibited by graphene oxide that was modified with 1.5 M sulfuric acid solution. A 15 experimental trail design using Box-behnken method was implemented to optimize the production of bio-fuel yield. Three operating conditions (reaction temperature, catalyst amount and reaction time) were also investigated in term of their significance by ANOVA. Surface response and contour data were plot based on the obtained polynomial equation to demonstrate the range of operation conditions that give high yield of bio-yield at lowest operation cost. The optimized operation condition which gives the highest bio-fuel yield of 51.8% were at the reaction time of 298 oC, 3.4 grams of SO4(1.5)/GO catalyst and 60 minutes reaction time. High heating value of bio-fuel produced from the optimum operating condition was 30.15 MJ/kg.

0871

Segundo Rojas FloresSantigo M. BenitesWalter Rojas VillacortaMagaly De La Cruz NoriegaRenny Nazario NavedaDaniel Delfín Narciso and Cecilia V. RomeroBioelectricity through microbial fuel cells using avocado waste

Abstract. The dumping of organic waste in the areas surrounding food supply centers and the excessive use of fossil fuels for energy generation have generated major pollution problems worldwide. One of the novel solutions is the use of organic waste for electricity generation through the use of microbial fuel cell technology. In this research, low-cost, laboratory-scale, double-chamber microbial fuel cells were fabricated using zinc and copper as electrodes and avocado waste as fuel. Current and voltage values of 3.7326 ± 0.05568 mA and 0.74 ± 0.02121 V were achieved on the seventh day, with an optimum operating pH of 5.98 ± 0.16 and a maximum electrical conductivity of 94.46 ± 5.12 mS/cm. The cells showed a very low operating resistance of 71.480 Ω, indicating the good electrical conductivity of the electrodes. Likewise, a power density of 566.80 ± 13.48 mW/cm2 at a current density of 5.165 A/cm2 was generated. This research provides an eco-friendly solution to farmers and companies dedicated to the export and import of this fruit because it shows the benefits of using their own waste for the generation of electricity, reducing costs.

0984

Mushtaq Majed and Hameed Abduljabbar. The Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Quality of Urban Classification

Abstract. The main objective of this research is to study the emergence of a false urban class in an uninhabited area as a result of the closeness of the spectral response between the dry soil class and the urban class and to study the effect of the presence of wet soil due to rainfall in increasing the ability to reduce the emergence of the false urban class. The study area is chosen to be a specific area located within Mahmudiyah city, south of the capital, Baghdad, Iraq, where the study covers the period from 1986 to 2021 with a five-year interval between every two successive scenes. The Landsat satellites scenes are used in this research, the ENVI and Quantum GIS programs are used to analyze the data. The spring season, which represents the end of the rainy season, was chosen to study the region to obtain the best conditions to reduce and curb the class of false urban to include the period from February 22 to March 25 to achieve the best separation ratio between the urban and soil classes. The classes that make up the land cover were diagnosed through field visits to the study area, which included all the existing classes. The maximum probability classifier was used to classify the land cover of study the area, the false urban class appeared during the years of study, and it was found that the proportion of the false urban class is in inverse relation with the environmental factors, especially its relationship to the amount of rain.

1004

Azlin Mohd Azmi. A Decade of Solar PV Deployment in ASEAN: Policy Landscape and Recommendations

Abstract. South East Asian countries are blessed with abundant solar energy potential. Yet, the solar photovoltaic potential remains underutilised. There are certain roadblocks in the progress of solar PV deployment in ASEAN. This paper aims to investigate the solar PV policies in the ASEAN region over the past decade. Also, an attempt was made to provide policy recommendations. In spite of solar irradiation advantage and plummeting solar system cost, it was understood that solar PV growth is greatly dependent on regulatory policies and mechanisms. The tremendous growth in solar PV is observed in Vietnam through the successful implementation of the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) scheme. In addition, the FiT demonstrated to be a suitable scheme to initiate solar PV growth. Over the past decade, the policy landscape in Thailand and Malaysia evolved from FiT scheme to P2P energy trading. This strategy is critical for developing a solid, self-sustaining PV market. Uncertainty and Delay affected the success of solar policies in some ASEAN member states. Adoption of the FiT scheme for early-stage PV development and the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) for advanced-stage PV development are the main policy recommendations. This study will serve as a reference to policymakers and energy professionals in the region. The insights of the study will be beneficial in adopting appropriate solar policy instruments.

1019

Burak Kadem, Zahraa Abbas, Rand Husein and Thanaa Najm. Silicon-based Phthalocayaninee: characterization and evaluation for sensing and solar cell applications

Abstract. Methyl-silicon (IV) phthalocayanine chloride (MSiPc) and Silicon phthalocayanine (SiPc) is prepared using solution based method and used in gas sensor and solar cell applications. Morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows It is clear that P3HT:PCBM based film has smooth surface topography even after adding SiPc and MSiPc. The energy band gap was also estimated using cyclic voltammetry and the positions of both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were determined. An improved Jsc after using MSiPc is mostly contributes the enhanced PCE compare to SiPc and reference device. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with an inverted structure were improved by the SiPc addition, which were investigated on the bases of current density–voltage characteristics, incident photon to current conversion efficiency. MWCNTs:SiPc, MWCNTs:MSiPc layers exhibit a completely reversible sensor response to ammonia in the investigated concentration range at room temperature.

1020

Zahra Wehbi, Rani Taher, Jalal Faraj, Mohamad Ramadan, Cathy Castelain and Mahmoud Khaled. A Review on Wastewater Heat Recovery Systems: Types and Applications

Abstract. Reducing energy consumption has its direct impact on the worldwide environmental status. Smart energy processes must be adopted in order to enhance the reduction capacity of energy usage. In this view, both renewable energy as well as heat recovery strategy has been used in a wide range of engineering applications. With this in mind, hot wastewater is considered as a valuable source of energy that could be recovered. The present paper illustrates an overall review on the waste water heat recovery systems (WWHR). All systems can be classified based on their structural configuration and application. It has been shown that under some conditions a 50% energy could be stored or recovered using a heat recovery system. In addition, all systems are considered as an economic as well as environmental effective methods.

1045

Stelios Voutsinas, Dimitrios Karolidis, Ioannis Voyiatzis and Maria Samarakou. Development of a Multi-output feed-forward Neural Network for fault detection in Photovoltaic Systems

Abstract. The main role of a fault detection and identification technique is to interpret what's causing a PVS's real-time energy production to drop. To keep photovoltaic (PV) systems performing at their best, fault detection is crucial. Various fault detection systems have been proposed in the literature over the last decade. Some of the fault detection methods presented solely used data from I-V curves, while others relied on ANN techniques to find faults. This paper presents the development of a multi-output Artificial Neural Network (ANN), for fault detection and identification on the DC side of a Photovoltaic System (PVS). Measurements and benchmarking were carried out in order to validate the algorithm's capacity to detect both normal operation at maximum power and the ability to determine and identify faults introduced during the experiment's procedure. It is observed that the classification output, compared to with the regression output, provides a clearly better assessment of the operational status of the photovoltaic cell. The developed method has a 93.4 percent accuracy in detecting open-circuit, short-circuit, and mismatch faults, using the classification output, while the regression output provides an operational status estimation with mean absolute error (MAE) equal to 30.5%. When compared to other implementations, the findings are encouraging, indicating that the approach could be used in PVS.

1091

Eric Fosu Oteng-Abayie, Foster Awindolla Asaki, Maame Esi Eshun and Eric Abokyi. Decomposition of the decoupling CO2 emissions from Economic growth in Ghana

Abstract. This study examines the connexion between CO2 emissions and economic growth in Ghana specifically by focusing on the trends of CO2 emissions and economic growth, the decoupling status of Ghana, the decomposition of CO2 from economic growth, and examining the factors that influence CO2 emissions in Ghana. The study used data spanning 1990–2018 and applied the Tapio elasticity method and the LMDI decomposition technique for the analysis. The results revealed that CO2 emissions and economic growth have increased over the years, while recent economic growth has been driven by the service and industrial sectors. The findings also revealed that Ghana has achieved two decoupling statuses: a strong and weak decoupling status. The strong decoupling status occurred in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, 2003–2004, 2007–2008, 2013–2014, and 2015–2016, respectively, whereas the remaining years were dominated by weak decoupling status. The result also showed that CO2 emissions in Ghana are influenced by economic activities, emission factors, population growth, and lifestyle changes. Economic structure and energy intensity, instead, were found to promote the decoupling of CO2 emissions and economic growth. The study, therefore, recommends that CO2 emissions reduction policies should target economic activities, emission factors, population growth, and lifestyle changes.

1110

Michael AdelMina G. MouradAhmed S. Shehata and Osama E. AbdellatifNumerical study of Vortex induced vibration of a two-dimensional circular cylinder attached with water-drop fairing with a vertical hole

Abstract. Failures of marine risers during hydrocarbon extraction can result in catastrophic offshore oil and gas mishaps, resulting in loss of life and environmental harm. so, Marine risers’ failure due to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) because of high currents has been studied to acquire insight into their prevention. Vortices which are created in the viscous boundary layer tend to detach at the downstream end of the cylinder. A fairing is a body with a hydrofoil shape attached to the marine risers to reduce VIV. The effect of VIV on a marine riser in high currents is investigated using a numerical simulation. The aim of the research is to enhance the ability of a typical water-drop fairing to suppress VIV. The study will be performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD (Ansys Fluids). A vertical hole is applied on a water-drop fairing that has a top shape angle of 80° to improve the suppression of the VIV. Root mean square of lift coefficient RMS Cl is used to compare the behaviour of the fairing in the VIV. The position of the vertical hole that gets the lower value of RMS Cl is chosen to be the optimum place for the vertical hole.

1156

Aisha Sa'Ad, Aimé C. Nyoungue and Zied Hajej. An Integrated Maintenance and Power Generation Forecast by ANN Approach Based on Availability Maximization of a Wind Farm

Abstract. Climate change, global warming and high costs of fossil fuels caused an urgent need to shift from traditional sources of energy generation to renewable ones. Wind energy has been identified as one of the most attractive renewable sources that supply affordable, inexhaustible, and clean energy to the economy. To guarantee the wind plant availability, the maintenance downtime has to be minimized. In doing so, a systematic preventive maintenance strategy integrated with wind power generation forecasted by artificial neural network (ANN) technique was developed by selecting the components which maintenance action will be performed upon based on a set minimum reliability margin. The developed algorithm automatically selects the component whose reliability falls below the margin. In this work, the influence of turbine power generation was considered, and the results were compared to the nominal operating and climatic condition of the turbine systems

1158

Rola Abbas and Mohammed Al Maamori. The Relation of the Cross-link Density to Shape Memory of the Smart Vulcanized Natural Rubber

Abstract. Shape-memory natural rubber (SMNR) was prepared from the impregnation process of the smoked natural rubber type (ribbed smoke sheet, RSS) (after laboratory vulcanization (Virgin RSS) with different ratios of sulfur ranging from 0.75 to 2Phr) with stearic acid (SA) molten for a period of 2hr, so as to obtainshape memory rubber samples represented by (RSS/based SA).Then the process of testing the shape memory behavior was conducted by subjecting these samples under study to the hot classical shape memory cycle based on normal cooling at room temperature. The comparative results of calculating the shape memory parameters practically once and through digital imaging again, have showed that the impregnation of the vulcanized natural rubber with stearic acid leads to its transformation from a traditional vulcanized rubber to a shape memory rubber. This study also showed that the cross-link density increase is negatively affects the shape memory of this smart rubber

1220

Taha Aborgela, Ahmed S. Shehata, M. A. Kotb and Ayman Radwan. Heavy lift semi-submersible ships utilization in offshore wind turbines industry

Abstract. Many technologies and initiatives have been developed across the world to produce power from renewable resources. One of these technologies is offshore wind power that makes use of wind turbines constructed in water to generate electricity. Offshore wind power generates more electricity per unit of capacity installed due to the greater wind speeds available offshore compared to on land. Wind turbines are difficult to transport because of their huge towers and nacelles, as well as their long, delicate blades, hub, and generator. In order to transport these huge parts specialized ships to handle it and help in its transportation safely with the minimum costs and hazards are needed. Semi-submersible heavy-lift ships are primarily designed to transport extremely large and heavy cargoes, which are loaded using the float-on/float-off method, and large non-floating equipment. A high-capacity ballast system is installed on the heavy lift ships. When loading and unloading cargo, a ballast system is needed to manage heeling and trimming moments. Several accidents have occurred during the submerging process, these accidents result was sinking of many ships. Results are presented and discussed.

1286

Ahmed Bedair, Ahmed S. Shehata, Mostafa Saad Hamad and Adil Tawfiq. Comparative Analysis of Solar Panels Water Cooling Systems Using Absorbent Material

Abstract. Solar power energy is becoming more affordable, accessible, and prevalent. The use of solar energy is now being seen as part of the energy mix for naval applications, and solar power will most likely play an important role in helping to reduce fuel consumption and emissions from marine units, especially as further solar energy-related technologies are developed. In fact, the sea freight shipping industry has begun to practically look at ways to reduce fuel consumption and operate in a more environmentally friendly way. The main concern is the performance of PV modules in high-temperature areas where the ambient temperature is elevated most of the year, which reduces solar panel efficiency and, consequently, the rewarding returns on the investment and shortening the payback periods. The research is based on an experimental model of an active water injection system at the panel’s backside, with the aid of foam absorbent material integrated with the back of the solar panel. This research paper is a further development of the findings of a previous research paper issued by the author. In the previous research, the presentation of a novel forced air/water injection system to enhance the cooling efficiency of solar panels; ultimately, resulted in a 30% increase in power output. It adopted a passive method based on a merge of forced air and water injection cooling techniques, utilizing foam packing material fitted to the back sheet of the solar panels. However, there is a genuine concern raised on the commercial side of the system considering the power consumed to run the fan, which could hinder the efficacy of the whole setup in some cases. Such concerns are real. In this paper, this concern is addressed, and a new methodology to cool down the PV modules and maintain the PV power output figures within an acceptable margin is presented. The experimental results show that utilizing water spray at the backside of the solar panels with the aid of foam absorbent material gives very encouraging results and has better efficiency than other techniques. The experimental data give very encouraging results and have rewarding efficiency. The proposed system is simple and is suitable for low-budget projects. The best results obtained show PV module efficiency improvement of 41% on panels fitted with high-density foam.

1368

Jean de Dieu Nguimfack-Ndongmo, Bello Ngoussandou, Deli Goron, Dieudonné Kaoga Kidmo and Godpromesse Kenné. Nonlinear neuro-adaptive MPPT controller and voltage stabilization of PV Systems under real environmental conditions

Abstract. Most of PV systems are using classical algorithms such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Hill Climbing for Maximum Power Point Traking (MPPT) Control due to their simplicity of implementation. However, researchers’ attention has, in recent years, been focused on artificial intelligence-based techniques. In this paper, an adaptive nonlinear technique is developed for MPPT control and voltage stabilization of a DC-DC converter such as the Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC). This control scheme based Radial Basis function (RBF) neural network is also used for approximation of unmeasurable variables of the system. The main objective of this controller is to tract the maximun power and to stabilize the output voltage under uncertain climatic conditions. The proposed technique has been tested in Matlab/simulink model of PV system under real environmental conditions and load variations. The close-loop system’s stability is insured by Lyapunov’s theory and the proposed algorithm gives satisfactory results compared to MPPT Extremum Seeking Control used in the same context.

1477

Nitin Kumar Saxena, Dr. Atma Ram Gupta, Saad Mekhilef, Wenzhong D. Gao, Ashwani Kumar, Varun Gupta, Roberto Silva Netto and Abhas Kanungo. Firefly Algorithm Based LCL filtered Grid-tied STATCOM Design for Reactive Power Compensation in SCIG based Micro-grid

Abstract. Microgrids are facing several operational and control issues while integrating with the grid. To deal with it, STATCOM, as one of the emerging power converter circuits, is connected with such microgrids. STATCOM with microgrid introduces current harmonic, inherent resonance, and active power losses related to high switching frequency. Filter design can help attenuate these effects and maintain the predefined standards as in IEEE 519-1992 and IEEE P1547.2-2003. There are also some more points of concern about filter design. Inappropriate filter types and parameters may cause worse filtering, reactive power surplus production, and low power factor. Therefore, this paper suggests that the reactive power compensation capability, as a local area problem, must be attended through the proper designing of LCL filtered grid-tied STATCOM. The parameters are estimated through transient analysis, power quality, and power balance studies for proposed Micro-grid and the results obtained are compared using nature-inspired algorithms such as GA, PSO, and FA over conventional mathematical formulation. The main contributions of this work are; (i) study of system with the inclusion of voltage and frequency-dependent load, (ii) modified STATCOM model clubbing reactive power control feedback and LCL filter with damping resistance, (iii) real and reactive power tracking system using dynamic compensator capabilities, and (iv) suppression of total harmonic distortions along with real and reactive power tracking using advanced tuning for filter parameters with GA, PSO, and FA based algorithms.

1480

Adefemi Adeodu, Ilesanmi Daniyan, Grace Mukondelei Kanakana, Rendani Maladzhi and Funmilayo Deborah Adewumi. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets Dispersion on the Morphology of Polymer Nano-Composites

Abstract. The characterization of the morphology of the samples containing a homogenous mixtures of epoxy and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) produced by solution compounding and shear mixing techniques were carried out in this study. The research work is aimed at evaluation of the morphology in terms of crystallinity of the polymer nanocomposites using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in accordance with ASTM D3417. The nanoparticles were varied in 10, 20 and 30 % by weight fraction of the PNCs. Highly crystalline peaks at 2θ values of 20.3O, 24.46O and 23.80O for 10, 20 and 30 % GNP weight fractions respectively, were observed. These show significant improvements in the morphology of polymer nanocomposites with varying loading of graphene nanoplatelets. The nanocomposites have a characteristics microstructure dimensions comparable to critical length scale of physical phenomena that gives to the unique mechanical properties. The use of solution compounding coupled with high shear mixing as dispersion technique influences the morphology of the polymer nanocomposites positively, thus its suitability for light weight and high strength industrial applications in the automobile, electronics and aerospace industries.

1487

Daniel P. Hiris, Octavian G. Pop and Mugur C. Balan. Analytical modeling and validation of the thermal behavior of seasonal storage tanks for solar district heating

Abstract. The study presents complete analytical models for fully mixed and stratified seasonal storage tanks, integrated in solar district heating systems. The provided validation of both models was realized by comparison with results available in the literature. Three and five comparisons were conducted for the fully mixed model and for the stratified model, respectively. The Mean Deviation (MD), Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used in the validation process. For the fully mixed model, in all the comparisons, the differences between the storage tank temperature provided by the model and the corresponding temperature from the reference are lower than 16.7 °C (occasionally). MD is lower than 2.9 °C, while MBE is lower than 5.9 % and RMSE is lower than 9.9 %. For the stratified model, in all the comparisons the differences between the storage tank temperatures provided by the model and the similar temperature from the references are lower than 2.35 °C. MD is lower than 0.5 °C, while MBE and RMSE are lower than 1.55 % for all the comparisons. The reasonable differences between the model and the reference, in the case of the fully mixed tank and the neglectable differences in the case of the stratified tank, validated both analytical models, that can be further used with high confidence, in investigations related to the thermal behavior of solar district heating systems with seasonal thermal storage.

1570

Viacheslav Shemelin and Tomas MatuskaUnglazed solar thermal collector for building facades

Abstract. In this paper, a novel concept and design of an unglazed solar thermal facade collector (USTFC) was developed based on a commercially available metal cladding facade system. A detailed mathematical model of USTFC was developed. To validate the developed mathematical model, five prototypes of the USTFC, different in design, were prepared and experimentally tested. To demonstrate the application potential of the USTFCs for a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system, a whole year simulation analysis was performed in the TRNSYS simulation software using the validated mathematical model under three different climatic conditions (Stockholm, Prague, and Barcelona). The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the SDHW system based on the USTFC field is strongly dependent on the climatic conditions. The highest SDHW system efficiency of 14.5% was obtained for the Prague, the lowest SDHW system efficiency of 11.7% was obtained for the Barcelona. The influence of the solar storage volume to the collector field ratio on the performance parameters of the presented SDHW system was also investigated. It was found that a value of 35 – 45 l/m2 can be used as the first estimation for the preliminary SDHW system configuration.

1736

Yazid Aafif, Anis Chelbi, Lahcen Mifdal, Sofiene Dellagi and Jeremie Schutz. Optimal Preventive Maintenance Strategies for a Wind Turbine Gearbox

Abstract. This paper investigates two maintenance strategies for wind turbine gearboxes. The first one is frequently adopted in practice. It consists in monitoring the state of the gearbox through its temperature. As soon as the latter reaches a predefined threshold level, production rate is drastically reduced by slowing down the wind turbine while cooling the gearbox for a certain period before recovering the desired output rate. As it becomes more frequent with time, the wind turbine operators will decide to renew the gearbox. The latter is replaced by a new identical one or submitted to an overhaul based only on the judgement of the maintenance agents. For this first strategy, an analytical model is developed to optimize the renewal period of the gearbox considering the balance between the cost of production loss and cooling each time the threshold temperature is reached, and the cost of renewal. The second strategy is a new one proposed in this paper. It suggests performing an imperfect preventive maintenance (PM) action each time the temperature threshold is reached, reducing hence the failure rate of the gearbox to a value between the current one and the one of a new gearbox. The imperfect preventive action is performed N times before the gearbox must be renewed. A mathematical model is also developed to simultaneously find the optimal number of PM actions to be performed before renewing the gearbox, and the optimal period for the maintenance crew to start the PM or renewal action after the instant at which the temperature threshold level is exceeded. This period being longer or shorter depending on the logistics in place to move the maintenance crew to the site and prepare for the intervention. Numerical examples are presented, a sensitivity analysis is performed, and the two strategies are compared.

1836

Nor RebahSamir Abdelouahed and Ilias TerrabActual situation and criticism of the solar energy strategy and policy in Algeria

Abstract. The problem of electricity is still the biggest one in Algeria. This leads to many issues in the health and economic public or private sectors. In the north of the country, 95% of the population is connected to the national electricity grid. Unfortunately, most of this population is suffering very frequent power outages. The situation in the southern region is even worse given the hard life conditions in the Algerian Sahara. Furthermore, only inhabitants of big cities are connected to the electricity grid. The dominance of fossil fuels in the production of electricity in Algeria is blatant. It amounts to more than 97% and the rest is provided by hydraulic power in spite of the great potential of renewable energy sources that have not yet been exploited. The fact that power supply is fully dependent on conventional energy sources leads the country to two main problems. On the one hand, the pollution resulting from using fossil fuels is devastating for the environment, the climate in the short run and the whole atmosphere in the long run. On the other hand, the Algerian economy is among the most oil-dependent in the world. Being so reliant on oil and natural gas makes the country vulnerable to any problem affecting oil pricing and therefore to governing international laws that apply likewise all over the world. This paper aims to focus on the current situation of the use of renewable energy, especially solar energy in Algeria. We also present the challenges facing the government and the population to develop this sector and move towards renewable and clean energies within a smooth transition. We review the energy situation in Algeria, discuss the policies and legislations that govern the energy sector, and propose solutions to pave routes toward a change of energy production, management, supply, and consumption as well as speeding up the adoption of renewable energies in Algeria.

1844

Dieudonné Kidmo Kaoga, Bachirou Bogno, Paul-Salomon Ngohe-Ekam, Nicodem Nisso and Michel Aillerie. Hydropower generation potential and prospective scenarios for sustainable electricity supply for the period 2022-2042: A case study of the NIN zone of Cameroon

Abstract. Hydropower is the sole renewable energy source on the grid in Cameroon, accounting for approximately 62% of this supply as of 2019. So far, hydropower is the most attractive source of grid electricity in the country, with a technically exploitable capability of around 115 TWh per year. However, the actual hydropower output (943 kW) is quite low, corresponding to about 7% of the country’s technically exploitable potential. The South Interconnected Network (SIN) zone, home to a technically exploitable potential of 83 TWh per year, produces 93.43% of the country’s hydroelectricity, while the North Interconnected Network (NIN) zone generates the remainder. Nevertheless, the NIN zone, with its technically exploitable capability of around 7.5 TWh per year, has the potential to alleviate energy poverty of its population in addition to forecast sustainable energy-consuming projects (SECP), including electricity export (EE) to neighboring Chad and Nigeria. The present study is aimed at exploring short, median and high scenarios based on projected Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR) of the national real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which are translated into electricity demand (ED) expected over a 20-year period (2022-2042). High Scenario is an optimistic status that displays an AAGR of the GDP projected at 6.4%, equivalent to projected ED (PED) of 6.61%, while Median Scenario is a more conservative status, with realistic assumptions aligned with an AAGR of the GDP anticipated at 5.0%, corresponding to PED of 5.791%. Low Scenario, more likely in the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic, is the most pessimistic status, with an AAGR of 3.6% matching a PED of 3.60%. In order to achieve the objective of this study, a comprehensive review on economically exploitable hydropower potential (EEHP) in the NIN zone is performed, while under construction hydroelectric plants and projected ones are highlighted. Finally, the intended special contribution of this research is to shed light on hydrologic and energetic parameters of selected hydropower sites which match PED, under the best case scenario of SECP expected by the end of the 20-year period in the aforementioned zone.

1951

Imane Ourraoui and Ali Ahaitouf. Investigation of the feasibility and the potential of Sun Tracking solutions used for concentrated photovoltaic case study Fez Morocco

Abstract. conversion efficiency, in order to reach the maximum possible increase in performance, CPV panels use sun trackers which must meet severe specifications regarding sun pointing accuracy, knowing that the lens-cell sets of the solar modules only work in a very small angles. For the sun tracker to meet these requirements, a precise procedure of installation is necessary in order to minimize errors from different sources such as misalignment of the structure with respect to geographical North, misalignment of the solar modules with respect to the wing of the sun tracker and other structural tolerances. The great importance of reliability and robustness in CPV trackers have not been pointed out throughout the literature, and also how this part of the system has frequently been found responsible for system problems and outages in energy production, having ultimately casted doubts on the feasibility of the CPV technology tracker. Also, the local temperature and other climate characteristics can highly influence the tracker motions making its performances far from what is expected. The Fez city in Morocco is among the cities having a high DNI with a continental climate with high temperature during the day and lowers in the Night. In addition, in winter and autumn, temperature can highly decrease to even negative values. Thus, installing CPV solution for electricity generation need not only the DNI measurements but also to take care of the environmental effect on the tracker structure to avoid and prevent the loss of conversion efficiency. In order to design a CPV sun tracker system that will be installed to operate in more efficient and more feasible way in Fez Morocco, a detailed study mut be conducted. This is why in this paper we, will investigate the requirements, the feasibility and reliability of CPV tracker in this city climate. An appropriate sun tracker for CPV is designed in order to study and analyze the wind velocity distribution and wind load to quantify the effects of elevation angle and wind speed on the structural strength of tracker using finite elements. A study was carried out on the energy performance of the system using System Advisor Model (SAM) software. Simulations process led to evaluate the energy feasibility of the CPV tracking and proving its viability in fez Morocco showing the level of accuracy that solar tracking photovoltaic systems are required to have to keep minimal the loss in power yield specially for CPV Facility. This study will be an important guide for the future sun tracking CPV system.

1998

Sathish T and Mohanavel V. Developing a Dual Axis Photoelectric Tracking module using a multi quadrant Photoelectric Device

Abstract. To determine the distance, presence, or absence of the object by using a transmitter or photoelectric receiver the photoelectric device is used. The potential of a photovoltaic (PV) panel to produce power is roughly dependent on the intensity of sunlight falling on it. This study planned and constructed a dual-axis solar programmable logical controller (PLC) based automatic tracking system, as well as its management and signal conditioning. The suggested automated monitoring system regulates the elevation and orientation angles of solar panels to keep them transverse to the sun at all times. The capacity of the pouring source to right path the position of the sunlight is detracting for the proper functioning of warm excited lasers, which is an essential resource of absorbing light part of every 24 hours. The current pursuing electronics, in another way, has poor strength and pursuing accuracy. To view the same issue, a photoelectric tracking system accompanying qual pivot is ingrained. The proposed system is based on the idiosyncratic multi quadrant photoelectric detector is implemented and a tracking scheme with a solar orbital method is included. The cosmic at fixed intervals monitoring device's control design, in pair with the fine bringing into the harmony of the multi-one of four equal parts photoelectric indicator, substantially increases the effectiveness of the projected model. The pump source's accurate positioning and tracking capabilities to the solar azimuth enable the pump source's system reliability.

2089

Mohammed Hameed. Zinc: Cobalt oxide Nanostructures for Gas Sensing Application

Abstract. Metal oxide nanostructures have lately been recognized as an effective material for the production of highly sensitive and selective gas sensors due to their fascinating features. In this study, ZnO:Co2O3 nanocomposites (ZCO) with different Co2O3 molar ratios have been effectively generated for NO2 gas detection using the spray pyrolysis approach. The crystallographic structures for the different samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows polycrystalline structure appeared for all samples, with high crystallinety. The crystallite size reduced from 30.7 nm for the pure sample to 20.8 nm at 0.3 Co molar ratios. The SEM image shows connected thin walls of irregular directions, creating cavities making the sample of high surface area. The gas sensitivity against NO2, for the prepared ZCO samples increased with increasing the Co molar ratio. Thus, ZCO nanostructure composite candidate to fabricate efficient NO2 gas sensors.

2148

Murat Aslan and Mehmet Beskirli. Realization of Turkey's energy demand forecast with the Improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm

Abstract. Due to the increasing energy consumption, energy has become a constant problem in the world. Rapidly increasing population, urbanization and economic activities increase the pressure of countries on energy. In a world where consumption is increasing, energy management has become a more important and challenging issue. For this reason, it was necessary to make estimations that will reduce the pressure of energy demand on this issue. In order to realize the estimation of energy demand, Turkey application was carried out in this study and arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA) which is a stochastic metaheuristic algorithm was used to for solving energy demand problem. AOA is inspired from four substantial math function such as subtraction, multiplication, addition and division for searching process of candidate solutions. The linear regression model was used for the estimation of the energy demand and the population, domestic product, import and export data were used in estimation process. In the proposed model, Turkey’s real data samples for the years 1979-2011 have been used, and Turkey’s future energy demand has been estimated for the years 2012-2030. While performing the estimation process, Turkey's energy data of the years 1979-2011 were processed and future energy demand estimation was realized with three different scenarios. Firstly, the experimental results of the proposed model were analyzed, then the results were compared with different studies proposed in the literature. As a result of the comparison, it was seen that the IAOA method achieved a better or similar result than other methods. For this reason, it can be said that the IAOA method is competitive and successful in realizing the energy demand forecast for Turkey's future years.

2366

Nduka Ekene Udoye, Anthony Inegbenebor and Ojo Isaac Sunday Fayomi. The Functionality of Intermetallic Phases in the Reinforcement of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy

Abstract. Aluminium alloys reinforced with agro-based waste particles are utilized in the aerospace industry and transport sectors due to their functional properties. In this paper, AA6061 aluminium alloy strengthened with different percentages of clay and rice husk ash (RHA) in the range of 2 to 8 wt.% at 75 and 150 µm were produced. SEM/EDS analyzed the impact of clay and RHA particles in AA6061 used to characterized surface morphology and the Brinell hardness and INSTRON 3369 universal testing machine to determine mechanical behaviours. XRD analysis of the prepared samples showed aluminium silicate, silicon IV oxide and aluminium oxides intermetallic phases at different peaks in the matrix alloy. The samples' results contained the intermetallic phases showed improvement in hardness, tensile strength and percentage elongation of developed material to about 31.6%, 7.5%, and 4.8% respectively. The mechanical properties revealed higher results compared with undeveloped AA6061 aluminium alloy. It can be concluded that intermetallic phases play a major part in strengthening the reinforcement of AA6061 aluminium alloy.

2531

Repele Djidimbele, Bello Ngoussandou, Dieudonné Kaoga, Bahn Kitmo, Mohit Bajaj and Danwe Raidandi. Optimal sizing of hybrid Systems for Power loss Reduction and Voltage improvement using PSO algorithm: Case of Guissia Rural Grid

Abstract. This work proposes a method for sizing and reducing power losses (MSRPL) of a hybrid photovoltaic and wind system (HPWS) in a radial distribution network (RDN) by developing an objective function thanks to particles swarm optimization (PSO). The constraints defined on the objective function allow the sizing of HPWS and production cost. The proposed system configuration (PSC) improves the voltage level and minimizes the power losses (PL) in the radial network. The proposed PSO algorithm was tested on Guissia (10°30'N, 15°18'E) rural electric grid (GREG) in the far north region of Cameroon, which has a radial configuration. The power factor correction has been performed. The tests on IEEE 33 bus and IEEE 69 bus show the robustness of the system and the reliability of the proposed method which also minimizes the total cost of the system over 20 years

2539

Daranee Jareemit, Anake Suwanchaisakul and Bundit Limmeechokchai. A Sensitivity Analysis for Investigating Project Profitability in Zero Energy Office Buildings in Thailand

Abstract. Thailand has committed to reducing greenhouse gas in the UN Climate Change Conference (COP26). Promoting all new buildings being net-zero energy consumption within 2030 is another strategy to achieve the goal. Thus, many organizations in Thailand starts getting interested in developing a zero-energy building (ZEB). However, a big challenge for improving high-energy-efficient buildings is the high initial cost. Consequently, the supportive strategies from policymakers and related stakeholders could significantly contribute to promote the ZEB investment. This study performs sensitivity analysis to assess the variation of future costs, including initial cost, energy price, maintenance & operation cost, interest rate, and discount rate influencing the project’s net present value (NPV) and the global cost of three representative office buildings. Results of analyses showed that ZEB development in large buildings provides more financial profitability than small buildings. The increase in energy prices and the decrease in initial cost, especially the cost of the air-conditioning systems will result in increasing returns of investment. However, such increment in energy price also affects small and low-income properties. Consequently, the policymakers should further investigate suitable measures and financial incentives to encourage those segments.

2573

Obeida Farhat, Mahmoud Khaled, Jalal Faraj, Farouk Hachem, Cathy Castelain and Rani Taher. A short recent review on Hybrid Energy Systems: Critical Analysis and Recommendations

Abstract. Currently, the world is perceiving a change-over from its existing conventional energy sources to a future with optimized and inventive energy sources. Nowadays, the world is more and more oriented to the use of renewable energy sources. Consequently, it will lead to decrease the consumption form the conventional energy sources in particular the fuel energy. In addition, the use of renewable energy source will decrease the impact of the conventional energy on the environment. For all these reasons, researchers are currently focusing on studies that implement and innovate methods for the purpose of optimizing and increasing the efficiency of existing renewable energy sources. Of the proposed methods are the hybrid systems. These systems are applicable in both residential and industrial sectors. However, hybrid systems can be applied to renewable energy, wind energy, fuel cell, Desalination, HAC, Engines, Electric Vehicles, Heat Pump, Redrying, PV cells, Engines, Solar Cells, Heating chimneys, and many other systems. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to present a short review focusing on the types and applications of hybrid renewable energy systems and hybrid recovery energy systems that are applied in industrial and residential sectors. Moreover, the environmental impact, cost and the efficiency will also be presented and discussed.

2591

Vladimir Pavlovich Klepikov, Liubov Vladimirovna Klepikova and Muhammad Shahbaz. Oil tank farm emission trends of Russian refineries

Abstract. The oil refining industry has an important position in the Russian economy. However, most of the country's oil refineries have outdated production capacities of tank farms for storing oil, and the issue of emissions from Russian refineries is a research gap in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of changes in the amounts of emissions from tank farms for oil storage in Russian refineries. A study period from 2008 to 2018 was considered. The contributions of this study include the development of methods for estimating emissions for the regions. In this study, an approach was developed that, based on the existing expressions of the unified methodology, allows us to estimate the emissions of tank farms at a regional scale. The results showed that the greatest emissions occurred in the Volga Federal District. The volume of emissions from that region exceeded the total emissions of the next three districts: the Central, Siberian, and Northwestern Federal Districts of Russia. The largest growth rate of emissions was demonstrated by the refineries of the Southern Federal District, exceeding those of the Central, Siberian, and Northwestern Federal Districts during the study period. In the Far Eastern and Ural federal districts of the country, annual emissions were much lower. During the study period, the total accumulated emissions exceeded 2.5 million tons; therefore, the country needs to carry out work to modernize the tank farms of oil refineries in accordance with the proposed direction.

2597

Azlin Mohd Azmi, Sreenath Sukumaran and Zubir Ahmad. Solar PV Project Appraisal and Carbon Avoidance at a Conservation Park

Abstract. Managing conservation parks requires integrating sustainability with ecotourism in order to maintain a sustainable environment. With the growing number of visitors, electricity infrastructures in parks must be in pace with rising energy consumption. In addition, conservation parks in remote areas are not connected to the grid and are dependent on fossil fuel generators to generate electricity but with environmental implications. Assessing baseline assets and improving energy management are needed to reduce carbon emissions and energy-related costs where transportation of fuel is costly and challenging due to geographic constraints. This study aims to assess the carbon footprint and operational cost resulting from fuel usage (from mobile and stationary fuel sources). Furthermore, a Solar Photovoltaic (PV) potential at Royal Belum camps under the administration of Perak State Parks Corporation is evaluated. The Solar PV system should be highly considered a replacement for the current fossil-fuel-based system. It would not just avoid a total emission of 4000 tCO2 over its 21 years project lifetime but would substantially save the costs associated with the usage of diesel/petrol generators. The study would enable the administrator or operator to make informed decisions regarding energy management and economics at a conservation park.

2667

Faker Abderrahmane, Salim Bouslikhane, Zied Hajej, Sofiene Dellagi and Wajdi Trabelsi. An economic strategy integrating Production, Maintenance and Spare parts management for Wind Turbine systems

Abstract. In this work, we address an optimized integrated maintenance/production and spare parts management problem for wind turbine system with an observable level of degradation. The purpose of the study is to determine, an energy production plan and a switching maintenance strategy integrates a spare parts policy, according random electricity grid demand over a given period. The wind turbine system failure rate is being modeled as a function of the current operating mode. Our target is to optimize the total cost integrating production, maintenance operations and spare parts management over a finite planning horizon by considering the impact of the production rate on wind turbine system failure rate. Therefore, an improved maintenance strategy characterized by a switching process between both preventive maintenance activities (perfect and imperfect) is taken into account. A numerical study is realized in order to exam the robustness of the analytical model developed.

2759

Adrian Clenci, Julien Berquez, Robert Stoica, Rodica Niculescu, Bogdan Cioc, Catalin Zaharia and Victor Iorga-Siman. Experimental investigation of the effect of an afterburner on the light-off performance of an exhaust after-treatment system

Abstract. Future passenger cars must comply with whatever regulations will be created to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and pollution. Regarding the pollutants of an internal combustion engine, the usual way to deal with them is by using an exhaust after-treatment system (EATS). However, catalytic converters experience light-off issues after a cold start: their after-treatment efficiency is unsatisfactory until their temperature reaches a certain threshold, usually called the light-off temperature. Consequently, in this phase, important levels of pollutants are produced, being therefore paramount to achieve the catalytic converter light-off as fast as possible. The period to reach the catalyst light-off decreased as the regulation became tougher. Passing to EURO7, which is expected to happen in 2025 means to have the EATS ready for efficient treatment “instantaneously” after cold starting. Thus, since the biggest part of the pollutants is generated before the EATS has reached its normal operating temperature, it is essential to focus on this phase. However, the challenge is significant. While in principle there are many solutions providing the desired effect, their actual implementation at the production level is hindered by conflicting requirements: technologies need to be technical mature and financially sustainable. Up to now, the following solutions were usually used to generate more heat at the EATS level: (1) constructive solutions such as using a pre-catalyst converter or a close-coupled converter and (2) solutions generated by different strategies used while calibrating the IC engine. However, these solutions are not considered sufficient for the coming EURO7 regulation. Consequently, they must be complemented with other systems, such as the afterburner, which is an extra-combustion device. Accordingly, this paper is focused on the challenges that come with the use of such an afterburner and it presents the following: (1) a proposal for a layout and operation strategy of such a device and (2) an experimental investigation of the effect an afterburner has on the light-off performance of a usual three-way catalyst. On the latter, the cold start exhaust emissions will be analyzed with and without using this extra-combustion device, being thus able to draw a clear conclusion on its effectiveness. Equally, the paper presents the impact of the afterburner on fuel consumption and, therefore, on GHG and pollution it generates, given the fact that it burns the same carbon-based fuel as the engine.

2772

Msc.Eng. Mohamed ZamzamProf.Dr.Eng.Mohamed Abdel-Hady and Dr. Tarek KhalilA Novel Technique for Cooling of Photovoltaic Panels

Abstract. The objective of this work is to develop a new passive cooling technique for PV panels operating in hot regions, e.g. the Middle East and the North Africa (MENA) region. The technique is based on installing open-cell foamed aluminum metal at the backside of the panel, which acts as a heat sink that cools the panel. An experimental comparison is made between four identical PV panels functioning under equivalent ambient conditions, but with different cooling techniques. The first panel is without cooling and is taken as a reference of operation, the second panel is cooled by attaching open-cell foamed aluminum metal at the backside of the panel which acts as a heat sink, the third panel is cooled by the same principle but by using an aluminum sheet as the heat sink, while the last PV panel is based on the principle of PV/T collectors that is cooled by running water in the thermal collector that is attached at the backside of the panel. It is found that the foamed aluminum metal has a cooling effect on the panel that is nearly equal to the PV/T collector, despite the great difference in the initial, running, and maintenance costs of the PV/T collector. A feasibility study is also done to compare the different cooling techniques. It is found that the cooling of the PV panel using open cell foamed aluminum metal is more feasible than the other cooling techniques.

2780

Meryam Sakhraji, Meryem Saadi, Eliseu Monteiro, Khalid Bouziane and Abel Rouboa. Plasma gasification process using Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling

Abstract. The world has a waste problem. Landfills around the planet are reaching capacity, so the recovery of energy from them would be a very useful green alternative and sustainable solution. A century-old technology is being revitalized to convert waste into energy through a process called plasma gasification. In this study, а proposed modеl of рlаsmа gasification аllows us thе simulation of gasification tеmреrаturе аs well аs the composition of thе рroducts (CO, CO2, H2, H2O) insidе thе gasifier. Gаsificаtion of biomаss is idеntifiеd thе most еfficiеnt аnd еconomicаl routе for hydrogеn рroduction. Dеspitеs its limits, it is nеcеssary to dеvеlop nеw dеsigns and othеr ways for modeling thе plasma gasification to optimizе thе intеraction of a plasma flow with solid particlеs, liquids or othеr gasеs.

2800

Salima El Ayane and Ali Ahaitouf. Performance analysis of a ball lens as secondary optical element for a micro photovoltaic concentrator

Abstract. Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) is a bright technology for higher efficiency power generation compared to other photovoltaic power generating technologies. However, the lack of demand and its failure in the commercial field is mainly due to its long-term reliability issues as well as its cost, which is an order of magnitude higher than the other technologies. Several measures have been taken to minimize the cost, improve the reliability as well as improve the performance of these concentrators. In this approach, Micro photovoltaic concentrators (MCPV) have been introduced as an outstanding alternative to shed light on all these challenges while keeping the same principle as the CPV modules. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a micro photovoltaic concentrator system of a geometrical concentration ratio of 100x consisting of a Plano convex lens as a primary optical element, a ball lens as a secondary optical element and a solar cell. The aim is to present a compact module with high optical efficiency, low thermal stress and high mechanical tolerance to keep the keep the optimum optical alignment between the submillimeter cell and the small sized optics.

2833

Khanat WinyuwisitthirakRapeepong Peamsuwan and Bundit KrittacomFinite Difference Method of Laminar Poiseuille Flows with Porous Media

Abstract. Many dimensionless factors influence the velocity (u*) and temperature (T*) profiles, the numerical calculation of laminar flows in Poiseuille flow through porous media was examined in this paper using the finite difference method approach. The factors that were explored were Prandtl Number (Pr). The calculating method was based on the assumption that the governing equations for transient in Poiseuille flow may be simplified, Newtonian fluid, laminar flow, and incompressible fluid utilizing a finite difference technique that is implicit. The study led to the following conclusions: u* and T* were increased as increasing Pr. because it was considered that this reflected the genuine behavior of the Poiseuille flow.

2851

Olga Poddaeva and Pavel Churin. Numerical simulation of the pedestrian comfort of the microdistrict

Abstract. The paper considers the questions of the microdistrict pedestrian comfort, located at the Russian Federation. Three-dimensional computer model of the object is devoted. Numerical simulation is carried out using program software ANSYS. Numerical grid parameters, boundary commissions and calculation technology are given. Streamlines for different wind directions is received. To assess pedestrian comfort, an analysis is made of the distributions of the flow velocity modulus over the flow field. Using the distributions of the Qcrit parameter, it is possible to obtain the distributions of the flow velocity for any values of the wind speed. Based on the results obtained, for any wind direction, the pedestrian comfort of the space on the territory of the residential complex was investigated.

2900

Khaled Al-MotairiChaos Based Cryptosystem

Abstract. In the area of information security, the demand for secure communication is increasing over time. Cryptographic algorithms rely on increasingly complex numerical theories, such as elliptic curves, group theory, and so on. In this research, we utilized Lie algebra-based Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol to construct a secure encryption algorithm. The combination of Lie algebra and chaos theory provides an efficient and secure and encryption structure. The offered encryption structure is also passed through some standard measures. We have also performed some cryptographic attacks on the proposed structure to check the robustness of the system. The results show that our offered encryption structure is secure against all possible attacks and is highly recommended for secure communication.

2924

José Carlos Alvarez MerinoKazuo HatakeyamaMonica Carvalho, Roberto C. Marçal, Jorge Inche and Norma Pinto de Melo. Model for products innovation with renewable energies through TRIZ methodology, exergetic analysis and knowledge management. Case studies.

Abstract. In a context that aims at saving energy and caring for the environment, eco-innovation is required, that is, an innovation of products that meets specific environmental requirements and uses renewable energies. Recommendations and strategies are found for the process of development of products in general, but very few for the renewable energy product process development. Therefore, this proposal for eco-innovation in renewable energies is developed based on exergetic analysis, TRIZ methodology and knowledge management. Our model is contrasted with cases about improved wood-fired kitchens. This study contributes to the analysis and development of products with renewable energies that contribute to mitigating climate change, which is consistent with the change in the energy matrix. Furthermore, this work is a transdisciplinary effort that integrates concepts of diferent topics in order to achieve a comprehensive model.

2936

Michael DeligantMoritz Huebel, Tchable-Nan Djaname, Florent Ravelet, Mathieu Specklin and Mohamed Kebdani. Design and off-design system simulation of concentrated solar super-critical CO2 cycle integrating a radial turbine meanline model

Abstract. Concentrated solar power (CSP) with supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle can efficiently generate low carbon renewable electricity. The proper design of a CSP plant and the associated thermal energy storage requires a careful analysis of the yearly expected irradiance and environmental conditions. System simulations based on accurate components models allow the prediction of the performance of the plant and the analysis of the components interactions. The simulations of various scenarios provide information that will help tuning the design of the components to improve the performance of the whole system at design and off-design conditions. In this paper, the focus is set on the radial turbine expander which is one of the most important component. Classical system simulation approaches use map based performance model for the turbine. This require to generate the performance map either with meanline models, CFD simulations or experiments. This is not very convenient when iterating on the system design and if the actual turbine does not exist yet. In this work, a meanline model for radial inflow turbine operating with real gas has been implemented in MODELICA language for the first time to the authors' best knowledge. This turbine model has been coupled with the available CSP sCO2 Brayton cycle model in MODELON Thermopower library. A parametric study on a virtual test bench show the turbine performances for various rotational speed and inlet guide vane angle. The study focus then on the performance prediction of on and off design of the system with a 8 MW turbine obtained with a simple preliminary design calculation. Future work will focus on the use such system model with multi objective meta heuristic optimisation.

3213

Niima Es-Sakali, Moha Cherkaoui, Mohamed Oualid Mghazli and Zakaria Naimi. Review on predictive maintenance algorithms applied to HVAC systems

Abstract. Predictive maintenance is a preventive maintenance approach that is performed based on an online health assessment and allows for timely pre-failure interventions. It has the ability to diminish the cost of maintenance by reducing the frequency of maintenance as much as possible in order to avoid unplanned reactive maintenance, without incurring the costs associated with too frequent preventive maintenance. The main objective of predictive maintenance of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is to predict when the HVAC equipment failure may occur. The benefits are numerous: planning of maintenance before the failure occurs, reduction of maintenance costs and increased reliability. For this, the predictive maintenance of the HVAC systems employs analytics, methods and techniques that use asset data, such as condition and loading data or experience, to detect or predict changes in the physical condition of the HVAC equipment. The process of predictive maintenance application is composed from the Internet of Things (IoT) sensors that are installed inside the HVAC system, then the IoT platforms that help in collecting the signals coming from the sensors and converting it to existing databases. Afterword, the algorithms of application of predictive maintenance that could be either knowledge-based approaches, physics-based approaches or even data driven-based approaches. A systematic literature review on the existing algorithms of HVAC predictive maintenance application is conducted in this paper to summarize the most used approach for predicting future failures in HVAC systems and to explain the benefits and limits of these algorithms.

3241

Marwa Jaleel and Khalid Harbbi. Study of the X-ray diffraction lines of Calcium titanate nanoparticle using SSP method and Scherrer method

Abstract. In this study, the modified size-strain plot (SSP) method was used to analyze the x-ray diffraction lines pattern of diffraction lines (1 0 1), (1 2 1), (2 0 2), (0 4 2), (2 4 2) for the calcium titanate(CaTiO3) nanoparticles, and to calculate lattice strain, crystallite size, stress, and energy density, using three models: uniform (USDM). With a lattice strain of (2.147201889), a stress of (0.267452615X10), and an energy density of (2.900651X10-3 KJ/m3), the crystallite was 32.29477611 nm in size, and to calculate lattice strain of Scherrer (4.1644598X10-3), and (1.509066023X10-6 KJ/m3), a stress of(6.403949183X10-4MPa) and (26.019894 nm).

3246

Ahmed Malek, Ahmed S. Shehata, Khaled Elsherbiny and Ahmed Mehanna. CFD Analysis of a Gravitational Whirlpool Hydropower Turbine at Egyptian Riverine System

Abstract. Egyptian riverine networks are distributed from Upper Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, Northern. Hydrokinetic energy uses the flowing water of the riverine systems such as rivers, canals, streams, dykes, and channels. According to the rural areas of Egypt where low flowing water velocity with ultra-low head of water exists at different regions, the gravitational water vortex turbine is one of the best options. In this study, artificially induced gravitational water vortex in the basin is investigated to extracts energy. Numerical model has simulated the gravitational water vortex turbine, after a sufficient sensitivity analysis with 6% error deviation. Several simulations have conducted and evaluated the required parameters and values. The results showed that the V-shaped basing and its inlet notch are directing the flowing current toward the basin circumference to its outlet hole, while increasing the current velocity that generates swirl. The maximum power coefficient of the runner is 0.34 achieved by 75 RPM and current velocity 1.6 m/s. Also, the lowest value is 0.12 occurred by 95 RPM and current of 3.1 m/s. Meanwhile, the highest thrust coefficient is 0.90 by current velocity of 3.1 m/s and 35 RPM, the lowest thrust coefficient is 0.24 by 1.6 m/s and 95 RPM.

3251

Ibtihal Ait Abdelmoula and Mohamed El Aroussi. A Photovoltaic Power Prediction Approach Enhanced by Feature Engineering and Stacked Machine Learning Model

Abstract. The rapid depletion of world reserves of fossil fuels escalates energy costs, raises concerns regarding energy supplies, and increases climate impacts. The deployment of renewable energy has therefore become a worldwide trend. Among the other known forms of energy, solar energy is unquestionably the cleanest. In an era of widespread deployment of solar photovoltaic plants, research and development activities have made significant progress in assessing and investigating the behavior of solar installations in order to increase their reliability; however, there is still a local component which has not been thoroughly considered in many climate areas, including the semi-arid one. Understanding the distinctive features of each environment as well as how they affect photovoltaic power is the first step towards developing intelligent and data-driven maintenance algorithms suited to the region's environmental context. This study proposes a stacked machine learning model for making hourly predictions of two PV systems varying in size and age. Three machine learning algorithms were compared with a baseline linear regression model for the PV prediction. The algorithms were also evaluated in terms of the input predictors. The findings demonstrate that the stacked ensemble model outperforms the individual models chosen for comparison in both systems and offers new perspectives for improving PV prediction.

3284

Mohamed TahaAhmed S. ShehataSara El-Gazzar and El-Sayed HegazyOptimizing The Yard Facility Layout for Building and Fabrication marine and Offshore Units using Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique

Abstract. Facility layout optimization is to set best physical configuration of the site facility to perform high production capacity and improve the performance of the organization. Marin fabrication yard is one of factory consists of several fabrication activities using a large area. Construction activities varied to produce different types of marine units and offshore platforms like decks, jackets, subsea guides, piles, deepwater oil and gas structures, and ships. This hug structure needs a suitable site area with a good arrangement of a fabrication facility to achieve best and fast production flow. The objective of this study is to optimize the yard facility layout for building and fabrication of marine and offshore units using Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique algorism. In this paper facility layout problem (FLP) for the marine fabrication yard (Alexandria yard) was verified as study work case. Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique algorism (CRAFT) used to improve the already existing marine yard layout. Also, Sample data project was collected to determine the amount of fabricated material as real data input for required calculations. Alternatives layout produced by CRAFT algorithm and compared with existing marine yard layout (Alexandria yard) to defined best layout design, the comparison found that the computerized layout design provided by CRAFT algorithms provides better layout design results and improves the initial material transportation from 187608.64 Birr to 76163 Birr By applying different types of iteration like switch, relocating and resizing the department.

3334

Richao Cong, Atsushi Fujiyama and Toru Matsumoto. Carbon Sink Quantification Aids for Achieving the Zero-Emission Goal: A Case Study in Japan

Abstract. The Japanese government has issued its zero-GHG emission goal by 2050 and a short-term emission mitigation goal for 2030; however, some local communities face difficulties in making detailed mitigation plans. This study provided details on modelling and mapping carbon uptake (i.e., sinks from forest lands) at a high spatial resolution level in Fukuoka Prefecture in 2015. A scenario analysis was then conducted on the net carbon emissions by 2050 to discuss the achievement of the zero-carbon emission goal. The carbon sinks from forest land remaining in Fukuoka were estimated at a high spatial resolution level (forest managed-team level) for the year 2015. The carbon sinks from the pools (living biomass, deadwood, litter, and mineral soil) were approximately 2615 Gg CO2 yr-1. The results of the BAU scenario showed that it was impossible to achieve its goal by 2050 without additional efforts on emission mitigation and uptake. As a result of the implemented scenarios, the goal could only be achieved by achieving the short-term mitigation goal for 2030, maintaining this mitigation trend until 2050, and increasing the level of carbon sink addition. This work will provide a precedent to support policymakers from global cities to clarify their net carbon emissions and make essential carbon mitigation and uptake goals.

3388

Ravishankar Sathyamurthy and Mohanavel V. Analysis and performance enhancement of newly designed solar based heat pump for water heating application

Abstract. Owing to its use of solar radiation and ambient energy, solar based heat pump water heaters are environmentally friendly. Several recommendations for system optimization are offered based upon the experimental study and thermodynamics analysis to enhance the efficiency of the model. The goal of this work was to create and maintain a solar based heat pump prototype as well as to propose a comprehensive theoretical examination into the social-economic and energy efficiency of a new solar based heat pumping (SHP) model for water heater application. The ultimate focus of the performance evaluation and interpretation is to evaluate the viability and logical consistency of deploying a solar-based heat pump as an auxiliary water heating mechanism during local weather scenarios. Subsequently, a modelling approach is created for optimizing the performance. Moreover, the suggested system's performance characteristics are assessed using the Solar Collector Efficiency (SCE) and Coefficient of Performance (COP). The optimal case's simulation results demonstrate that the solar-based heat pump's average COP is about 9.0. The comfortable level of temperature could be accomplished when a pleasant indoor temperature reaches 92.6 percent of the whole heating season. Traditional air source heat pump systems may not be as promising for domestic use in cold temperature areas as the optimal proposed system does.

3465

Ravishankar Sathyamurthy and Mohanavel V. Synthesis and characterization of paraffin wax with carbon nanotubes and magnesium oxide

Abstract. Energy is a conserved quantity. The world demands increased energy supply in the future as a means to support life, in specific eco-friendly electricity. In this study, paraffin wax is doped using CNT and CNT/MgO composite at different composition namely 1, 2 and 3%. Similarly, the composition of CNT with MgO is varied in 50 and 75%. Various tests were performed such as thermal conductivity, zeta potential and electrical conductivity were conducted. Results showed that the thermal conductivity of the PCM with 3% CNT concentration is higher about 60% whereas, using CNT and MgO in the composition of 75/25 the thermal conductivity is enhanced to about 75%. On using MgO and 50% CNT-50% MgO, the thermal conductivity reduced. The average zeta potential of the material containing 50%, 75%, and 100% CNT is 0.298, -0.862, and -0.111 mV, respectively. Because of molecular interaction, the impact of electrical conductivity is lower in 100 percent CNT when compared to the hybrid mixture of both nanoparticles. When contrast to the hybrid mixes, the CNT has a low molecular interaction.

3474

Afya Fadhel and Widad Jassim. Fabrication of natural gelcoat from epoxy and submicron carrot fibers (EP/ MCF) with high mechanical and thermal specifications

Abstract. Natural gelcoat was prepared from carrot waste powder as a coloring and strengthening material to epoxy by mixing it with different weight ratios (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8% ). The effect of the particle size of the micro Carrot powder was studied, using two different sizes (0.5 and 0.25 microns) on the mechanical properties (impact, flexural and hardness) and thermal conductivity. The impact strength increased from (10.09 KJ/ m2) for neat epoxy to (13.44 KJ/ m2) for epoxy with 2% of 0.5 MCF and to (18.86 KJ/ m2) for epoxy with 1% 0.25 MCF, flexural strength increased from (41.94 MPa) for neat epoxy to (~ 64 MPa) for epoxy with 2% of 0.5 MCF and to (82.38 MPa) for epoxy with 1% of 0.25 MCF, hardness of neat epoxy was (~ 76) and almost maintains its value for epoxy with 2% of 0.5 MCF and for epoxy with 1% of 0.25 MCF. The internal structure of these composites was also studied using a scanning electron microscope, to explain the superiority of the (EP/ 0.25MCF) over the other composite (EP/ 0.5MCF) in all mechanical properties in addition to thermal conductivity, using EDX technique the ratios of elements composition are determined of the epoxy composites this ratios was linked with the color of the composites. Finally the diffusion of water in epoxy/ sub microns carrot fibers (EP/ 0.5MCF) and (EP/ 0.25MCF) composites have been determined for six weeks of immersion.

3476

Motaz Amer, Mohamed Mito, Ahmed Essam and Seif Bayoumi. Techno-Economic Investigations of Photo-Voltaic and Anaerobic Digestion Projects for Sustainable Agri-Business. (Case Study with Optimization Procedure in Livestock Farm)

Abstract. The aim of this paper is to economically compare Photovoltaic to Anaerobic Digestion projects’ benefits within livestock sector in Egypt, considering their Life Cycle Costs and other parameters using systems components available in the local market. A real case study of a livestock farm is considered to determine its energy profile. Later on, an optimization procedure is implemented for hybrid PV/AD power supplies in order to optimize the Cost of Energy and guarantee a continuous power supply depending on best use of land and cattle number covered within the comparison. The results show that the CoE produced from renewables is still higher than the CoE from grid. Furthermore, the rated tariff set by the government to buy electricity from investors will never attract farmers and smallholders to invest in renewables in case of consistent grid power. In other words, farmers under these conditions would only invest in renewables in case power outage threatens their businesses.

3530

Yamile Díaz TorresHernán Hernández HerreraMigdalia Torres del ToroMario A Álvarez GuerraParide Gullo and Jorge Iván Silva OrtegaStatistical-mathematical procedure to determine the cooling distribution of a chiller plant

Abstract. This paper presents a procedure to determine the cooling capacity distribution of the chillers composing a chiller plant using a statistical analysis of the building cooling demand. The mathematical-statistical procedure uses tools such as frequency histograms, box-and-whisker plots, stem-and-leaf plots, the generalized least squares method, and finally an iterative factorial procedure to generate from the processed information. Besides the manufacturer’s data, all possible chiller plant combinations considering design constraints. The procedure was verified in a hotel facility. Eight thermal demand profiles were simulated. Statistical analysis yielded a range of individual capacities between 100-353 kW. The procedure generated 189 refrigeration plant combinations between 2 to 5 chillers, with a safety factor (SF) between 10-20%. The highest number of combinations considered plants comprising three and four chillers, reaching 50 and 70 chiller plant options, respectively

3649

Amir Baklouti, Jeremie Schutz, Sofiene Dellagi and Anis Chelbi. Selling or leasing used vehicles considering their energetic type, the potential demand for leasing, and the expected maintenance costs

Abstract. The economical decision of whether leasing or selling used vehicles remains a challenging task for several enterprises that are willing to renew their fleet of vehicles. We consider a fleet of used vehicles of different types (Diesel, Electric, Hybrid, …). Considering demand from different prospects interested in leasing a number of second-hand vehicles for a given mission profile, a mathematical model is developed to determine to which prospects it is the most profitable to lease the used vehicles and furthermore the number of vehicles to be leased and the remaining ones to be sold. A numerical example is presented and discussed to illustrate the use and relevance of the proposed model. The obtained results show that for each type of vehicles, expected usage rates and maintenance costs that are borne by the company have a significant impact on the decision about leasing and selling.

3654

Alyaa Jaafar Munshed, Nabeel Kadim Abdel Sahib and Eman Ghadhban Khalil. Evaluate The In Vitro Compatibility Of aFabricated Pcl: Cs Blends,And Pcl Scaffolds

Abstract. The structure and biological activity of native extracellular matrix proteins should be reproduced in a tissue engineering scaffold. Electrospinning is a simple and adaptable approach for fabricating ultrathin tissue engineering fibers. Polycaprolactone(PCL) and chitosan nanofibers were electrospun, and the resulting fibers were tested and evaluated by Contact angle test, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tensile strength of fibers was found to be acceptable. In this work the nanofibrous scaffold promoted the growth and proliferation of normal human fibroblast(NHF), with normal morphology, thus demonstrating its suitability as a scaffold for skin regeneration.

3784

Fahad Abdallah, Mohd Noor Abdullah, Ismail Musirin and Ahmed M. Elshamy. Design and development of photovoltaic real-time Monitoring System Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract. As with any energy production system, photovoltaic (PV) installations have to be monitored to enhance system performances and to detect failures early for more reliability. However, nonlinear features and power variations caused by temperature and irradiance make it challenging to get the most out of a PV system. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller extracts the total available power from PV arrays. To ensure any PV system's reliable, stable operation and high performance, an effective monitoring system and intelligent MPPT controller are necessary. This research proposed a new real-time PV monitoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This system is cost effective and capable of detecting solar panel deterioration caused by Fault circumstances. In addition, the new monitoring system can track heterogamous PV panels with different manufacturing characteristics. We have created an ANN algorithm for tracking the maximum power point with fast tracking speed while ensuring system stability. The proposed solution makes use of the ThingSpeak platform to make system configuration and data processing easier.

3991

Angela Morais, Armando Soares and Abel Rouboa. A numerical Study of the Gasification of Urban Wood Waste

Abstract. In this work, an Eulerian model was used to study numerically the behavior of the temperature and velocity fields, as well as the mass fraction of H2O and wood inside of a gasifier under specific conditions. Simulations were carried out for turbulent flows with different velocities and temperatures imposed on the entrances of the gasifier. Furthermore, the influence of the viscosity on the temperature and velocity fields was also studied. The results reveal that the maximum temperature inside the gasifier increases slightly with the entrance velocity and the turbulence viscosity ratio is lower in the zones with higher velocity.

4034

Shimaa K. Elshehawy, Elbdr O. Elgendi and Ahmed S. Shehata. Construction waste management: for biodiesel production process

Abstract. The construction sector is one of the most vital sectors today, having a great impact on the economy of any country. According to a recent worldwide prediction, it will be an engine of global economic growth in the decade to 2030, with output predicted to be 35% higher than in the ten years to 2020. Furthermore, the construction industry makes a substantial contribution to society's needs by enhancing people's quality of life. Otherwise, this industry generates 45% to 65% of waste dumped in landfills and accounts for 35% of world CO₂ emissions and almost 30% of greenhouse gas emissions. With the growing environmental awareness occurring worldwide, the construction industry is taking steps to reduce its environmental impact. Biodiesel as a replacement fuel has interesting properties such as renewability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, and environment friendly. The cost is the major problem associated with biodiesel production. Recycling C&D waste to produce biodiesel as raw material or as co-solvent to improve the quality of the biodiesel like carbon dioxide, and calcium oxide would save resources to a great extent, which decrease operation and production costs. The focus of this paper is to manage the C&D waste and find the suitable exploitation of it, by technical comparison between CTO and WCO with Co₂ as a co-solvent has been applied and simulated in ASPEN HYSYS® V9. Biodiesel production from CTO and WCO with Co₂ from C&D waste has been reported as an effective technique using non-catalytic transesterification. t has several benefits over traditional catalytic transesterification, including the removal of catalyst preparation and separation issues. For each process, HYSYS® was used to develop detailed operating requirements and units designs. These processes were subjected to a technological evaluation to determine their technical benefits and drawbacks. The findings indicate that the CTO supercritical process was recommended, however, all procedures were proven to be capable of producing a high-quality biodiesel product that exceeded EN14214 biodiesel standards.

4075

Meng Huang, Ming Hu and Yue Xu. Effects of individual differences in open-air market space on human thermal comfort in winter

Abstract. The thermal comfort of open-air market directly affects the leisure and consumption experience of pedestrians. The formation of open-air market space is temporary, tidal, and spontaneous. This paper selects the representative open-air market of Harbin Normal University as the research object. A questionnaire is designed through field research, and three main influencing factors: gender difference, age difference, and clothing thermal resistance are proposed. After checking the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the questionnaire is distributed on the coldest day of the coldest month, and the method of observation and recording is adopted simultaneously. The data are screened and sorted out for linear regression analysis. Results show that a strong correlation is found between age difference, clothing thermal resistance, and thermal comfort, and a linear relationship is observed. The gender difference is weakly correlated and insignificant. This paper can provide data reference for the design and optimization of open-air market space in severe cold areas.

4099

Nicolae Adrian Visan, Dan Catalin Niculescu and Radu Chiriac. On some possible effects of using renewable oxygenated fuels in a large marine diesel engine

Abstract. Large diesel engines from the marine industry, railway, and industrial applications, need like alternative fuels to the classical petroleum derived diesel the oxygenated renewable fuels which can represent a viable solution to reduce the global CO2 emissions and to meet future regulations on pollutant emissions. Among these fuels, due to their large content of oxygen and part of their physico-chemical properties like the original diesel fuel, mixtures of biodiesel and ethanol in different fractions are under an intensive research activity in the last decade. In this sense, the current study reports a theoretical investigation made on the behaviour of a four-stroke large marine diesel engine (rated power of 2870kW @ 1100 rpm) fuelled with diesel-ethanol mixtures in fractions of 5%, 15% and 30% ethanol and with mixtures of biodiesel B20 (20% rapeseed biofuel and 80% diesel fuel in volumetric fractions)-ethanol with the same ethanol fractions for a full load, at rated speed and mid-speed operation conditions (1050kW @ 700 rpm) considering constant injected fuel amount. For the simulation of the engine operation condition a model was developed in the AVL BOOST software based on the Wiebe 2 Zone combustion model. The results show a reduction of Soot emissions by up to 21.56% for B20, 0.72% for diesel-ethanol30 and an increase by 4.1% for B20-ethanol30 with an increase of brake specific fuel consumption by up to 3.44% for B20, 12.79% for diesel-ethanol30 and 15.96% for B20-ethanol30(equivalent decrease of power) and an increase of NOx emissions up to 43.8% for B20, 7.05% for B20-ethanol30 and a decrease of 20.65% for diesel-ethanol30. The study emphasizes that a possible good compromise with an acceptable penalty of 5% in power could be achieved either by fuelling the engine with diesel-ethanol15 for which Soot and NOx have slight decreases by 0.16% by 9.68% either fuelling with B20-ethanol05 where Soot decreases by 19% but NOx increases by 21.98% at 700rpm. At high engine speed of 1100rpm, for same blended fuels diesel-ethanol15 and B20-ethanol05, Soot increases by 7.7% while NOx goes down by10.68%, respectively Soot decreases by 18.02% and NOx increases by 37.13%.

4161

Adama Sarr, Cheikh Mouhamed Fadel Kebe and Ababacar Ndiaye. Evolution of monthly average temperatures in four typical climatic zones in Senegal : comparison between ground temperatures and temperatures of the typical meteorological year

Abstract. One of the most obvious signs of climate change is the increase in the global average temperature over the past decades. This work constitutes an evolution of the monthly average temperature over 4 climatic zones of Senegal followed by a correlation study between ground measurement temperatures and temperatures of a typical meteorological year. The sites are located respectively in the west of the country (Dakar), in the north (St Louis), in the east (Tambacounda) and in the south (Ziguinchor). The results showed temperature variations depending on the region under consideration and also on the time of year. The results give a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.937 in Dakar, 0.889 in St Louis, 0.507 in Tambacounda and 0.789 in Ziguinchor. The mean squared error (MSE) ranges from 1.707°C to 3.113°C. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is between 5.3% and 9.6%. The mean absolute deviation (MAD) is between 1.308 °C and 2.873 °C. The low mean bias errors found make it possible to say that the correlations are good and the relationship between the in situ temperatures and those of the typical meteorological year is a relationship of direct proportionality.

4180

Vladimir Pavlovich Klepikov and Liubov Vladimirovna Klepikova. Trends in capacity changes in oil refining in the European energy sector

Abstract. Oil is an important product in the world energy sector, while its refinement has a significant impact on the development of the world economy. Europe’s is among the leading oil refinement sectors worldwide. Therefore, developing European refineries’ capacity is an important political and economic objective. The purpose of this study is to identify trends in refining capacities in European regions. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to develop a methodology to assess oil refinement capacities, study their dynamics in European regions, determine the of European states’ contributions to the capacities, identify trends in the concentration of states’ capacities, assess the impact of COVID-19, and forecast the development of the capacities based on the trends. The period for the study is 2005–2020. The results show that during the period, Germany, Italy, France, and Spain led all European countries in refining capacity. The Gini and Herfindahl-Hirschman indices show a decreasing concentration trend and a more even distribution of capacity across Europe. During the period, the shares of the total European refining capacity were approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% for the North, South, and West regions, respectively. The impact of COVID-19 on the European oil refining capacity in terms of volume was assessed by comparing the total capacities in 2019 and 2020. If the rate of change in refining capacity remains at the level highlighted in the period, a 20% decrease (relative to the 2005 capacity volumes) may occur in the West and South regions by 2027, while the same 20% decrease may occur in the North region by approximately 2043.

4220

Mary Waheeb and Fahd Hemeida. Study of natural ventilation and daylight in a multi-storey residential building to address the problems of COVID-19

Abstract. Many issues have emerged more clearly than before in multi-storey residential buildings during quarantine and lockdown caused by the global pandemic COVID-19. Among these problems is the deterioration in people’s mental and physical health inside the home caused by quarantine and closure. This deterioration is due to inadequate passive ventilation, natural lighting, and the lack of green open spaces in and around traditional multi-storey residential buildings. Also, one of the most severe problems is the airborne infection transmission from a positive covid-19 person to others due to the lack of control in the entrance of buildings against an infected person. In this paper, we modified the shape of a traditional multi-storey residential building. Using Design-Builder and Autodesk CFD software, we create a simulation to compare the amount of natural ventilation and lighting before and after modifying the building's shape. This work aims to increase the passive ventilation and daylight inside the building. Also, to achieve the biophilic concept to provide open spaces for each apartment to improve the mental and physical health of the residents. In addition, it protects the building users from infection with the virus. Through this study, we found that passive ventilation and daylight achieved more efficiency in the building that we have modified in its shape. In summary, these findings suggest that by modifying the mass of the traditional multi-storey residential building with open green spaces provided for each apartment, the natural connection with the inhabitants of the building was sufficiently provided. Moreover, all this will significantly help improve residents' mental and physical state, and it will also help prevent the spread of various diseases inside the homes.

4233

Sevgi Osman. Reporting of ecological sustainability of banks

Abstract. The increased interest in measuring sustainable development stems from studies that highlight the difficulties in measuring non-financial information and offer guidelines for developing common evaluation frameworks. There are a large number of studies that offer different reporting measures. The reporting of environmental information is currently often underestimated and lags behind the information on financial, economic and social indicators due to the indirect impact of the banking sector on climate change. The current research concept is focused on clarifying the key aspects of the environmental determinants of sustainable development in banks and developing an effective framework for their quantification. This concept proposes the development of a modified model for reporting on the environmental banking performance. Specific indicators are also proposed for the operational reporting of the environmental performance of banks, which are becoming increasingly important along with strategic decisions for sustainable development.

4284

Simona Lizica Paraschiv, Paraschiv Spiru and Dragan Marcel. A web application to calculate the mass defect and nuclear binding energy per nucleon

Abstract. The discovery of radioactivity proved that the energy stored in the nucleus could be released as radioactive particles' kinetic energy. Fission and fusion reactions generate enormous amounts of energy that could be used to generate electricity in nuclear power plants. The energy released or absorbed in these nuclear reactions comes from the different binding energies associated with each nucleus. Nuclear binding energy is the amount of energy required to keep a nucleus's protons and neutrons together, and nuclear power is the amount of energy released during nuclear fission or fusion. Each type of nucleus has its own binding energy, which is the amount of energy lost when its nuclei came together and are the same as the amount of energy needed to split them. The paper describes a web application for computing nuclear binding energy per nucleon. The calculation of nuclear binding energy in terms of MeV / nucleon entails determining the mass defect and converting the mass defect into energy per nucleon.

4292

Hong Jin and Yue Xu. The impact of sky view factor on thermal environment of urban squares: a case study in Harbin

Abstract. Sky View Factor (SVF), which is a factor that closely related to the total solar radiation received at a site, significantly influences the outdoor thermal environment. The urban square is an important part of urban public spaces, where urban residents indulge in outdoor activities. A good thermal environment of the square has a positive effect on improving the well-being of the residents. This research adopts thermal environment field measurements to conduct research in two urban squares with large differences in SVF, the enclosure interface are buildings, and the distance is similar in Harbin, a representative city in the severe cold region. This study quantitatively analyzes the impact of SVF on various thermal environment evaluation indicators. The result shows that in severe cold regions, SVF has the greatest impact on global temperature and the least impact on air temperature and relative humidity. This study can provide data reference and reference for the design and optimization of the thermal environment of the square in severe cold areas.

4413

Osama AyadiMohammad HamdanAli BaniyounesEyad Radwan and Abdullah Bani-Abdullah. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the electricity consumption of university campus, the case of the Applied Science Private University

Abstract. The unprecedented closure of schools around the world because of the global pandemic has had a significant impact on the energy consumption of educational buildings. This paper investigates the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the electricity consumption of a private university in Jordan.

4443

Florin Bode, Angel Dogeanu, Laurenţiu Tăcutu, Ilinca Nastase and Paul Alexandru Danca. Experimental study of an innovative perforated air diffuser at real scale conditions

Abstract. European regulations impose that the energy demand for buildings to be reduced in the same time with stricter demands related to Indoor Environmental Quality, which implies thermal comfort for the occupants inside the buildings needs to be maintained at least at the same level. The intended idea from this work is to improve the air diffusers ventilation devices in order obtain a more efficient mixing of the airflow from the air diffuser with the ambient air. For this, an innovative cross shaped orifices perforated panel is analysed by comparison with a regular panel with circular orifices. The measurements are carried out in a climatic chamber and the thermal comfort is assessed using two different experimental devices at the same time namely a thermal manikin and ComfortSense equipment. The equivalent temperature was assess using the thermal manikin. The noise levels and pressure losses through the perforated panels were also evaluated. The PMV and PPD thermal comfort indexes showed a more comfortable ambience for a specific person in the room for the cross shaped lobed perforated panel compared with the circular shaped perforated panel. Also, the special geometry of the lobed perforated panel was not found to generate supplementary noise and the pressure losses of the airflow through the perforated panels were reduced in this case.

4449

Panuwat Chanmark Chanmak, Kitti Keawchart, Niwat Ketchat and Bundit Krittacom. The Solid Combustion in Rotary Porous Burner (RSPB)

Abstract. The combustion behavior of rotary solid porous burners (RSPB), i.e., temperature (T), exhaust gas (CO and NOX) and combustion efficiency (ηC) were investigated. The stainless wire-mesh type of porous media was selected as porous absorber with porosity of 0.82, thickness of 4.2 mm. The rice husk was used as the fuel with the humidity around 12-14%. The experiment showed that the T tends to increase following the rotating velocity (w) rising around 0.5-1 rpm. When a increased to 1.5 rpm, a T had tendency decreasingly. Because, a was too high resulting in the fuel in combustion chamber were ejected quickly then the reaction time reduced not enough to burn fuel, leading to incomplete combustion. The air flow rate (QA) of 40 m3/h and the fuel load input rate (QF) of 2.3 kg/h, gave the highest of T due to the system become complete combustion. Corresponding to the level of CO, the least level was obtained at = 1 rpm, QF = 2.3 kg/h and QA = 40 m3/h. The C yielded highest with 93.7% at the same condition. The NOX in this research was considered as low, not more than 40 ppm in all experimental conditions.

4465

Ahmed Emad Mahmoud Moawad Mansi, Tarek Hosny Taha, Mohamed Abd Al-Raheem Abu Saied, Hamada El-Gendi, Eman Awad El Desouky and Ranya Aly Amer. Conversion of textile waste into bioethanol: statistical optimization of the fermentation process in bioreactor

Abstract. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise as a result of human activity, and they are the primary cause of global warming. The use of industrial cellulosic wastes, such as textile fibers as a cheaper fuel by poor people is becoming more common as global fuel costs rise. Furthermore, the uncontrolled disposal of these materials resulted in burning emissions and hazardous gases that harmed people's health. As a result of the predicted depletion of currently available fossil fuels, a significant reduction in energy forms will be observed. The most acceptable solution to this dilemma will be alternative energy sources. The fundamental purpose of this study is to convert the existing industrial wastes into bio-ethanol as a source of alternative energy. Potent chemical and physical pre-hydrolysis processes have been applied for the liberation of fermentable sugars from the cellulosic chains of the waste. The chemical treatments were followed by green technologies such as autoclaving, microwaving and sonication. The obtained sugars have been fermented by potent yeast isolates in order to produce large scale quantities of bioethanol using Box-Behnken statistical design as a powerful optimization of the tested parameters. The morphology of the fiber and the hydrolyzed fiber were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The Box-Behnken design recommended the use of 60% waste hydrolysate that should be incubated at pH 6 and 30oC for 72 h. as optimal conditions for the maximum production of bio-ethanol using 3 L bioreactor. These parameters were succeeded0 to yield 14.68 mg/ml of bio-ethanol.

4494

Youness Tace and Mohamed Tabaa. Smart Irrigation system based on IoT and Machine Learning

Abstract. Traditional agriculture has been the pillar of development on the planet for centuries. But with exponential population growth and increasing demand, farmers will need water to irrigate the land to meet this demand. Because of the scarcity of this resource, farmers need a solution that changes the way they operate. With the advent of new technologies, the notion of Agriculture 4.0 has become a reality to keep up with and meet the demand. The addition of artificial intelligence and IoT thus through the collection and processing of agricultural data, decisions have become more and more precise to facilitate decision-making. In this paper, we propose an intelligent irrigation based on IoT and machine learning algorithms for smart agriculture. For this we used a set of sensors (soil humidity, temperature, and rain) in an environment that ensures better plant growth for months, from which we collected data based on an acquisition map using the Node-RED platform and MongoDB. Based on the collected data, we used many different models: KNN, Logistic Regression, Neural Networks, SVM and Naïve Bayes. The results showed that K-Nearest Neighbors is better with a recognition rate of 98.3% and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12, compared to other models (LR, NN, SVM, NB), and towards the end we provided a web application that brings together the various data emitted by the sensors as well as the prediction of our models to allow better visualization and supervision of our environment.

4508

Shahad Hussain and Abdalhameed Al-Sarraf. Study the Contrast of Thermal Expansion Behavior for PMMA Denture Base, Single and Hybrid Reinforced Using the Thermomechanical Analysis Technique (TMA)

Abstract. This research investigated the effect of adding two groups of reinforcement materials, including bioactive materials Hydroxyapatite (HA) and halloysite nanoclay and bioinert materials Alumina (AL2O3) and Zirconia (ZrO2), each of them with various weight ratios (1,2,3,4 &5)% to the polymer matrix PMMA. The best ratios were selected, and then a hybrid was preparing Composite red from the best ratios from each group. Thermal properties, including thermal conductivity and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) technology, have been studied. The results showed that adding 3% Hydroxyapatite (HA) and 5% halloysite nanoclay to the polymethacrylate (PMMA) mer leads to an increase in thermal conductivity. It was also found from the Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) technique that the change in length and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) show a slight decrease in behavior compared to the single and hybrid reinforcements. On the other hand, it was found that the addition of reinforcing materials led to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg).

4566

Krittin Korkerd, Chaiwat Soanuch, Zongyan Zhou, Pornpote Piumsomboon and Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan. Effect of particle size and particle loading on the mixing behavior of rod-like particles and spherical particles in a fluidized bed

Abstract. The spherical inert particles are typically added to a fluidized bed system to promote the fluidization of non-spherical particles. In this study, the mixing behavior of binary mixtures of rod-like particles and spherical particles in a bubbling fluidized bed was investigated using a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation. The 2k factorial experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size and rod-like particle loading on the average mixing index, as measured by the Lacey mixing index. The use of smaller spheres and rod diameters resulted in a high average mixing index despite increasing of the rod weight. The effect estimates from the factorial experimental design indicated that the rod diameter was the most important factor for the average mixing index. Furthermore, the sphere diameter also had a significant effect. Nevertheless, the rod weight and interaction of parameters had a slightly effect on the average mixing index. These findings confirmed the significance of using inert spherical particles for improving the hydrodynamics properties of non-spherical particles, including the mixing behavior of the binary mixtures system.

4589

Wongkot Wongsapai and Monnagon Sriwapa. Factors affecting electricity consumption of public university buildings in Thailand

Abstract. The current energy consumption situation There is a higher electricity consumption according to the population's demand, and it is likely to increase further in the future. Government agencies that use the most electricity are the Ministry of Education which consists of the Office of the Basic Education Commission, Office of Vocational Education Commission, Office of the Commission on Higher Education, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education Education Council Secretariat and the university. This paper focuses on the analysis of energy utilization indicators (EUI) in University Thailand. Based on data collected from 49 sites of universities during the last 10 years, from the year B.E. 2010 to 2019, which considers air-conditioned areas non-air-conditioned area Number of students, number of personnel and temperature. Also, it can be used as a reference for trends in planning for future energy consumption.

4613

Stefano Morelli, Filippo Cossio, Danilo Monarca, Alvaro Marucci, Sara Selli, Daniele Pierini and Maurizio Carlini. Parametric sweep simulation for greenhouse temperature field optimization: an Italian case study.

Abstract. The increasing importance of protected cultures in the last decades has led to the definition of aims for greenhouse design and functioning, in order to conjugate productivity and environmental sustainability. In particular, the optimization of greenhouses is finalized to better solar radiation adsorption and ensure to the crops a homogeneous temperature field for the whole growth time. An Italian case study is presented in this paper: the studied farm needs to project greenhouse geometry and design a hot-water pipes heating system to cultivate basil during the winter season, improving the exploitation of natural resources. A simulative analysis has been carried out by mean of COMSOL Multiphysics software, investigating the effects of greenhouse height, number of pipes and water temperature of the heating system on the inside temperature field through a parametric sweep approach. Twenty-seven scenarios have been simulated and three of them have been considered suitable for the farm applications. The simulative approach allows to collect data about the minimum number of pipes, the sensitivity of the internal temperature field to the outside temperature fluctuation (referred also to the height of the greenhouse) and the more suitable heating water temperature needed to ensure the required habitat to the basil crops, minimizing also temperature fluctuations.

4649

Mohamed Asbik, Latifa El-Kaddadi, Abdelghani Koukouch and Abdelmounaim Dadda. Experimental Study of Thermal Energy Storage with a Phase Change Material

Abstract. Use of a phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage medium has recently received more attention and considered to be a promising technology. This paper presents an experimental study of thermal energy storage using a PCM. The experimental device is composed of a test-bed, measuring instruments and two tanks (2×30 liters) full of hot and cold water (Heat Transfer Fluid: HTF) respectively. The thermally insulated test-bed consists of two vertical concentric tubes whose annular space is filled with the paraffin wax used as a heat storage medium. During heat storage process (charging/discharging), the HTF (hot/cold water) flows in the upward direction of the inner tube. The water temperature in the hot tank is kept at 75°C whereas that of the cold one is about 22°C. These temperatures correspond to the HTF inlet temperature during heat charging (storage) and discharging (retrieval) period respectively. At the first stage of the process (charging), heat is transferred to the PCM by hot water to be stored until heat transfer steady state will be established. Next, one part of the stored heat will be retrieved (discharging) through cold water flow in the same direction. Experimental tests were conducted for three selected HTF mass flow rate values (100, 200 and 300 kg/h). Their influence on temperature profiles, liquid fraction, melting time and stored/retrieved heat density were examined. Also, thermal stratification during the experiments has been highlighted.

4763

Haider Kaduhm and Hameed Abduljabbar. Texture Image Classification Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Method

Abstract. This paper studies one of the important structural methods in the classification of texture images, which is scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), where the Brodatz database was used as sample images to test the proposed algorithm. The k-mean classifier and the frequency density function are used to classify the images based on classifying the obtained feature pointsو where an analysis of the proposed classification algorithm is presented. The results confirmed the possibility of the proposed algorithm in classifying histological images

4838

Osama AyadiReem Shadid, Abdullah Bani Abdullah, Mohammad Alrbai, Mohammad Abu-Mualla and Noor Balah. Experimental Comparison Between Different PV Systems Under Sunny Climatic Conditions

Abstract. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of solar cells available in the Jordanian market under different weather conditions and with different mounting topologies. The comparison will take place under higher solar radiations conditions and over several years of operation. Therefore, the customers will be able to choose the cell type that has the best performance under same conditions. To achieve that objectives of the study, six different systems: Mono-crystalline East/West, Mono-crystalline South, Poly-crystalline South, Poly-crystalline East/West and two different thin film systems oriented toward the south, were installed and tested at Applied Science Private University (ASU), Amman, Jordan. The comparison between the systems was done based on three main parameters that include the performance ratio (PR), system yield, and system efficiency (EFF). The results of the study showed that PR and EFF for the winter are higher than the summer. On the other hand, Yield is higher in the summer. Meanwhile, daily variations of PR, EFF, and yield are higher in the winter comparing with the summer which appeared to be stable at the summer. Thin film systems had the best PR and system yield over the years with a yearly value of 0.847 and 1752.86 kWh/kWp respectively, while Monocrystalline South system had the highest efficiency over the years with a value of 13.256 %.

4968

Ibtissam Amalou, Naoual Mouhni and Abdelmounaim Abdali. Multivariate time series prediction by RNN architectures for energy consumption forecasting

Abstract. For the last decade, households and buildings are using the classical structure of the electric networks, which are working on base of the energy provided by production centers, which are in their role based on fossil fuels as providers of energy. Those centers are suffering from high pressure caused by large figures of energy consumption. In this context smart grids emerged as a new technology and new generation of classical electric networks, they present increasing efficiency and reliability thanks to the automated check, advanced communication infrastructures, detection and counting techniques and energy management based on demand optimization. Their importance of smart grids can also be touched in the possibility of integrating communication systems for energy demand forecasting, to provide an optimal management of the combination of renewable energies and production centers energy. In this regard, many studies have been done on statistical, machine learning and deep learning methods for forecasting energy demand, those models are trained on databases providing historical consumption informations. In this study, we propose a comparative analysis of different deep learning models, particularly RNN architectures, such as simple RNN network, LSTM and GRU. These architectures are trained and tested on the Smart Grid Smart City (SGSC) project (2010-2014) energy Dataset and evaluated using many metrics such as RMSE, MAE and R2_score in order to study each of those architectures, compare them and finally choose the most efficient model.

4973

Haytham Musameh, Faris Al-Naemi, Hameed Alrashidi and Walid Issa. Quantifying The Energy Saving Potential When Utilising CdTe STPV Glazing Systems

Abstract. The integration of CdTe solar cells glazing will be used as passive energy management system to improve the overall energy consumption of buildings. Simulations have indicated that utilising CdTe solar cells into the glazing systems would achieve 16% energy saving when it covers more than 40% of wall area.

5095

Alexandre Soares dos Reis, Petra Vaquero, Marta Ferreira Dias and Alice Tavares. Passive Discomfort Index as an alternative to Predicted Mean Vote and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied to assess occupant’s thermal discomfort in dwellings

Abstract. Besides energy poverty, a certain tolerance to discomfort justifies Portugal's low heating energy consumption. Once Portuguese buildings stock, previous to 1990, has a weak energy performance, it is crucial to reflect on how to make renovations with more assertive benefits (besides energy), such as those related to the health and comfort of occupants. Hence, we have studied a single house in the TRNSYS dynamic simulation tool. We performed a sensitivity analysis by simulating the same building in three locations based on Portuguese climatic winter zones: I1 – Santarém, I2 – Santa Maria da Feira, and I3 – Guarda, for two ranges of wall insulation thickness, in free float. Considering Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) as the passive discomfort index IDP, results suggest that lowering 20 mm on the insulation thickness does not substantially impact occupants' discomfort in winter. As the variations between scenarios considering PPD > 15%, PMV < -1, or IDP (Tair < 18 ºC) are very similar, IDP could be an alternative to PMV/PPD for assessing thermal discomfort in dwellings.

5112

Mr.Jattupon Pongkun and Bundit Krittacom. Construction of Rotated Disinfection-Box for Degree Certificates with UVC

Abstract. The rotated disinfection box for degree certificates with UVC was constructed to study the Ultraviolet dose (HUV, exp) and determine the appropriate killing rate (KR) for the disinfection of degree certificates. The degree certificate disinfection box was rotated at three different speeds (N), namely: 6, 8, and 10 rpm. The radiation intensity values were measured by the UVC meter at the grille in 4 measurement positions.: y0 = 0 m, y1 = 0.19 m, y2 = 0.39 m, and y3 = 0.59 m. In a rotated disinfection box measuring 120 cm x 120 cm x 200 cm, an Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation system (UVGI) with a wavelength of 254 nm, a power of 32 W, and eight UVC lamps were employed. The UV rate constant (z) is set at 0.079 m2/J and the SARS-CoV-2 virus was killed with a criterion of radiation exposure of more than 134 J/m2. The results revealed that in all situations, HUV, exp would be larger than 134 J/m2 in the case of Tm greater than 50 s, and KR would reach 100% in 26 s. As a result, the UVC-constructed Rotated Disinfection-Box for Degree Certificates may sterilize certificates with confidence.

5177

Rusber Rodriguez, German Osma, David Bouquain, Javier Solano, Gabriel Ordoñez, Robin Roche, Damien Paire and Daniel Hissel. Sizing of a fuel cell-battery backup system for a university building based on the probability of the power outages length

Abstract. Hydrogen is a promising energy vector. Integrating hydrogen with renewable energy sources could be crucial to decarbonise and combat climate change. Governments and companies worldwide are researching the best benefits from hydrogen and contributing. This energy revolution involves several sectors, including power backup systems. Power backup systems supply priority facility loads during power outages. Fuel cell (FC) backup systems could be more convenient and cost-effective than battery or diesel generator systems for long survivability periods. FC system acquisition and implementation costs have decreased due to the development of FC and hydrogen production technologies. Therefore, implementing FC backup systems would be expected, first in commercial buildings and followed by the residential sector. In this way, this work proposes a methodology for sizing FC backup systems for low voltage (LV) buildings. The proposal uses the history of power outages to fit a probability function and determine the appropriate survival time based on the classification of the loads. Likewise, it analyses the need to include a battery bank according to power variations. In addition, it provides the integration of renewable energy sources. As a case study, the proposed sizing is applied to a university building with a photovoltaic generation system. Results show the sizing of an FC-battery backup system for the installation. For the case study, an FC-battery system is 7.7% cheaper than a battery-only system. It ensures a 99% probability of supplying essential load completely during power outages.

5224

Eslam Salama, Hassan Shokry, Mona Ossman and Marwa Elkady. Facile Synthesis of Robust Metal-Organic Framework (MOF-5) for Chromium (VI) Decontamination from Wastewater

Abstract. Herein, for the first time, we investigate the adsorption performance of nano-Zn benzenedicarboxylate metal-organic framework (nano-MOF-5) as an efficient adsorbent material for Cr(VI) decontamination from polluted water. The synthesized Zn MOF-5 was fully characterized via FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, BET, and TGA techniques. Moreover, the prepared Zn MOF-5 revealed a prominent surface area of 1169.32 m2 g-1, demonstrating its ability to be utilized as a capable adsorbent material. The adsorption profile of Cr(VI) onto the fabricated Zn MOF-5 was performed against the various parameters such as contact time, dosage, and initial Cr(VI) concentration. The optimum dosage from the Zn MOF-5 for 81.03% adsorption of 20 ppm Cr(VI) was 0.5 g L-1 at pH=7 after 15 min. The Cr(VI) decontamination performance of the synthesized Zn MOF-5 recorded the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 91.22 mg/g. These data demonstrated that the synthesized nano-Zn MOF-5 is a promising adsorbent material for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

5260

Amal Herez, Hassan Jaber, Hicham El-Hage, Thierry Lemenand, Khaled Chahine, Mohamad Ramadan and Mahmoud Khaled. A summary review on solar photovoltaic technology: classifications and applications

Abstract. Photovoltaic (PV) system is one of the main applications of solar energy which is concerned with generating electricity. The main role of this system is to convert sunlight to electricity by the absorption of photons. The aim of this work is to present a review of solar photovoltaic systems and technologies. The principle of solar PV system is exposed in addition to its main components. Also, the types of PV systems and the classification of PV technology are reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the previous researches implemented on solar PV are summarized in this work.

5292

Divine NgwashiPierre Tsafack and Bauduin OlomePerformance Enhancement of Photovoltaic Systems by Semi-passive Water Cooling

Abstract. We report here an approach for improving the efficiency of photovoltaic panels by taking advantage of overnight cooling of the coolant (water) and the influence of gravitational free flow of the water to cut down or coolant circulation energy requirements. By cooling the PV panels using a heat exchanger installed at the back of the panel, the influence of cooling of the back surface on the electrical power generated and hence efficiency has been investigated. This technique is cheap, conserves water and also present an efficient approach for managing the energy required for circulating the cold water in the heat exchanger. The water is pumped only once in the morning and stored in a thermally insulated and elevated tank using a low energy DC pump. This was made possible by maintaining a small pumping height of 1.7 m. During the cooling process, no electrical energy was required for the coolant circulation as the water was made to circulate naturally by gravity. Furthermore, the water cools down naturally in the lower tank (thermally conducting) to an average temperatures of about 23 0C. The cooling system was able to maintain the PV panel temperature at an average of 35.2 0C throughout the day compared to an average of 44.6 0C as shown by the PV panel without cooling system. The study revealed that the pumping system consumed less than 0.8 % of the daily energy production. Two identical PV panels were simultaneously tested under outdoor conditions; with and without cooling and their performances compared. The results show a maximum improvement in the electrical power generated with the cooled PV panel of about 19.3%, leading to an increased efficiency from 8.2 % without cooling to 9.4% for the PV panel with the cooling system installed. This study has applications for enhancing PV panels used in hot environments where hot season temperatures can have significant adverse effect on the PV panel performance as well as its effective life. Therefore, the system proposed in this paper presents a concrete realization of an aspect of, Sustainable Development Goal Number 7 (SDG7) to provide affordable and clean energy, by improving the output efficiencies of ready-made PV panels (that provides a clean and renewable form of energy).

5346

Roman Iliev, Sergey Dorzhiev, Elena Bazarova, Boris Miloslavsky and Maya Rosenblum. Low-altitude atmospheric lenses in arid regions

Abstract. The paper presents the results of theoretical and practical studies of low-altitude atmospheric lenses in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. The paper presents an overview of works on the topic of evaporation from the soil in arid regions as well as the methods for calculating evaporation. The calculations of evaporation and evaporation from the soil were made at three points of the Arabian Peninsula in the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 using weather data (temperature, air humidity, wind speed), obtained from weather stations. The results of measurements in full-scale conditions in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation, carried out from July 1, 2021 to October 1, 2021, are also shown. Measurements of weather data and evaporation obtained using a professional wireless weather station WS-2800-IT were carried out. As a result of processing data from weather stations, low evaporation value with high evaporability was revealed. According to the results of full-scale tests, local increase in evaporation values, mainly in salt marshes, was observed.

5365

Norhidayah Mat Taib, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor and Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen Direct Injection in a Helium-oxygen Compression Ignition Engine

Abstract. Helium, the lightest noble gas, can enhance the ignition of hydrogen in compression ignition (CI) engines and yield excellent thermal efficiency due to its high specific heat ratio. This paper emphasizes the potential of helium-oxygen atmosphere for hydrogen combustion in CI engines and provides data on the engine configuration. A simulation was conducted using CONVERGE CFD software based on the Yanmar NF19SK engine parameters. Helium-oxygen atmosphere compression displayed promising hydrogen ignition results when the in-cylinder temperature was significantly higher than that of air. In compression ignition engine with low compression ratio (CR) and intake temperature, helium-oxygen atmosphere is recognized as the best working gas for hydrogen combustion. The ambient intake temperature was sufficient for hydrogen ignition in low CR with minimal heat flux effect. The best intake temperature for optimum engine efficiency in a low CR engine is 340K. Meanwhile, the most acceptable engine compression ratio for optimum engine efficiency at ambient intake temperature is CR12, and greater CR leads in failure ignition. This parameter has the most resonable heat flux at the cylinder wall.The helium-oxygen atmosphere as working gas for hydrogen combustion in CI engines should be addressed in the future, based on the parameter provided for better engine thermal efficiency.

5533

Sura Akram, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari and Hayder B Sahib. Newcastle Disease virus AMHA1 strain effective against Iraqi breast cancer cells, In vitro and In vivo study

Abstract. Most commonly used cancer therapy does not differentiate between cancerous and non-cancerous cells; therefore, selectively targeting cancer cells is needed to fight cancer cells. Therefore, the Newcastle Disease virus has been selected in our study for its promising features to measure its antitumor activity and safety. Methods, two human breast cancer cells, negative estrogen and progesterone receptor (AMJ13) and positive estrogen and progesterone receptor (MCF7) in addition to (AN3) mammary adenocarcinoma animal tumor model were used in this study and treated by the virus. The study included cell viability, MTT assay, morphological analysis, apoptosis determination, anti-tumor, and growth inhibition effect on tumor volume in tumor-bearing mice. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect on both breast cancer cell lines with obvious cytopathic effects and induction of apoptosis with no or little effect on the normal cell line. Moreover, the in vivo results confirmed the in vitro results by demonstrating a strong antitumor growth inhibition effect on tumor volume. In conclusion, Newcastle Disease virus treatment showed safe significant tumor growth inhibition than the untreated control group, suggesting a promising strategy for anti-breast cancer therapy through Newcastle Disease Virus.

5550

Dr. Deepak Kumar. Analyzing Role of Hybrid Energy System for Improving Urban Energy Potential

Abstract. Scientific and industrial development has given escalation to a rapidly increasing energy demand. Alternative and augmented sources of energy, are being sought everywhere due to the depletion of other non-renewable resources. Solar and wind energy have emerged as one of the cleaner energy sources offering a promising solution to typical polluting energy resources with better efficiency. Hence, the attention has now shifted towards the large-scale propagation of hybrid renewable energy system. Numerous attempts have been taken to illustrate the technological advancement considering the requirement of the particular region. Whilst some research has begun to examine the functionality and assessment of hybrid energy systems but little attention has been paid towards the contribution of the hybrid energy system for urban areas. The proposed work also focuses on the simulation of the hybrid renewable energy systems with respect to techno-economic feasibility. This work also reports the various technological, scientific and industrial growths occurred in the area of the hybrid renewable energy system. This paper tries to showcase the modelling of a typical urban setup to determine the hourly load profile. The study identifies the growths in the energy potentials of the urban region with the use of hybrid energy system. It also summarizes the past, present and future trends of the hybrid energy system design, development and implementation for the urban region, which can be used in the other parts of the world.

5633

Khaireldin Faraj, Mahmoud Khaled, Jalal Faraj, Farouk Hachem, Khaled Chahine and Cathy Castelain. Short recent summary review on evolving phase change material encapsulation techniques for building applications

Abstract. As the world deviates towards sustainability in buildings due to massive increase in energy demand, the effective integration of Phase Change Material (PCM) in buildings gained substantial attention. The capability of PCM in enhancing the thermal performance of buildings relies heavily on the encapsulation technique used as it is in direct link with enhancement techniques required for upgrading thermo-physical, chemical and environmental PCM properties. The current study reviews shortly recent literature involving PCM integration in buildings and highlights different encapsulation techniques used for their proper active and passive incorporation. It also summarizes recent methodologies of properties enhancements prior to encapsulation. Preliminary results reflect the importance of proper encapsulation using the five distinct techniques: direct mixing, imbibing, shape-stabilization, macro-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation. Commercialization of macro-encapsulated PCMs is dominant over other techniques, where micro-encapsulation is still limited and requires further study being the most promising.

5685

Olga Poddaeva and Anastasia Fedosova. Extreme wind speeds analysis

Abstract. The extreme wind speed is a big problem in the design of buildings and structures, especially for unique building and structures. But modern Russian building codes prescribe taking into account regular winds only. Meanwhile, exactly extreme wind speed cost the most damage to constructions. The paper offers a statistic extreme wind speed analyses. At the first step the presence of a relationship between extreme wind speeds and directions is investigated. If there is this type of correlation, the extended wind rose for the extreme wind speed is being built. Two examples of using this technique for two different Russian regions at the project stage are given.

5688

Dandun Mahesa Prabowoputra and Aditya Prabowo. Effect of the Phase-Shift Angle on the vertical axis Savonius wind turbine performance as renewable-energy harvesting instrument

Abstract. Wind energy is the third-largest renewable energy source after hydro and solar energy, so it has great potential in increasing renewable energy in national energy. Savonius rotors are among the most popular rotors to convert wind energy into electrical energy. The Savonius turbine has the advantage of a simple structure. It is easy to modify to improve the Savonius performance, which is low. This research was conducted on a two-stage Savonius type wind turbine with variations in Phase-shift angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°. This research was conducted using the Computational Fluid Dynamic method with the Ansys Student version software on Solver CFX. The research was conducted in three dimensions with steady-state using SST turbulence type. This study aimed to determine the effect of PSA on the performance of the Savonius two-stage turbine. In addition to using the CFD method, this study uses a factorial design analysis. The results showed that PSA had an effect on the performance of the Savonius turbine, and the PSA with the best performance was 30°. At the same time, the Cpmax can be generated by 0.29.

5723

Viacheslav ShemelinNikola Pokorny and Jiri NovotnyExperimental investigation of silica gel and zeolite coated fin-tube heat exchangers under arid climatic conditions

Abstract. Rapid urbanisation and higher living standards sharply increase the fresh water demand. In arid climatic regions, where there is a lack of water resources, the possibility of fresh water production is essential. In this paper, a novel concept of an atmospheric water generator (AWG) based on desiccant coated heat exchangers (DCHEs) is presented. Two silica gel coated heat exchangers (SGCHEs) and two zeolite coated heat exchangers (ZCHEs) were prepared by coating a desiccant material on the surface of a conventional air-to-water fin-tube heat exchanger. An experimental set-up was built to investigate the performance characteristics for the prepared DCHEs in terms of the moisture removal capacity MRC, the effective duration of the process te, and the total moisture mass transferred during the dehumidification/regeneration cycle MT. The influence of the regeneration water temperature on the performance characteristics was also analysed. The experimental results showed that ZCHEs have better performance characteristics under arid climatic conditions than SGCHEs. In addition, it was found that the influence of the regeneration water temperature for ZCHEs is not as critical as for SGCHEs.

5760

Muhammad Imran Sadiq, Wan Aizon W. Ghopa, Mohd. Zaki Nuawi, Mohammad Rasidi Rasani and Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor. Investigation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients in Fluid Film Bearing With Bio Oils and Mineral Based Oil

Abstract. Fluid film bearings are commonly used in rotating machinery because of good load carrying capacity and inherent damping properties. Fluid film bearings offer stiffness and damping in order to ensure the rotordynamic stability. The stiffness and damping properties significantly change the critical speed and unbalance response of a rotor. The stiffness and damping coefficients (direct, cross-coupled) can lead to system instability which is also called self-excited vibration. In this work, the bio oils (rapeseed, palm olein and soybean) are experimentally examined in order to check their rotordynamic response compared to SAE40, a mineral based lubricant. Based on the experimental data, the stiffness and damping coefficients are analytically extracted. The bio oils have exhibited superior response compared to SAE40. Bio oils have given lower values for cross-coupled stiffness coefficients compared to SAE40, which is the major source of rotor instability. The main highlight of this work is that it gives the stiffness and damping coefficients of different bio oils at different eccentricity ratio and different viscosity, which can describe the dynamic characteristics of the fluid film bearing under operating conditions.

5862

Tamer Megahed and Mohamed F. Kotb. Improved Design of LED Lamp Circuit to Enhance Distribution Transformer Capability Based on a Comparative Study of Various Standards

Abstract. The conventional types of lamps represent approximately 20% of the total load worldwide. Most conventional lamps have been replaced by light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Although LED lamps have high brightness and low energy consumption, they have certain disadvantages, such as network voltage and current quality, which affect the distribution transformers. In this paper, the effects of commercial LED lamps on transformers are investigated, analyzed, and modified to improve the exploitation of transformer capabilities. A new converter circuit for the LED lamps has been designed to minimize harmonics and improve the voltage quality of the power factor (PF). The converter also improved the transformers’ capability utilization besides guaranteeing proper operations even when the LED lamp input voltage decreased up to 40% of its rating. To assure the effectiveness of the proposed circuit, a prototype was created and tested for two scenarios: commercial and proposed LED lamp circuits. The effects of the proposed LED lamps on the distribution transformers have been investigated against the effects of the commercial LED lamps. The derating factors and derating capacities of the transformers affected by the two scenarios were investigated based on American and European standards. Commercial LED lamps constituted 25% of the Mansoura University campus microgrid electric network in Egypt; this network was used to apply the proposed LED lamp circuit. The network was simulated, and the two scenarios were applied. The total harmonic distortion (THD), PF, voltage notching, harmonic loss factor, K-factor, factor-K, and the related derating capacities of the network transformers were calculated. Investigations were performed for both scenarios and compared using the American and European standards. The proposed circuit could effectively minimize the THD and improve the PF, voltage quality, and the utilization of transformer capacities.

5924

Marius-Cătălin Barbu, Adrian Birtaș and Radu Chiriac. On the Improvement of Performance and Pollutant Emissions of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled by Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen

Abstract. This paper presents the results of an experimental and a theoretical investigation made by simulations on a Renault HR09DET spark ignition engine, four-stroke, 3-cylinders, multipoint fuel injection fuelled successively by gasoline and compressed natural gas and hydrogen. The simulation model, developed with the AVL Boost program, was calibrated using the experimental data for the engine fuelled with gasoline. The experimental data obtained on a chassis dynamometer test bench following the WLT C were compared with simulation results for gasoline and compressed natural gas fuelling. The simulation model allowed the addition of hydrogen in parallel with the fuelling by natural gas. The results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of operating a spark ignition engine with hydrogen enrichment of natural gas, in terms of regulated emissions as unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx). As the amount of hydrogen in the mixture increases, up to 20-30% volumetric fractions an extend in the combustion limits occurs associated to consistent reductions by 30% for HC and 50% for CO. A slight increase by 15% occurs in NOx emissions for stoichiometric mixtures which decays by 5% in lean mixtures domain. Considering the higher octane number for CNG and hydrogen, the engine efficiency can be significantly improved by increasing the compression ratio to the limit of knock.

6099

Dimitrios Barkas, Ioannis Chronis and Constantinos Psomopoulos. Failure Mapping and Critical Measurements for the Operating Condition Assessment of Power Transformers

Abstract. The causes of failure of critical component of the electrical power distribution network like the power transformers, has always attracted the interest of the scientific and technical community, since the failures of electrical transformers almost always have a great impact on the consumers, as they can lead to a black out situation. A reliable and coherent maintenance schedule, that would predict the causes and prevent un-expectable shutdowns of power transformers, is of outmost importance nowadays, since electrification is expanding in terms of volume and power, as well as in terms of production sources, voltage and location. Such a reliable and coherent maintenance schedule depends on many factors and this article describes the parts of oil-immersed power transformers that are prone to failure. It also illustrates the relationship of the well-known dissolved gasses that appear in the insulating oil as a result of specific operating faults, with specific measurements that should be done periodically, in order to prevent a major failure. Additionally, it describes the relationship between these dissolved gases with specific maintenance actions that should be implemented during the preventive maintenance process.

6129

Yuri Arbuzov, Vladimir Evdokimov and Olga Shepovalova. Basic principles of solar radiation application for hydrogen and electric power production in photovoltaic systems with water electrolytic bath

Abstract. Hydrogen energy belongs to one of the actively progressing world-wide sectors of power industry, today, including the development of hydrogen production systems employing various primary energy sources. This applies to both conventional kinds of fossil fuels and renewable ones, first of all, solar and wind power, as well as to other renewables. The long-term benefits of this power industry branch are defined by their high values of hydrogen-to-electricity conversion efficiency, for instance, in electrochemical baths (electrolyzers) This provides a reasonable basis to treat hydrogen as a fuel resource practically equivalent to electric power. With regard to the various hydrogen storage and long-distance transportation options, the development of hydrogen-based power industry offers good prospects of reliable energy provision of a large number of areas with the use of environmentally safe renewable energy sources including solar power. The hydrogen production and practical use technologies are, in general, environmentally benign, while hydrogen transportation systems are characterized by substantially lower energy-carrier loss compared to conventional overhead power lines. Therefore, the hydrogen power concept provides the technological basis to solve the environment protection problem and, in some cases, to improve the environmental conditions of certain areas by reducing the anthropogenic impact of the existing fuel and energy infrastructure. The simplest and rather effective method making it possible to apply solar energy for combined production of hydrogen and electric power can be implemented by the development of systems comprising semiconductor photovoltaic converters and water electrolyzes. This article deals with the physical principles of the effective use of solar radiation for production of hydrogen and electric power, in photovoltaic systems with water electrolyzers. The basic energy-related characteristics of the system, the dependence of hydrogen production rate on the solar radiation intensity and that on the temperature of photovoltaic modules have been studied. The issues of optimization of the design structure parameters and those of the system electric circuitry have been analyzed. The maximum possible hydrogen production rate and the optimal system parameter and design structure have been evaluated and their energy efficiency has been estimated.

6189

Ahmed Mohye MoustafaAhmed S. ShehataAli Ismail Shehata and Ahmed A. HanafyRe use of Abandoned oil and gas wells for Power generation in Western Dessert and Gulf of Suez fields of Egypt

Abstract. This study investigates the capable outcome of using existing abandoned oil and gas wells as a geothermal energy source in Egypt. Geothermal resources of Egypt are mainly located along the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea in addition to some additional spots with lower potential in the Western Desert of Egypt. In Gulf of Suez the geothermal potential identified data and parameters dignified from oil and gas wells under the regulation of the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation. Using abandoned oil and gas well would save time and cost. In this paper a simulation model cycle has been made by ASPEN HYSYS software to show the reliability of using the abandoned oil and gas wells outlet fluid as a source geothermal energy in Egypt by mapping the geothermal favorability locations with the oil and gas field area. Mapping shows that in Egypt there is potential of extracting low, medium and high temperature extractions from wells according to the location. Results demonstrates that the output power for the simulation geothermal power plant in different locations of Egypt and at various temperatures showing that in western desert the maximum output power that can be generated from the modified binary ORC cycle is 3063 KW at output temperature of 125 °C, despite the fact that in the Gulf of Suez proposed maximum output is 63 MW that can be produced from modified dry steam cycle at an output temperature of 300 °C.

6194

Pavel Ilyushin, Olga Shepovalova, Sergey Filippov and Anton Nekrasov. The effect of complex load on the reliable operation of RES-based power stations integrated into energy systems and into off-grid energy areas

Abstract. A wide-scale application of renewable energy sources (RES) shall be associated with the properly implemented complex load modeling while calculating their electric operation modes. The reasons are that the aggregate capacity of RES installations and other generating units is practically compatible with that of loads, in both island and isolated network operation conditions, as well as low values of interdependent electric resistances. Therefore, emergency disturbances followed by voltage drops and consequent electric motor automatic start result in RES installations shutdown and active capacity deficit. This article deals with the basic failures of standard RES inventor undervoltage safety trip algorithm, Fault Ride Through (FRT), that has to reduce the active power output and to increase that of reactive power, in case of voltage drop. In order to prevent outages of RES-based generating equipment during emergency disturbances, the trip set points of RES inventors shall be adjusted to those of the adjacent power network protective relay. In case that these set points can not be principally adjusted, the adjacent power network protective relays shall be properly redesigned. In this article, an approach to selecting methods for complex loads modeling, in industrial energy areas, has been developed. A method for calculating the value of critical voltage across the load bars has been considered, and the relevancy to apply the dynamic scale model of electric motor has been substantiated. The specific aspects of the voltage-dependent and frequency-dependent load static characteristics employment, in calculations of electromechanical transient processes, have been analyzed. Recommendations on representing electric motors integrated into complex load circuits, in various software packages designed for operation modes calculations, have been stipulated. Various methods making it possible to take account of electromagnetic transient processes, in rotors of asynchronous motors, have been described. A proper account of complex loads enables to ensure reliable functioning of power generating equipment on the basis of RES including those integrated into energy systems and operating in isolated energy areas avoiding their outages followed by disturbances in power supply of power consuming equipment of industrial areas.

6227

Maurizio Carlini, Mirko Rotondo, Vera Marcantonio, Daniele Pierini and Andrea Mennuni. Modelling and simulation of a cooled CPC-ORC coupled system: performance analysis

Abstract. The aim of reducing exploitation of the earth leads to the development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). A technology that achieves this purpose using the solar energy is the Compound Solar Concentrator, able to increase the conveyance of the sun’s rays onto the solar cells. In this work this technology is equipped with a Coil Cooling System, to cool the system by improving the conversion efficiency. The heat absorbed by the cooling water represents usable energy in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system. The first part of the work is based on transient numerical simulations of the cooled Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) with COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software. The performance parameters show that after about n.20 models the improvements are contained reaching a thermal equilibrium. The selected number of cooled CPCs is n.20, reaching a temperature of the outlet water from coils of 50°C and a flow rate composed of n.2 coils of 1.2 l/min. Exploiting this outlet water, an ORC technology is coupled from a simulation point of view with the cooled CPC, making it possible to obtain an electric and thermal efficiency of 11.73% and 60.30% respectively with a pump pressure of 20 bar.

6262

Mohammed Harmoosh and Mohsin Hassooni. Theoretical Study of Electron Transfer Processes in N749 /ZnS Semiconductor Devices

Abstract. In this work, we study theoretically the electron transfer processes at N749 sensitized dye contact to ZnS semiconductor interface. The orientation energy of refractive index and dielectric constant .It analysis the influence of orientation energy on the electron transfer rate behavior in N749/ ZnS devices depending on data results of electron transfer rate constant. The potential barrier increased with decreasing the chemical potential of N749 molecule dye, and it predicted the driving energy and potential barrier. The decreased of electrochemical potential for N749 molecule reduce to increase the rate and increase the potential. In particular, the strength coupling is effect on charge rate, the charge rate increased with strength coupling increased and vice versa. Results indicate that N749 is suitable with ZnS as results of energies alignment for two material devices.

6341

Mircea Neagoe and Saulescu RaduComparative Energy Performance Analysis of Four Wind Turbines with Counter-Rotating Rotors in Steady-State Regime

Abstract. In the worldwide effort to decarbonize the electricity generation, increasing the energy performance of renewable energy conversion systems is a continuing global concern and challenge for stakeholders. In this context, the paper presents the results of a comparative study on energy performance of four counter-rotating wind turbines of different types. In this regard, the authors propose a new reconfigurable structure of a counter-rotating wind system, able of operating in four distinct cases: with traditional electric generator (with fixed stator) or counter-rotating generator, with monomobile (torque adding) or bimobile (speed adding) speed increaser. These functional cases are obtained by the appropriate command of two intermittent clutches. The first part introduces a proposed generalized algorithm for kinematic and static analytical modeling of the reconfigurable wind system and a new approach to optimizing the main design parameters, such as the ratio of wind rotor diameters. The results of the numerical simulation in steady-state regime, for a relevant value set of design parameters and for various wind speed values, showed a slight energy advantage of using counter-rotating generators and monomobile transmissions, but accompanied by drawback of increased complexity.

6418

Micheal William, María José Suárez-López, Silvia Soutullo, Mennatallah Fouad, Ahmed Hanafy and Wael El-MaghlanyMulti-objective integrated BES-CFD co-simulation approach toward pandemic proof buildings

Abstract. COVID-19 has posed an extraordinary burden to those professionals responsible for properly operating and safely maintaining facilities throughout this disaster. Considering this global pandemic, the common spaces in buildings must be reconsidered to accommodate a future in-presence existence. Governments address human health and safety as the most vital considerations worldwide; thus, HVAC designs, airflow patterns, and temperature distribution must all be reconsidered to achieve such healthy circumstances. Based on this, a BES-CFD validated model has been analysed in terms of various HVAC designs. The simulations assessed the proposed solutions in terms of energy-saving, operational CO2 emissions, thermal comfort enhancement, and infection control. The results were closely examined and showed that the UFAD system generates approximately laminar vertical airflow, reducing the likelihood of indoor infections and viral transmission. Supply air is delivered to the inhabitants' zone without sacrificing mixing efficiency, ensuring long-term indoor environmental quality. Moreover, the UFAD model proved to be more cost-efficient compared to the COHD and has a lower carbon footprint and energy consumption. In terms of thermal comfort, the dynamic simulations showed a noticeable enhancement in PMV. Additionally, the UFAD provides a vertical temperature gradient profile that is sufficiently uniform. Moreover, the integrated DOAS-UFAD systems’ effectiveness was proved through a techno-economic analysis with a Return on Investment of 8.25% and a Payback period of 7.3 years.

6427

Wasan Hmood and Aqeel Salih. Calculating the Modes Properties for Glass Optical Fibers at He-Ne Laser Wavelength

Abstract. In this paper, glass optical fibers with core radii (1–5) µm and a numerical aperture of 0.17 were studied and their modes properties have been calculated at a wavelength of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (0.6328µ m) by using RP Fiber Calculator (free version 2022). Multimode fibers can be obtained when the radius of the fiber core is large compared to the wavelength. It has been concluded that all the calculated properties increase with increasing core radius. Amplitude and intensity profiles of the modes were shown.

6465

Mohammed Abujab and Abdelrahim Abusafa. Optimal Insulation’s Thickness of Pipes in Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System – An-Najah Child Institute as a Case Study

Abstract. This research aims to calculate the optimum thickness of variable refrigerant flow piping network insulation and to investigate the environmental and economic effects of using optimum insulator thickness. The case study of this research is An-Najah Child Institute; it is four floors building with a total area of 1600 m2, located in Nablus city – Palestine. The research is based on the present worth cost over the insulation life cycle that is assumed to be 15 years to determine the optimal thickness of common insulator types (Rockwool, XPS, and flexible foam) for different pipes diameters, and vary refrigerant flow rates. The research result is; the optimum thicknesses of the Rockwool insulator are 32, 36, 38, 40, 42, and 44 mm for diameters of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 inches respectively. The optimum thicknesses of XPS insulator are 28, 32, 34, 36, 36, and 38 mm for 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 inches respectively. The optimum thicknesses of flexible foam insulator are 11, and 12 mm for 0.5, and 0.75 inches respectively, and 13 mm for 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2- inch diameters. The energy loss reduction due to optimum Rockwool insulator thickness on the ANCI piping network varies between 78.5% and 81.6% compared to an insulated piping network. Besides, the Carbon emission saving due to optimum Rockwool insulator thickness on the ANCI piping network is 1737, 1541, 1033, and 1160 kg of CO2 for Coal, Oil, Natural gas, and LPG-based generation respectively. Moreover, the research found that the effect of the refrigerant physical parameters such as quality and flow rate has no observed effect on the optimum insulation thickness for all investigated insulator types. And the saved thermal power represents 1.2% of the total system capacity.

6538

Ouissal Bourguig, Ana Ramos, Khalid Bouziane, Mohamed Asbik and Abel Rouboa. Performance assessment of the co-gasification for sustainable management of municipal solid waste: Moroccan Case

Abstract. In the quest of virtuous energy system, clean energy production poses an important environ-mental, social, and financial challenges. Among the potentially useful energy carriers, hydrogen emerges as a serious alternative to fossil fuels. Hydrogen is a clean energy vector whose use is likely to undergo significant development in the medium and long term. Although marginally compared to the major industrial synthesis routes, using biomass or waste as a source of hydro-gen could be of local big interest. This paper presents an overview of waste generation in Mo-rocco, especially municipal solid waste. Then a co-gasification plant model for hydrogen pro-duction from solid waste and biomass was developed using Aspen Plus V11 software. The simu-lation model predicted the yield of hydrogen and excess heat generated in the system, as a con-tribution to the optimization of biofuels production processes. A parametric analysis was also carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as the temperature of gasification and the steam to flow rate on hydrogen yield. The main findings show an increase in H2 yield for higher temperatures and steam content in the gasifier.

6631

Shatha Mahdi, Ahlam Alsudani, Sarab Jahil, Kareem Jasim and Auday Shaban. Preparation and study the partial substitution of Aluminum with cupper on some physical properties of the compound TlSr2Ca2Cu3O8+δ

Abstract. In this paper, the preparation and study of the effect of partial substitution of aluminum on the copper site for the compound TlSr2Ca2Cu3-xAlxO8+δ superconductor with x = 0.0. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, samples were fabricated using the solid-state reaction method, and all samples in the current investigation have undergone gross structural characterization by X-ray diffraction. The XRD data collected from different samples are consistent with the Tl-1223 phases and the analysis showed that the structure is tetragonal. The electrical resistance tests were studied using the four probes technique to find the critical temperature and it was found that Tc is affected in a clear negative way with the partial replacement of copper with aluminum, where it is noted that it decreased from 136 to 116 kelvins when adding aluminum from 0 to 0 to 0.6.

6647

Wongkot Wongsapai and Phiromporn Thongtalung. Policy Investigation and Evaluation of Electricity Utilization Comparison Between Public and Private Office Buildings in Thailand

Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate energy efficiency index for 509 government and private office buildings in Thailand. All buildings will be designated buildings according to the Energy Conservation Promotion Act 1992. Collecting basic information submitted effects on energy consumption for the past 10 years. Studies have shown that multiple regression analyzes show that comparisons of actual energy consumption and the amount of energy predicted from the equation tend to be in the same direction. which can be used in planning energy conservation policy in the future.

6669

Myar N. Farag, Ahmed S. Shehata, Yehia A. Eldrainy and Ali I. Shehata. Energy Management Strategies for a Healthcare Building in Alexandria, Egypt

Abstract. Hospitals can be classified as one of the main consumers of electrical energy in building sectors due to their challenging environmental as they operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week in a life-or-death situation, with massive and vital equipment that consumes enormous amounts of electricity. It is imperative that hospitals invest in energy efficient solutions to reduce energy bills, reduce carbon footprint and promote renewable energy resources. The purpose of this study is to model a clinic (small hospital) geometrical and thermal property in Design Builder software, generate a site-specific weather file based on records measured near the site, evaluate internal load schedules based on a detailed survey and collect monthly records for heating, lighting, and cooling loads. All data used in modelling were collected from a clinic in the Arab Academy for Science and Maritime. After the data were modelled, the results were compared with the monthly energy bills of the clinic (obtained from the facility department) for the past year to validate the power consumption within the healthcare building. Then, numerical simulations were performed to cover the electrical consumption. This was done on 3 scenarios, each using a different renewable energy strategy and utilising the roof area. The first scenario was using 151 PV modules, which produced 66,840 KWh. The second scenario was using 25 wind turbines which produced 67,123.98 KWh. And finally, the third scenario was a hybrid of 90 PV modules and 14 small turbines which produced 68,765.24 KWh.

6703

Tossapon Katongtung, Sanphawat Phromphithak, Thossaporn Onsree, Nakorn Tippayawong and Jochen Lauterbach. Bio-oil production from hydrothermal liquefaction of Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum typhoideum

Abstract. Among renewable and sustainable energy resources, biomass plays a vital role. Agricultural residues/wastes, energy crops, and lignocellulosic biomass could potentially be major feedstocks for biorefineries. In Thailand, one of the most interesting energy crops is hybrid giant Juncao grass (GJG) or Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum typhoideum. GJG can be easily grown and has relatively high yields under tropical climates. Herein, conversion of GJG to biofuels via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was investigated using batch reactors under varying reaction temperatures of 250-350 °C and biomass-to-deionized water concentrations of 15-25 wt.% at a fixed residence time of 30 min. Changes in temperature and GJG-to-deionized water concentration were found to markedly affect the yields and distribution of products from HTL of GJG. Yields of the liquid product, or bio-oil, can be up to 50 wt.% at 350 °C and 25 wt.% GJG-to-deionized water concentration. The yields of solid char and gas products fluctuated within 10-25 wt.% and 30-45 wt.%, respectively. Higher heating values of the resulting bio-oil and char were remarkably better than those of the raw material. An energy recovery of over 50% from the bio-oil, as well as about 35% from the char, can be obtained. By gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, the bio-oil obtained was found to be a complex chemical mixture, consisting mainly of phenols, nitrogenous compounds, aliphatic compounds, ketones, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. Our finding is useful in future utilization of GJG via HTL for biofuel and/or biochemical production.

6798

Aleksandr Kulikov, Olga Shepovalova, Pavel Ilyushin, Sergey Filippov and Sergei Chirkov. Development of the method and device for sample-based control of electric power quality indicators with the use of the space-vector analysis in distribution networks comprising a high share of generating equipment on the basis of renewable energy sources

Abstract. Mass-scale integration of generating equipment on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) into distribution power networks is a main trend of power industry development aimed at its decarbonation. All wind power (WP) and solar photovoltaic (PV) stations are connected to the existing medium- and high-voltage distribution networks, excluding large capacity wind power and photoelectric fields. Modern RES generating equipment can be integrated into energy systems with the use of inverters into which control algorithms for output power and protection have to be included. Critical deviations of electric power quality indicator (EPQI) from their normal operation values may occur, in networks, in RES inverter low-load conditions. These deviations can have either long-term of short-term character. This relates to low wind pressure conditions, in WP stations, or low solar radiation intensities in solar PV plants. At the same time, electric power loads of industrial consumers with strict limitations imposed on EPQI can be connected to such distribution networks. Therefore, protection shutdowns can often occur followed by technological processes disturbing and material damage due to the target products undersupply. In order to identify the sources of EPQI distortion and to submit compensation claims, industrial consumers implement EPQI control systems based on the space-vector analysis. It has to be noted that such systems are not fully free from certain drawbacks. The aim of this work is to develop a method and a device for sample-based EPQI control that could enable detecting their deviations, in automatic mode, including short-term ones. The application effectiveness of the sample-based EPQI control with the use of the basis mathematical statistics methods has been shown. It has been suggested to use the absolute values of cross-correlation coefficient for current and voltage signals as a complex indicator, in order to take account of combined effects of EPQI deviation on electric power receivers. Results of simulation modeling for various network operation conditions, along with the procedure of automatic sequence control based on an alternative criterion distributed in accordance with the binomial law were applied, while developing the device. Implementing the developed method and device for sample-based EPQI control makes it possible to identify EPQI deviations harmful for consumers’ equipment with the aim to select and to implement relevant control response, in RES inverters and/or filter-compensator devices, thus preventing considerable and long-term EPQI deviations, in order to ensure reliable operation of consumers’ electric receivers, in distribution networks comprising a high share of RES generating plants.

6837

Sanphawat Phromphithak, Nakorn Tippayawong, Thossaporn Onsree and Jochen Lauterbach. Pretreatment of corncob with green deep eutectic solvent to enhance cellulose accessibility for energy and fuel applications

Abstract. Corncob is common agricultural biomass waste found in many contries. It can be utilized to produce bioenergy, but the conversion efficiency is limited. Pretreatment may be applied to improve the efficiency of corncob conversion; for example, by the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Choline chloride (ChCl) and glycerol are considered as synthetic deep eutectic solvents (DESs), also known as green solvents. In this work, pretreatment of corncob with DES prepared from ChCl and glycerol was investigated at varying reaction temperatures (60-150 °C), residence times (6-15 h), and ChCl-to-glycerol molar ratios (1:0.5-4). The results showed that hemicellulose and lignin were effectively extracted from the raw corncob, and therefore, cellulose content in the remaining solid residue, known as cellulose-rich material (CRM), can be improved for by least 140%. The reaction temperature, residence time, and presence of ChCl in the DES influenced the pretreatment of corncob significantly. Increases in reaction temperature and residence time led to a higher cellulose content in CRMs and an increased extraction of hemicellulose and lignin from the raw corncob. Without the ChCl in DES, the cellulose content in CRMs and the extraction hemicellulose and lignin from the sample dropped markedly. The optimal condition at 150 °C, 12-h residence time, and 1:4 ChCl-to-glycerol molar ratio could be used to improve the cellulose content of CRMs from the raw corncob more then 150%. The CRM with improved lignocellulosic properties can be used as a feedstock in further bioenergy/fuel application.

6933

Ababacar Ndiaye, Alessandro Virtuani and Cheikh M. F. Kebe. Evaluating the long-term performance of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules deployed in a coastal environment in Western Africa

Abstract. Photovoltaic power systems have been rapidly installed and spreading worldwide in recent years and particularly in Africa. There is a belief that the PV power plant will operate stably for more than 25 years. However, the PV modules have an unexpected failure. This paper presents an analysis of the degradation of 10 monocrystalline silicon PV modules exposed under marine climate off the Atlantic Ocean in Dakar for 10 years. It presents the degradation evaluation of electrical characteristics of PV modules and the health status of the cells constituting the modules. In this work, we diagnosed the modules using an infrared Camera (IR), current-voltage (I-V) and electroluminescence (EL) measurement. Results show that – for the modules investigated - the rate of degradation varies between 0.81 and 1.79% with a median of 1.6%. Different defect modes are observed via EL imaging of the modules: discoloration and corrosion, microcracks, dark areas and casting defects.

6951

Alaa Shwayyea and Alaa Hasan. Studying the Optical Properties of a Binocular Telescope with a Different Pupil Aperture Using Zemax Image Simulation Program

Abstract. The binocular telescope is characterized by the presence of a symmetric and parallel double optical system for each eye separately. It consists of a refractive optical system that contains a set of achromatic lenses and a Porro prism inside a plastic tube. The function of the prism is to reduce the length of the telescope as well as change the optical path of the rays to obtain an image suitable for human vision. The use of this type of telescope is suitable for ground observation due to the engineering nature of the design, as well as the focal lengths used for the lenses and the magnification factor. In addition to the use of lenses for refractive telescopes, it is suitable for ground observation rather than astronomical observation due to the presence of chromatic aberration and the small size of the pupil aperture. This research includes a study of the refracting binary telescope by simulation the design, and the study of its optical properties by using of Zemax program for optical designs. The program provides a set of analysis tools to assess the efficiency of the performance of the telescope when the pupil aperture changes. The results showed the effect of image quality when changing the diameter of the pupil aperture due to the change in the achromatic aberration value.

6955

Sudhakar M and Ravishankar Sathyamurthy. Designing and implementing a smart transplanting framework using Programmable Logic Controller and photoelectric sensor

Abstract. The importance of automatic seedling transplantation in plant-growing companies cannot be overstated. The key step of intelligent transplanting is the effective and precise detection of fresh saplings. To attain good production, dependability, and reproducibility, enterprises use automation extensively. The use of automatic quality control and assurance system results in a procedure that is cost-effective, dependable, and long-lasting. The sapling tray expressing methodology, the unusual disc comparison four-bar duck mouthpiece seeding method, the electric detector for plantlets detection and classification of a seedling plate, the motion detector, stepping motor, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) management system are all used in the creation of an intelligent different planting structure. It could be used to determine if the soil foundation is filled or not using computer logic programming and management, as well as to regulate the automatic seedling plate transportation. The tray is shifted to minimize scooping up vacant soil foundation by skipping the manipulator's operation path. Jalapeno plants were used to evaluate the system in an indoor environment. The analysis revealed that if the transplantation speed was 90 minutes per minute, the percentage of successfully seedling harvesting was 88.24% as well as the percentage of leaking was 17.47%, which met the jalapeno transplantation requirements. The annual percentage of leaks was decreased by around 12% relative to the transplantation model without seedlings recognition. The study serves as a valuable resource for the advancement of smart agricultural transplantation techniques and infrastructure.

7077

Jan Spale, Jan Pavlicko, Vaclav Vodicka, Jakub Mascuch and Vaclav Novotny. Experimental investigation of Internal Combustion Engine directly cooled by Organic Rankine Cycle Utilizing Waste Heat

Abstract. Internal combustion engines (ICE) are utilized in a number of energy and transportation systems and with the prospect of synthetic green fuels have secured also a place in future low emission systems. Still, effective utilization of the fuel suggests addition of waste heat recovery systems such as organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to boost electric efficiency. Greater widespread of the ORC integration into the ICE systems is however limited from multiple aspects. Furthermore, when these systems are employed, they are typically applied only for flue gas waste heat utilization, while the large amounts of lower temperature jacket cooling heat remain unutilized, or at the cost of high system complexity. Direct cooling of the ICE jacket by the ORC working fluid has been previously theoretically proposed to tackle some of them. Complexity of the system can be reduced while more waste heat can be effectively transferred from the ICE jacket cooling to the ORC. Here we propose further configuration of ICE waste heat sources integration into a biomass fired ORC unit, creating a multi-fuel system. Such system offers the possibility to increase the electricity demand while reducing biomass consumption. This system has been experimentally explored on a case of a 3 kWe micro-cogeneration ORC and an 8 kWe ICE. The experimental data are evaluated in comparison to the theoretically predicted operation. A specific control system has been developed for this system to be easily operated. The results, experience and operation verification from the ICE jacket cooling with the ORC fluid can be also utilized in the construction for waste heat recovery ORC integrated to ICE for high electrical efficiency.

7125

Marwa Jaleel and Khalid Harbbi. Modified x-ray Analysis size strain plot method to determine the lattice stress and strain energy density of calcium titan oxide (CaTiO3) nanoparticles

Abstract. In this research, the size strain plot method was used to estimate the particle size and lattice strain of CaTiO3 nanoparticles. The SSP method was developed to calculate new variables, namely stress, and strain energy, and the results were crystallite size (44.7181794 nm) lattice strain (0.001211), This method has been modified to calculate new variables such as stress and its value (184.3046308X10-3Mpa) and strain energy and its value (1.115833287X10-6 KJm-3).

7178

Gaolu Zou. The Relationships between Energy Consumption and Key Industrial Sector Growth in China

Abstract. Previous studies suggested that, at the aggregate growth level, feedback effects often exist between energy consumption and overall growth. In this article, the study further tested for the long- and short-run relationships between primary energy use and key industrial sector variables in China. The annual data spanned the period from 1953 to 2018. The results show that energy use and the changes in three key sector output values were cointegrated. In the long run, at the sectoral level, there was unidirectional causality running from sectors to energy use, indicating that the long-term use of energy for the growth in three pillar sectors was inefficient. Industrial growth has consumed energy considerably. However, the growth in the construction and wholesale and retail sectors can lead to a slight decline in energy use. Thus, China can minimize its industrial scale and accordingly reduce the level of industrial energy consumption. However, it can encourage long-run growth in construction and business while sacrificing the environment as little as possible. In the short run, bidirectional causality and small elasticities existed between energy use and three key sectors. China can stimulate the short-run growth in the industry, construction and domestic trade while taking strict energy-saving measures.

7180

Nikolaos Korakianitis, Antonios Theodorakis, Georgios Vokas and George Ioannidis. Experimental Comparison of Wireless Power Transfer Methods and Topologies on Static and Dynamic Wireless Electric Vehicles Charging Systems

Abstract. This paper aims to provide a detailed study of the wireless power transfer (WPT) methods and topologies on Static and Dynamic Wireless Electric Vehicles Charging Systems (S-WEVCS and D-WEVCS respectively) for research and educational purposes, in the basic performance indices of WPT systems such as efficiency, electromagnetic interference (EMI), frequency range, and others significant indices and parameters. The study is based on laboratory measurements on the experimental implementations of the research models for each one method and topology. Through this experimental analysis specific design recommendations are provided and significant conclusions are derived. Our experimental implementations can be used as an development tool for further innovative research on the optimization of WPT for EVs.

7184

Zainal Arifin, Singgih Dwi Prasetyo, D. Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Rendy Adhi Rachmanto, Aditya Prabowo and Noval Fattah Alfaiz. The Application of TiO2 Nanofluids in Photovoltaic Thermal Collector Systems

Abstract. Electrical energy is one type of energy that may be created by converting solar energy. Because a portion of the thermal energy captured by solar panels is not utilized, solar cell efficiency is poor. As a solar panel warms up, its relative efficiency and heat transmission diminish. The efficiency of the photovoltaic may be boosted by harvesting thermal energy and cooling it. To cool the PV panels in this investigation, a thermal photovoltaic collector (PVT) system with a working fluid is employed. The investigation was conducted out utilizing ANSYS Software simulation and laboratory scale testing. The simulated results back up the experimental values. Due to the characteristic values of nanofluids, the use of TiO2-based PVT systems has a lower mean PV temperature. This is because the fluid facilitates the transfer of existing heat. As a result, photovoltaic solar cells' efficiency improves. The average photovoltaic temperature produced is 58.5 oC, and the photovoltaic efficiency is 13.04%.

7192

Paphada Limpachanangkul, Licheng Liu, Mali Hunsom, Pornpote Piumsomboon and Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan. Photocatalytic oxidation of glycerol to high value-added chemicals over Bi2O3/TiO2 heterostructures

Abstract. The photocatalytic transformation of glycerol in the aqueous phase under UV light irradiation was investigated to reduce the usage of fossil energy or electricity. This study was carried out to transform glycerol into valuable products in the liquid phase over the new Bi2O3/TiO2 composite which was successfully synthesized by utilizing maleic acid as an organic binder. The as-prepared Bi2O3/TiO2 heterostructures exhibited high photocatalytic activity for the transformation of glycerol in the aqueous phase compared with TiO2 under UV light irradiation. However, all the Bi2O3/TiO2 composites had the same photocatalytic conversion of glycerol and provided similar distribution of generated products.

7230

Reem Sh and Loay George. Analysis Time Series of Vegetation Indices Using Landsat-8 Satellite Imagery

Abstract. This study aims to apply time series analysis vegetation indices using Landsat 8 satellite to separate evergreen and seasonal plants of the Abu-Ghraib area and assess the NDVI, and NDVSI indces to detect vegetation. The proposed classifying method is based on determining the temporal score of the vegetation index and then applying the minimum and maximum criteria for the classification decision. The scenes of the area for different seasons over 4 years were classified using vegetation indices to classify the land cover into two classes vegetation or non-vegetation areas. Two kinds of vegetation indices were applied to make the final classification using a k-NN algorithm to decide the region into three classes (evergreen, seasonal plants, or non-vegetation). The confusion matrix was used to calculate the metrics (MSE & MAE) and assess the accuracy of the classification. The results showed that the k-NN algorithm is capable to classify satellite data into three vegetation indicators with high accuracy when determining the optimum threshold of vegetation index. The NDVSI index can be considered as a better indicator for studying vegetation cover in dry and humid areas and areas with low vegetation cover.

7277

Weerasak Chaichan, Jompob Waewsak, Chuleerat Kongruang, Somphol Chiwamongkhonkarn and Yves Gagnon. Optimization of Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Hybrid Solar/Wind/Fuel Cell Power Generation for Green Islands: A Case Study of Koh Samui, Southern Thailand

Abstract. This paper presents the optimization of standalone and grid-connected hybrid power generation systems for green islands, with a case study of Koh Samui (Samui Island), in southern Thailand. A techno-economic optimization analysis is applied using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) Pro simulation tool. On the basis of renewable energy resource potentials, four scenarios are identified to select the most suitable solution for a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) integrating solar (PV), wind turbine generator (WTG), fuel cell (FC), and battery energy storage (Li-Ion), with backup diesel generation or grid connection with the mainland as options. The NASA-SSE and MERRA databases are used as inputs to analyze the solar and wind energy potentials, respectively. The results show that the LCOE of the HRES with a grid connection to the mainland (Scenario 3) has the lowest LCOE (0.132 US$/kWh), but at large greenhouse gas (GHG) emission costs (20.5 ktonnes/year) due to the high carbon intensity of Thailand’s power portfolio. A stand-alone, 100% renewable energy system (Scenario 4) includes a PV capacity of 182 MW, a wind power capacity of 8 MW, a fuel cell system of 10 MW, a 17.9 MW power converter, and 211 MWh of battery storage. The net present cost (NPC) of this system is 542 MUS$ and the LCOE is 0.309 US$/kWh, with 89% of the energy generated by the solar PV system. Therefore, a 100% renewable energy-based microgrid system is possible on Koh Samui as it can provide a more suitable and reliable solution when considering a HRES system for the total load demand (104 MW of peak load) of the island.

7315

Mariagrazia Pilotelli, Benedetta Grassi, Daniele Pasinelli and Adriano M. Lezzi. Performance of large TES systems for district heating applications

Abstract. The addition of storage capacity to district heating systems increases flexibility and expands the range of usable heat sources. Despite their apparently simple nature, thermal energy storage tanks display a wide range of performances due to different construction and operation choices, as proven by numerous literature studies. However, most of the investigations focus on domestic-size tanks of few cubic meters or, on the other hand, very large seasonal storages of hundreds of thousands of cubic meters. In this work, the performances of a 5000 m3 thermal energy storage recently introduced in a district heating network are experimentally analysed by means of temperature and flow rate measurements acquired over a two-month period in the heating season. First-law efficiencies, exergy and stratification parameters are calculated and discussed. Comparison to literature values show high energy and stratification performances and stable behaviour. The detailed examination of charge/discharge processes allows to identify some operation practices that have a negative impact on the thermocline thickness.

7381

Aleksandr Kulikov, Konstantin Suslov, Pavel Ilyushin and Dmitriy Karamov. Coherence of digital processing of current and voltage signals at decimation in power systems with a large share of renewable energy sources

Abstract. The high energy and environmental performance of renewable energy sources (RES) contributes to their widespread introduction in many countries. A trend towards decentralization of generating capacities and an increase in the share of equipment based on RES in their structure brings about the multifactorial features that affect the reliability of power systems. These factors can result in a failure and unnecessary or false operation of intelligent digital devices and systems that perform the protection and automatic control functions. Digital substations using the IEC 61850 protocol to exchange instantaneous values of analog signals employ merging units (MUs) for digital processing of current and voltage. MUs use down-sampling, i.e., decimation, to reduce the number of calculations and meet other purposes. The paper presents findings of an analysis of the digital processing effects associated with the disturbance of coherence of current and voltage signals during decimation. Failure to comply with the coherence requirements during decimation leads to significant errors in the estimates of signal parameters. The extent to which the sinusoidality of signals is distorted due to incoherence can be determined using a normalized cross-correlation coefficient. Simulation results have shown that incoherent sampling enhances the distorting effect for the signals containing high-frequency harmonics and interharmonics. Coherence of digital signal processing after decimation can be ensured by preliminary digital filtering. In the case of the fundamental frequency deviation from the nominal value, the signals are less distorted at higher power frequency values. Superposition of noise components does not affect much the estimations of signal amplitudes during decimation, which are within the allowable error. Analysis of the influence of distorting effects on power frequency signals should factor in both energy characteristics of high-frequency harmonic components and their phase relationships. Coherence of digital processing of current and voltage signals during decimation contributes to the reliable operation of power systems with a large share of generating capacities based on RESs.

7403

Chatchawan Chaichana, Ar Man, Suwimon Wicharuck and Damrongsak Rinchumphu. Modeling of annual sunlight availability on vertical shelves

Abstract. Limited cultivation areas in major cities leads to the possibility of applying vertical farming. However, one of the pitfalls of vertical farming is limited solar energy at the lower shelves. This research presents a developed model for prediction of annual sunlight availability on vertical shelves. The model uses shelf’s structure, orientation, hourly solar radiation, and sunshine duration as inputs to the RHINO with Grasshopper plug-in software. Calculated solar energy available on each level of the shelves from the RHINO is than converted to Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) and Daily Light Integral (DLI) using a spreadsheet software respectively. In this study, 6 parallel shelves with 1-meter spacing located in Chiang Mai, Thailand, are considered. Each shelf contains 3 levels with spacing of 0.5 meter. Both north-south and east-west orientation are investigated. It was found that the model can predict PPFD and DLI of every level on the considered shelves. The north-south orientation provides the most uniform PPFD and DLI throughout the year. The top level of the shelves experiences the highest PPFD (1,949.86 µmol*m-2*s-1) and DLI (36.80 mol*m-2*day-1). The PPFD and DLI of the middle and bottom levels are approximately 60% and 50% of the top level respectively. This information can be used for cultivation planning when consider using vertical shelves in urban farming. This could provide a sustainable means for future food production.

7522

Zul Ilham, Indrani Subramaniam, Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar, Sarina Abdul Halim-Lim, Hideaki Ohgaki, Keiichi Ishihara and Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor. Analysing Dimensions and Indicators to Design Energy Education Framework in Malaysia Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Abstract. Malaysia should reduce its dependency on fossil-based energy resources and shift to green and renewable energy to move towards a more sustainable energy future. Therefore, awareness programmes involving sustainable practices and frameworks emphasising energy education (EE) are needed. These programmes are aligned with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Number 7, which is to provide affordable and clean energy. In this study, dimensions and indicators for energy education framework were investigated and evaluated to help create more appropriate decision making. The systematic approach used in this study included reviewing related literature and consulting an ad hoc panel of EE experts through surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. This work also used an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to analyse the framework’s criteria selection and alternative indicators and their priority or weights. The results showed that the dimension of “Aim to limit Climate Change” is considered as the most important in EE dimension criteria selection. The most crucial indicator among stakeholders is “National Policy Makers”. The application of AHP to design the framework for EE in Malaysia is found to simplify a systematic decision-making process.

7580

Estabraq Rasheed and Hadi Al-Agealy. A Theoretical Enhancement of electronic transfer dynamics in The D35CPDT Dye Donor to TiO_2 Acceptor

Abstract. A theoretical enhancement of electronic transfer methodologies was introduced to study the influence of the parameters of electron transfer processes on the overall electronic rate to achieve more future opportunities for further improvements.Mechanisms of electron transfer in D35CPDT dye sensitization contact TiO_2 have been studied using quantum scenario.From the four critical parameters affecting the D35CPDT / TiO_2 electron transfer process, including transition energy, driving energy, the D35CPDT / TiO_2 potential, and probability of electron transfer, we can introduce the fundamental concept of these parameters and the roles they play in the transfer of electrons. we observe the probability of electron transfer increase with increased transition energy and the higher probability of electron transfer due to the high number of unoccupied states for an electron at the system with low driving energy. The probability of electron transfer is large with Acetonitrile solvent and very low with Chlorobenzene solvent. Interestingly Acetonitrile solvent was suitable to work with D35CPDT contact to TiO_2 compared with Chlorobenzene solvent. In fact, the probability decrease in force with a decrease in the strong coupling and the probability of electron transfer increases tremendously with decreases the potential energy.

7591

Niti Kammuang-Lue, Somchai Pattana, Watcharapong Tachajapong and Kengkamon Wiratkasem. Preliminary Evaluation on Specific Energy Consumption of Refrigerated Trucks in Thailand’s Cold Chain used for National Energy Policy Planning

Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suggested specific energy consumption (SEC) of refrigerated trucks in the cold chain in Thailand. The fuel consumption, good weight, travelling distance, and other data were recorded on 50 refrigerated trucks in different types operating under actual routine. The SEC was calculated following an expression in the European Standard EN 16212:2012. The relationship between the SEC and the ratio between good weight and maximum allowance load weight or called as the weight ratio for each truck type was established in a power function. The suggested SEC for each truck type at a certain weight ratio could be determined from the proposed relationship. The lowest SEC that will be the target for the best energy saving practice could be determined at the weight ratio of 1.0. In addition, the comparison found that the international small-sized truck had lower SEC than the 4-wheeler truck in Thailand. Therefore, the domestic 4-wheeler refrigerated trucks should be primarily target for the government to enforce the energy saving plan in the cold chain.

7640

Gisela Mello, Marta Ferreira Dias and Margarita Robaina. Wind farms’ LCA:an economic evaluation for climate neutrality

Abstract. One of the major challenges for the European Union (EU) is to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. Different approachesmay be adopted for the energy transition. Generating power through renewable sources, like wind, without burning much fossil fuel is a viable way to reach the zero-emission goal. In this context, this transition not only involves the decarbonisation of the energy industry but also the energy economy sectorleading to changes in the business models and in the labour market. In this context, the European directives and action plans such as the Green Deal (EGD) are preparing the economicsector for climate neutrality. Additionally, the EU hasimproved their market of electricity and gasbut also, has fomented energy efficiency, renewable energy deployment, reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a stronger carbon price.Adopting the principles of a circular economy allows for changing the current economic system into a more sustainableone. In the context of recovery from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this work analyses the economic aspects related to the lifecycle of wind farms based on a systematic literature review of life cycle assessments (LCA) in order to verify the challenges and advantages, such as reducing the co-dependency of raw materials, developing secondary markets to treat waste and components for reuse and repowering strategy.

7737

Jaroslaw Milewski, Kristina Kutukova, Ehrenfried Zschech, Juergen Gluch and Kamil Futyma. Investigation into the filling of a porous ceramic matrix by molten salts using nano X-ray tomography

Abstract. High‐resolution nano X‐ray computed tomography (nano-XCT) is used to investigate the infiltration process of a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) matrix by the liquid electrolyte. A ceramic matrix of LiAl2O3 powder is infiltrated by liquid electrolyte, as it occurs during the start-up process of the MCFC. This technique extends the state‐of‐the art methods for characterizing the structure of the matrix, especially that of penetration with electrolyte. Quantitative microstructure analysis using high-resolution nano-XCT provides 3D information for each component and their mutual spatial distribution. The spatially resolved volume fraction of the molten electrolyte calculated from this is used for simulation and to improve MCFC performance. Based on the results obtained, a new startup procedure is proposed for a single MCFC. This procedure is consistent with the morphology changes which occur during the melting process inside the ceramic matrix.

7798

Kiwon Yeom. Model predictive control and deep reinforcement learning based energy efficient eco-driving for battery electric vehicles

Abstract. Automated self-driving vehicles not only allow of improved energy saving but also better traffic flow. In particular, with the rapid technological advance of autonomous electric vehicles, technical development of energy efficient eco-driving is becoming progressively important due to the limited battery capacity and power of electric vehicles. This article proposes a hybrid approach using Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for improving the energy economy of battery electric vehicles. In this study, the MPC algorithm is used to solve the optimal speed profile of the electric vehicles for minimizing energy consumption in a receding horizon, where the cost value of the horizon is fed into the DRL networks as observed state. Thus, the terminal cost of a state is learned by nearest neighbors and the terminal condition is constrained in a state observed before. The proposed scheme was tested virtually with the high fidelity car simulator (CarSim) and simulation results show the effectiveness of energy savings.

7821

Abdelali Agouzoul, Badr Chegari, Mohamed Tabaa and Emmanuel Simeu. A Neural Network Model-Based Predictive Control Model to improve the energy performance of buildings

Abstract. Today’s environmental, energy and economic challenges require changes in the control strategies of HVACs’ systems, since they account for more than 60% of the building energy consumption. An optimal control law should be applied to reduce this consumption. To achieve this goal, a detailed description of the building is required, its construction components as well as the description of the occupants' activities. A good knowledge of all building components is essential, especially the thermal characteristics of the building envelope, to build an energy model of the building. The dynamic thermal simulation tool, as EnergyPlus in this case, allows us to set up a huge database of the thermal behavior of our architectural model. This database was used for the training of an Artificial Neural Network model for modelling the thermal behavior of the building, with the aim of controlling the thermal comfort of the occupants, which means maintaining the temperature of the room within a setpoint temperature range. The developed control method, introduced in this work, reduced the energy consumption for cooling and heating, respectively, by 27.34 % and 39.02%, compared to the On/Off control, during the 1 day of simulation.

7887

Orooba Tarish, Widad Jassim and Kareem Jasim. Improving some thermal specifications of (Epoxy / Alumina powders) composite for thermal isolation

Abstract. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) micro particles were added to epoxy by different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15% wt.) to improve its microstructure and thermal properties like thermal stability and glass transition temperature using the techniques thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential thermal analysis ( DSC) respectively .The thermal stability and glass transition temperatures were increased with increasing the ratio of addition (Al2O3 ) powder in epoxy matrix. The experimental results showed that with adding the (15%Al2O3) to the epoxy, its thermal properties will be improved in the temperature range 316-345.5 0C and the epoxy composite can be used in coating or insulation applications. X-ray diffraction technique was employed to study and understand the microstructure of (epoxy /Al2O3) composites, (epoxy / 15%Al2O3) composite showed a crystalline structure at diffraction angles (14.50, 28.20, 38.40), the crystallinity of this composite, will has a good results in both thermal stability and glass transition

7918

Marco RagazziVincenzo TorrettaEdnildo Andrade TorresMarco Schiavon and Elena Cristina RadaPerspectives of Decentralized Gasification of Residual Municipal Solid Waste

Abstract. In the European Union, the dominant technology for high temperature thermal treatment of residual Municipal Solid Waste (that is the mixed waste that remains unsorted where source separation is performed) is the moving grate incineration. The process of combustion in this sector has been optimized thanks to the introduction of stringent criteria of operation both in the combustion chamber and in the treatment of the generated off-gas. However, the costs of treatment can be sustainable only if the tariff to be applied for the service is coherent with the average value found in the sector. The contexts taken into account in this article are the European Union one and one belonging to the upper-medium income countries, the last one selected in coherence with the need of operation skills adequate to the analysed technology and strategy. The literature demonstrates that, under a capacity threshold, the grate system is out of market for scale effect, thus limiting the implementation of small decentralized plants to manage peripherally the adoption of a waste-to-energy strategy for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment. The present article analyses also the consequences of the results of a recent survey that zoomed in on the availability of small-scale gasifiers for implementing such a strategy. The availability of small gasification plants for residual Municipal Solid Waste on commercial scale is limited but suitable for facing with the needs of contexts where source separation reduces significantly the streams of waste to be treated. The potential flexibility of a strategy based on small plants offers interesting opportunities also in non-EU like contexts.

7975

Octavian Gabriel Pop, Berville Charles, Florin Bode and Cristiana Croitoru. Investigation of cascaded PCMs use in transpired solar collectors

Abstract. One of the greatest challenges of humanity is to reach world climate-neutrality by 2050. Using renewable energy and in particular solar energy instead of fossil fuels, falls in this direction. A quest for the use of the solar energy as much as possible throughout the year becomes very important in this paradigm. A solution for the use of solar energy during the shading of the solar installation caused by clouds, for example, or even at night, is the use of the phase change materials (PCM). Also, to use the solar equipment as much as possible, the use of cascaded PCM appear as necessity. A transpired solar air collector equipped with cascaded PCM was numerically studied using a validated mathematical model, developed in MATLAB, for one specific autumn day in the temperate climate of Romania. Three different PCM with phase change temperatures of 24°C, 26°C and 28°C were used for the PCM cascade. The air, the PCM spheres temperatures and the liquid mass fraction in three different zones of the thermal energy storage, at low, intermediate, and high temperature zones were studied. The results showed that cascaded PCM storage could be used for an optimized heating/drying condition allowing to store an amount of energy during the first part of the day that could be released during drying time in the second part of the day.

7978

Noor Ahmed and Hameed Abduljabbar. Degradation of Razzaza Lake During the Past 25 Years Using Remote Sensing Methods

Abstract. This study focuses on the deterioration in the surface area of Razzaza Lake, which included the period from 1995 to 2021. The year 2000 was focused on as the defining year for the beginning of the deterioration process of the lake. The human and climatic factors that probably have led to this deterioration in the lake’s surface area were studied, and it was found that the main reason for this deterioration is the decrease in the quantities of water nourishing the lake coming from Habbaniyah Lake through the Majarra Regulator. It was observed that the amount of monsoon rains decreased for the years covered by the study, but this decrease did not have a clear effect on the lake. Landsat 5 TM and 8 OLI satellite scenes were used to study the lake with the use of the maximum likelihood classifier to classify the land cover of the study area and study the change in its surface area.

8086

María José Suárez, Maria Nuria Sánchez, Eduardo Blanco, María José Jiménez and Emanuela Giancola. Energetic study of the influence of the panel orientation in Open Joint Ventilated Façades

Abstract. The arrangement of the panels in Open Joint Ventilated Façades (OJVF) is a potential factor in improving the energy efficiency of this building system. This research assesses the benefit of the installation of OJVF panels in landscape or portrait orientation in order to reduce the cooling loads, evaluating the fluid-dynamic and thermal behaviour of these configurations. Two real OJVFs with different panel arrangements (in horizontal and vertical) are analysed. Also, they are compared with a conventional façade with a sealed air cavity. All the solutions are modelled and simulated by using CFD techniques for summer and winter conditions. The energy performance of these solutions is evaluated, analysing different parameters such as panel’s temperature, mean air velocity inside the cavity, fluid pathlines through the open joints and thermal flux in the air cavity and to the room. The results obtained show that both OJVF configurations perform much better than the sealed conventional façade in both summer and winter conditions. Between the two OJVFs, it has been found that they have a similar behaviour, although the landscape one is a little better.

8186

Rashad Aref, Ahmed Samir, Youssef Khairy and Mohamed Khairat. Applying an overtopping Wave Energy Converter device on San Stefano breakwater Alexandria Egypt

Abstract. The Overtopping Breakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC) is a typology of overtopping wave energy converter integrated into a traditional rubble mound breakwater. The OBREC has the same functions as the traditional structures with the added value of energy production. This paper aims to compare between different designs of OBREC and choose the optimum to be applied on an Armored rubble mound breakwater located in San Stefano Alexandria. By applying mathematical model, results show that the yearly power production after applying OBREC is 49 MWh generated from mean wave power at that area is about 196 MWh/year, and with OBREC mean efficiency about 20 %.

8187

Mushtaq Majed and Hameed Abduljabbar. A Study of the Urban Change of the City of Mahmudiyah during the Past 35 Years

Abstract. This research aims to calculate the change in the urban areas located south of the capital Baghdad and is located specifically within the city of Mahmudiyah, as the study period was from 1986 to 2021 with an interval of five years between each successive scene. This research was carried out using scenes from the data of Landsat satellites, the scenes were processed using the programs ENVI and Quantum GIS. The study was conducted in the spring for the period from February 22 to March 25 to achieve the best separation between the urban and soil classes. The classes that make up the land cover were determined by making field visits to the study area, which covered all the existing classes. The maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the land cover and study the change in urban class within the years of study, it was found that there is an ascending urban expansion at the expense of other classes, and it can be described as taking a random character in the expansion due to the absence of strategies that control the expansion process.

8253

Khaled A. Hassan, Elbadr O. Elgendi, Ahmed S. Shehata and Mohamed I. Elmasry. Enhancing the performance of trenching underwater excavation process using image classification machine learning technology

Abstract. Underwater flowlines (pipelines and cables) have become a popular option worldwide as communication lines. Correspondingly the demand for underwater trenching increased with the most desirable method internationally, jet trenching for its benefits in protecting the flowlines from external hazards. However, the trenching method is suffering from a main problem that can affect the construction and operation phases. This problem is the using of maximum jetting pressure needed for underwater trenching which leads to extra cost in construction phase. Furthermore, the unstrengthening of the trench that can cause extra stress on the flowline requiring extra maintenance in the operation phase. The key cause of this problem is the underwater soils classification, as if the underwater soils can’t be classified as accurately as possible, the suitable jetting pressure required to trenching these soils could not be applied correctly. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop a machine learning classifier for soil classification as a solution for enhancing the performance of underwater trenching process. This classifier constructed, trained, and evaluated by MATLAB to classify the underwater soil type by analyzing the soil image samples by artificial neural network (ANN). Then a prototype which mimic exactly the real trenching mechanism was built to test the developed classifier based on three different types of soil. The results showed that the classifier successfully identify and classify the three different types of soil used. Finally, the results confirmed that the classifier will enhance the trenching processes. As it eliminates the need for soil classification by conventional methods while execute it in an easy fast process that will save energy, cost, and decrease the need for future maintenance processes.

8489

Rola Abbas and Mohammed Al-Maamori. The Role of the Melting and Crystallizing of the Stearic Acid Network in Retaining and Releasing the Mechanical Deformation Energy during the Hot Classical Shape Memory Cycle

Abstract. The success and obstacles indications have been observed in fixing the applied strain of the value 70% and shape recovery during the hot classical shape memory cycle. This cycle is depended on the normal cooling at temperature of 23±2 ºC. The studied material is one of the types of the elastomer/small molecule blend shape memory polymer (SMPs), which is represented in this study by the material (rubber band-stearic acid (SMP) blend, sample code (RB/based SA)); being prepared by impregnation of the commercial rubber band of type (size 38) with the stearic acid for 2 hr. That is by studying the relation of the applied strain with the physico-mechanical phenomena accompanying the activation and deactivation stage of the SME property during this thermomechanical cycle.The results of the SME property examination showed that the occurrence of the thermal contraction and elastic retraction are the direct responsible for the loss of a part of the elastic applied strain. In this work the value of the applied strain that was restricted amounts to 58.7% instead of 70% after the end of the activation stage, while the plastic strain accumulation was observed to be the direct responsible for the material that prevent it back to its original shape at 100% after the end of the deactivation stage. At the same time, this study shows that the relation of these phenomena to the stretching work energy during the thermomechanical cycle is a relation that falls under the dominance of the first law of thermodynamics and that the shape memory of RB/based SA is only related to the elastic stretching work energy.

8527

Paul Danca, Ilinca Nastase, Amaury Jamin, Florin Bode, Bart Janssens, Walter Bosschaerts and Costin Coşoiu. Experimental and numerical study of the flow dynamics inside a car cabin: innovative air diffusers and human body plumes interactions

Abstract. Environmental quality in the vehicular space has gained importance in the last decades, with the increasing expectations of users for comfortable and ergonomic cabins. In confined spaces, such as vehicle cabins, airflow and temperature distribution are the most critical factors affecting thermal comfort and pollutant dispersion. To develop innovative and energy-efficient HVAC systems, a deep understanding of the interaction of the jet flow from air diffusers on the development process of the human thermal plume became essential to improve the knowledge of airflow patterns for optimizing ventilation system design, thermal comfort, and, indirectly, energy efficiency. The human thermal plume is one of the most challenging phenomena to capture with optical measurement methods and validate with complex numerical models, given its unsteady nature governed by the buoyancy forces. This microenvironment is extremely confined inside a vehicle, with unevenly distributed surface temperatures and high velocities near the human body and its plume. This study aims to validate the interaction of jet flows from classical and innovative air diffusers on the thermal plume by comparing measured data and numerical simulation results. The validation was made with a specific approach by comparing PIV fields from measurements and CFD results with boundary conditions of air velocity distribution from LDV data. The PIV measurements for flow distributions at the air vents and the thermal plume of an advanced thermal manikin in the driver's seat were performed in a 1:1 scale mock-up of a Renault Megane car cabin in a climatic chamber. The results obtained with both methods showed good agreement regarding air velocity ranges and distributions

8575

José Morcillo, Mónica Castaneda, Maritza Jimenez, Sebastian Zapata, Isaac Dyner and Andrés Julián Aristizábal. Assessing the speed, extent, and impact of the diffusion of solar PV

Abstract. Electricity markets are changing towards increases in renewable sources. This technology transformation, as any other, brings opportunities and challenges to the industry. In electricity, the technology transformation is a complex process that impacts different stakeholders in many dimensions. This paper assesses the diffusion of rooftop-solar technology in electricity markets in terms of its extent, speed, and effects, considering prices and services. The analysis includes a comparison of technology transformation in the electricity sector and its effects on stakeholders in the United Kingdom, Colombia, and Brazil. The paper concludes, through a model-based framework, that Photovoltaic diffusion converges in penetrating up to 25-30% of the residential sector regardless of a country’s initial market conditions, industrialization level and solar radiation levels. Additionally, electricity prices for those households that do not use PVs will increase by about 20% by 2040. Finally, the cost recovery of utilities may be affected, though in some cases this may be more severe than in others.

8701

Eliseo Zarate-Perez, Enrique Rosales-Asensio, Alberto González-Martínez, Miguel de Simón-Martín and Antonio Colmenar-Santos. Battery Energy Storage Performance in Microgrids: A Scientific Mapping Perspective

Abstract. Microgrids integrate various renewable resources, such as photovoltaic and wind energy, and battery energy storage systems. The latter is an important component of a modern energy system, as it allows the seamless integration of renewable energy sources in the grid. The research here presented aimed to develop an integrated review using a systematic and bibliometric approach to evaluates the performance and challenges in applying battery energy storage systems in microgrids. Search protocols based on a literature review were used; this included thematic visualization and performance analysis using the scientific mapping software SciMAT (Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool). The results show that optimization methods in battery energy storage systems are important for this research field. In research works, they are interested in applying methods to reduce costs; this includes considering the state of charge, the degradation rate, and battery life. Developing an optimal BESS must consider various factors including reliability, battery technology, power quality, frequency variations, and environmental conditions. Economic factors are the most common challenges for developing a BESS, as researchers have focused on cost-benefit analysis.

8717

Ernesto Pérez-Montalvoa, Manuel Eduardo Zapata-Velásquez, Laura María Benítez-Vázquez, Juan Manuel Cermeño-González, José Alejandro-Miranda, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Cabero and Alvaro de la Puente-Gil. Model of monthly electricity consumption of healthcare buildings based on climatological variables

Abstract. At this time, due to the global pandemic that has occurred, public administrations want to optimize resources and reduce greenhouse gases with more interest than before. It is the case of the Energy Regional Entity of the Junta de Castilla y León (Spain) that pursues, in addition, to optimize the energy consumption and reduce costs, in particular of healthcare sector buildings. For this purpose, this work focuses on estimating electricity consumption for each month, for which different scenarios will be generated and the corresponding model is obtained for each scenario. Subsequently, from the models obtained, the results will be analyzed. Significant differences have been observed in the estimation of electricity consumption with respect to the real data provided by the Junta de Castilla y León. The results obtained show how the availability of climatic variables increases the accuracy of the model obtained by about 30%.

8773

Filipe Neves, Armando Soares and Abel Rouboa. Forced convection heat transfer of nanofluids in turbulent flow in a flat tube

Abstract. This paper focuses on the numerical study of the performance of two nanofluids (Al2O3-water and TiO2-water) in heat transfer by forced convection in a flat tube of an automobile radiator. In the computational simulations it was considered that the nanofluids have a constant velocity and aa temperature of 363.15 K at the entrance of the tube. The tube wall is at a constant temperature of 303.15 K. This study is restricted to turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers equal to 5000, 10000, 15000 and 20000. The 3D computer simulations were performed using the Fluent software. The characteristic parameters of heat transfer from nanofluids subjected to forced convection were obtained for nanoparticle concentrations up to 10% and were compared with the base fluid (water). The numerical results were validated, comparing the friction coefficient and the Nusselt number with empirical correlations for the turbulent regime, available in the literature. The results for the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux along the tube, for the studied conditions, are presented. Average values of some parameters associated with heat transfer and fluid flow were also determined, such as heat transfer coefficient, heat flux, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, wall shear stress, pressure drop, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat, all of which were found to increase with the concentration of nanoparticles. The heat transfer enhancement with the nanoparticles concentrations up to 10% was also investigated.

8824

Suradech Sinjapo and Bundit Krittacom. Study on Heat Transfer in Two-Layer Porous Media with Heat Generation in Porous Media

Abstract. A mathematical model to study the mechanism of heat transfer in two-layer porous materials having heat generation between two porous materials. Open-cellular with porosity ( ) ranges from 0.70 to 0.80 and the porous thickness of 0.02 m was used. The heat generation had a heat flux of 100 to 10,000 W/m2. The air velocity has flowed through the porous material in the x-direction at a velocity range of 0.4 to 1.0 m/s. The governing equation used in the calculation was the gas-solid state energy conservative equation. The heat radiative equation in porous materials was determined by the P1 approximation method. In analysis, the gas (Tf) and the solid (Ts) temperatures were reported. The local energy balance (LEB) of the gas and solid phases were also presented. From the study, the quantities of the gas (Tf) and the solid (Ts) temperatures depended on the heat generation heat flux ( ). However, the inverse results were obtained by the effect of the air velocity (uf) and the porosity of the porous material ( ). In the local energy balance (LEB) of the gas phase, the main effective terms were the convection and the interaction with almost no thermal conductivity. For the solid phase, the interaction and the heat radiation gave a significant effect and there was no conduction. This is described by both the gas and solid phase becoming low thermal conduction. In both phases at the same position, the total energy become zero according to thermodynamic law.

8846

Víctor Hugo Gómez González, Carlos Artemio Macias Rodas, Pascual López de Paz, Orlando Lastres Danguillecourt and Guillermo Ibañez Duharte. Analysis of S834, s1223 and Eppler 420 airfoil geometries for a Hydrokinetic Turbine,

Abstract. This work show the analysys of a three different airfoil geometris, that shows the turbine design and how important are this for the existent technologies. The imporante of cavitation and other physics phenomes it's a critical point on blade design, this mean that its necessary create many profiles and operation conditions, like free surface separation, blade high, cavitation and the influence of the diffusors applied directly to the turbine design and the effects that all this phenomens has into the blade design.

8850

Mohanad M.Ibrahim, Aly M. Elharidi, Ahmed S. Shehata and Ahmed A. Hanafy. Enhancing The Implementation of NZEB by Reusing HVAC Wasted Air for Cooling PV and Roof in Hot-Humid Climate

Abstract. Energy consumption, rising rates, and green gas emissions caused by the energy production process are the primary issues that concern the globe. As most countries pick up the pace with development and prosperity, worldwide emissions are reaching historic highs. According to a recent IEA assessment, worldwide energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are on course to be the second-largest increase in the record, eliminating the bulk of the decline caused by the Covid-19 pandemic last year. This would be the highest annual rise in emissions since 2010 when the globe was still recuperating from the international economic meltdown with a high carbon imprint. Since the building sector is among the significant energy users responsible for a large portion of worldwide energy-related emissions as the world is facing the tremendous surge of population increase in modern history, forcing governments to expand urbanization and establish new cities to meet the significant rise in population so the demand for saving strategies increases. Effective policy actions towards promoting energy efficiency in the building have been developed with varying intensity and structure. The purpose of this research is to propose a retrofit plan to enhance the energy efficiency of an educational building in a hot-humid climate (Alexandria, Egypt) utilizing DesignBuilder and ANSYS simulation tools. A novel cooling technology relies on reusing HVAC exhaust air to cool rooftop PV modules to enhance efficiency and reduce roof temperature. Moreover, some important measures used in the retrofitting process of the building envelope include external walls insulation and glazing type. In addition to improving HVAC and lighting systems to meet the standards for improved IEQ toward achieving nearly zero energy buildings goal, through applying these retrofitting actions to the initial model, Results reveal that these enchantments contributed to lessening building consumption by 58%. The use of PV saved about 38 percent of the building's need for energy after using a novel cooling technique, which lowered the PV surface's temperature, resulting in a 3% increase in PV efficiency. This results in an annual savings of around 880 thousand Egyptian pounds when comparing existing building to proposed modified building model.

8983

Adama Coulibaly, Sako Mohamed KoÏta and Doudjo Soro. Valorization of cashew nut shell for the production of biofuel

Abstract. The valorization of CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid), a by-product of the cashew nut sector, could be a solution to improve access to energy in sub-Saharan Africa. This work aimed by studying the valuation of CNSL for its use in a generator mixing with diesel. With this in mind, the CNSL was initially purified by filtration at 25μm after solubilization in an organic solvent, subsequently eliminated by evaporation. CNSL purified with ethanol presented the most interesting physicochemical characteristics. Blends containing 10% to 60% (vol.) of purified CNSL in diesel fuel were then produced and characterized in terms of lower calorific value, water content, acidity, density, and viscosity. Diesel engine combustion tests of these blends were carried out and the influence of the purified CNSL content on the combustion behavior of the blend was studied. Observations of the piston head and the valve after 10 hours of operation reveal the onset of fouling but which remains comparable to that observed for pure diesel. These first very promising results show that the use of CNSL as a fuel up to 60% in a stationary diesel engine is possible and efforts are still needed to improve the purification technique.

9008

Nour A. Moharram, Abdelrahman Tarek, Mohamed Gaber and Seif Bayoumi. Brief Review on Egypt’s Renewable Energy Current Status and Future Vision

Abstract. Renewable energy is critical for attaining long-term development. The Egyptian government, in collaboration with the business sector, is making significant strides toward the expansion of renewable energy production. This research includes a review of these initiatives, as well as information on renewable energy projects in Egypt and their share of the overall output. Finally, through the discussion of each project, a comprehensive overview of the technologies now in use in Egypt is presented.

9011

Ruslan Ufa, Vladimir Rudnik and Yana Malkova. Analysis of Low-Frequency Oscillation in Power System with RES Generation

Abstract. The development and complication of modern electric power systems determines the growing probability of low-frequency oscillations, which can be reason of system faults. Traditionally, the task of damping low-frequency oscillations is assigned to synchronous generators, by appropriate tuning of the automatic voltage regulator parameters. However, with an increase of the installed capacity of renewable generation units, research that aimed to analyse of influence of these generation units on the power oscillations in electric power system becomes more relevant. Moreover, evaluation the potential of renewables for solving the problems of oscillation damping seems necessary to expand the operation functions of the these generation units and to increase the stability of the electric power systems. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of renewable energy sources units to the frequency oscillations is presented. Different scenarios, including small disturbances and severe fault condition for strong and weak grids depending on the location and capacity of renewable generation unit were considered. In additional, the transient damping ratio was calculated to evaluate the impact of renewable generation unit to the damping properties of electric power system.

9146

Meryem Abid, Mohamed Tabaa, Asmae Chakir and Hanaa Hachimi. Routing and charging of electric vehicles: literature review

Abstract. Driven by the menacing climate change, countries accelerated their chase for alternative and sustainable sources of energy for all sectors. As the transportation sector makes for a huge share of the market, studies linked the emission from vehicles to air pollution, thus, global warming. To solve this issue, countries started slowly but surely converting to electric vehicles which are known for their eco-friendly characteristics. An electric vehile, as the name suggests, runs on electricty provided by battery packs. Thi selectricty fuels the engine and converts electric power to mechanical motion. Consequently, the electric vehicles do not emit polluants as no conbiustion process takes place within. However, electric vehicles face one major issu and that is their limited range. Compared to conbustion vehicles, an electric vehicle is constrainted by its batteries which, to recharge, would require an improtant amount of time. Since time is an important factor, recent works started focusing more and more on optimizing the use of recharge whithin an electric vehicle to make the most of it while avoiding frequent stops at the charging stations. Another riddle to solve, is the routing of vehicles which gets more complicate with eletric vehicles are added to the mix. Not only an electric vehile has a limited range, adding charging stations location to the problem affects the way, the time and the cost of the routing problem. To help researchers advance in this direction, our work discuss the recent methods used to solve the vehicle routing problem, as well the issues facing charging of electric vehicles. This will help establish a picture of where improvements need to be made and inspire futur works to accelerate the rate at which electric vechicles are roaming our raods.

9164

Nawal Khudhair and Kareem Jasim. Preparation and Study the effective of Sb on the energy density of states of Se60 Te40

Abstract. In this paper, the Se60Te40-xsbx compound was prepared with different concentrations of antimony (Sb) (where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20) by melting point method. The electrical measurements of semiconductors were studied by analyzing the results of electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The Moot-Davis model has been adopted as the emblem of three mechanisms that can control the conduction of electrons through amorphous semiconductors. The densities of energy states extended, localized and at Fermi level were calculated for different samples of antimony. It was Found that the extended states changed from 1.650x1024 to 2.159x1027, while local states, it changed from 2.881x1020 to 5.259x1023, as for the Fermi level, the density of states changed from 5.033x1021 to 1.571x1021 when the antimony concentration increased from 0 to 20 respectively . The activation energy was also calculated and found that in the extended state it changes from 0.223 to 0.557, and for the local case, the activation energy changes from 0.159 to 0.515 and at the Fermi level it changes from 0.151 to 0.332 when the antimony concentration is increased from zero to 20. As for the width of the energy tails, it was found that they are in a decreasing state, and this indicates that the randomness of the compound is decreasing, that is, it has become more crystalline.

9193

Gaolu Zou. Relationships between Agricultural Growth and Energy Consumption in China: Toda-Yamamoto Tests

Abstract. This article mainly analyzed the causal link between the growth in agricultural output value and total primary energy consumption for both 1953 to 2020 and 1980 to 2020 periods. The main method applied is the Toda-Yamamoto Wald-χ^2 test. Empirical results show that from 1953 to 2020, feedback existed between the growth in agricultural output value and energy use. From 1980 to 2020, unidirectional Granger causality running from energy consumption to aggregate economy and agriculture was detected, which follows the growth hypothesis in energy economics. Therefore, this article suggests that from 1980 to 2020, agricultural energy use efficiency improved. Agricultural growth did not lead to a significant increase in energy consumption. Energy consumption was the driving force of agricultural growth.

9196

Modjonda Modjonda, Dieudonné Kaoga, Bello Ngoussandou and Raidandi Danwe. Influence of cotton bark and rice ball on thermo-physical characteristics of clay bricks

Abstract. The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort in housing in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. Thermomechanical characterization of the clays collected in Tchatibali, Far North region of Cameroon is carried out with the aim of manufacturing terracotta bricks. Cotton hulls and rice husks are incorporated into the clay raw material at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% to create pores therein. All samples are baked at 900℃. Geotechnical, thermal and mechanical properties are determined to assess their potential for use in habitats. The results show that these clays have a water content of 11.90% and a consistency index of 19.10%. These clays are classified as class A-7-6 sandy clays (2). At 6% adjuvants, the results present a thermal conductivity of 0.4 and 0.45 W/m/°K, respectively for rice husks and cotton hulls, and a compressive strength of 20.50 MPa for cotton bark and 20.75 MPa for rice ball. Consequently, the clays collected in Tchatibali can be deemed suitable for the manufacture of terracotta bricks which improve thermal comfort in homes.

9206

Zahra Wehbi, Rani Taher, Jalal Faraj, Cathy Castelain and Mahmoud Khaled. Hybrid Thermoelectric Generators-Renewable Energy Systems: A Review on Recent Developments

Abstract. The development of different renewable energy techniques has shown their ability in limiting the environmental crisis and meeting future needs. In recent years many efforts have been made in order to produce hybrid systems that work on integrating renewable energy systems with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in order to increase energy efficiency. This review attempts to discuss and summarize different configurations of hybridizing TEGs with different renewable energy sources (solar, fuel cell, biomass and geothermal) underlying the concepts and approaches used to reach these hybridizations. This review will give necessary information about this type of hybridization and encourage for future research due to its promising results.

9253

Ibrahim Shamseddine, Pascal Biwole, Farouk Fardoun and Fabienne Pennec. Numerical and experimental investigation of supercooling and natural convection in octadecane phase change material

Abstract. With the increasing global interest in energy savings, latent heat thermal energy storage (LTES) systems are used for energy harvesting and preservation, thus reducing the demand for traditional energy sources. The main concept of solid-liquid LTES systems is to absorb and release the latent heat of a material through consecutive melting/solidification cycles. Supercooling is a phenomenon that prevents the solidification of a liquid having a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Considering this phenomenon in designing the numerical models gives a better prediction of the system’s energy performance. This work is the first attempt to include supercooling in a two-dimensional COMSOL model. The model accommodates natural convection during the melting process and supercooling during the cooling process of the phase change material (PCM). The effect of supercooling and natural convection on the temperature curve and the energy behavior/performance of the PCM are shown and discussed with respect to the PCM’s container volume and cooling rate.

9256

Abderrezak Guenounou, Michel Aillerie and Djamel Lafri. Modeling of the Household Electricity Consumption in the Regions of Southern Algeria. Proposition of a New Subsidy Plan

Abstract. Currently, to relieve households in the regions of the great south of Algeria, the government supports part of their annual electricity bill, up to 65%. The objective of this work is the study of an alternative technical feasibility from efficient electrification solutions of renewable origin allowing considering the participation in the financing of photovoltaic kits directly by the government. The consideration of environmental aspects is one of the major assets motivating this alternative. In this study, a typical family house in the region of Adrar, in the southwest of Algeria will be taken as a case study with two variants of solar PV systems studied: a stand-alone photovoltaic system operating only in summer to supply air conditioners, then a grid-connected PV system. The results obtained show that grid-connected PV systems are the most appropriate solution.

9266

Keyoon Duanguppama and Nattadon Pannucharoenwong. Processing of Leucaena Leucocepphala for Renewable Energy with Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis

Abstract. This research aims to study processing of Leucaena Leucocepphala for renewable energy with catalytic fast pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor. The natural zeolite, dolomite and kaolin are the catalysts for the experiment. Both catalysts were installed in the reactor and hot filter. The pyrolysis temperature was 500°C and biomass feed rate of 1 kg/h. When the experiment was completed had calculated the product yields. The results showed that the fast pyrolysis with silica sand had maximum the bio-oil yield of 65.1 wt%. When catalytic fast pyrolysis with natural zeolite, dolomite, and kaolin the bio-oil yield was decreased. The dolomite catalyst has minimum the bio-oil yield of 54.5 wt%. When considering the three catalysts, it was found that the kaolin catalyst provided a maximum bio-oil yield of 59.6 wt%. And the kaolin catalyst, it can greatly increase the organic content in bio-oil. The properties analysis of the heavy bio-oil, it was found that the bio-oil from the ESP condenser had higher heat than the bio-oil from the water-cooled condenser. The natural zeolite catalyst had maximum high heating value (HHV) of heavy bio-oil from the water-cooled condenser were 35.8 MJ/kg and 37.3 MJ/kg of bio-oil from the ESP condenser. This is because the bio-oil from the ESP condenser were contains C15-C44 hydrocarbon components. The bio-oil from the water-cooled condenser were contains C12-C35 hydrocarbon components. The installation of natural zeolite catalysts in process maximized the availability of this component in the bio-oil. For the dolomite catalyst, the viscosity of the bio-oil was reduced, and the density increased. In addition, the installation of a dolomite catalyst in process significantly reduced acidity such as Methyl propiolate (C4H4O2) and 2-Octenoic acid (C8H14O2) contained in the bio-oil. When considering the three catalysts, it was concluded that the kaolin catalyst increased the bio-oil yield. To improve the thermal quality of bio-oil, a natural zeolite catalyst was required. But, to improve viscosity and reduce acidity in bio-oil, dolomite catalyst was required.

9364

Olufunmilayo Joseph and Micheal Aluko. Effect of Synthetic Materials in Reinforcement of Aluminium Matrix Composites

Abstract. Aluminium matrix composite is a type of innovative technical material that have applications in aerospace, automotive, biotechnology, electronics, and a lot more. Non-metallic reinforcements can be injected into an aluminium alloy to provide advantages over base metal (Al) alloys. Better mechanical properties, improved microstructure, and corrosion resistance are the benefits that have been noticed upon reinforcements. Investigation in the creation of highly advanced tailored materials using liquid and solid-state processes and the impact it has on the properties and application are the subject of this work. The current research summarizes recent breakthroughs in aluminium-based composites and other particle reinforcement effects.

9382

Khaireldin Faraj, Mahmoud Khaled, Jalal Faraj, Farouk Hachem, Khaled Chahine and Cathy Castelain. Energetic and economic effects of integrating enhanced macro-encapsulated PCM’s with active underfloor hydronic heating system within advanced modular experimental prototypes

Abstract. Phase change materials proved their capability of enhancing buildings’ thermal inertia and improving occupants’ thermal comfort. More attention was triggered by the scientific community as the use of thermal energy storage systems kept evolving in the building sector. Previous experimental investigations examined the effectiveness of enhanced macro-encapsulated coconut oil bio-based PCM coupled with hydronic radiant floor heating system in two identical small-scale modular test facilities. The current study focuses on performing comparative energetic and economic analyses of the system performance in regards to: weather conditions, PCM application, PCM type and properties, and PCMs location within the active floor. Results highlighted the effectiveness of coupling CO-PCM to active floor, passive wall and passive roof as load shifting and energy savings were obtained. It was shown that with the combination of active and passive systems, annual savings of 227 USD were achieved; and by placing the PCM underneath the heating system, energy saving of 393.5 kWh was achieved corresponding to 169 USD annual savings. However, 32 USD annual saving was achieved by the system integrated with paraffin wax compared to that integrated with cocoa-nut oil PCM. The payback periods evaluated due to PCM capability in cost savings were 6.82, 6.75 and 3.94 for experiments 2, 3 (load shifting) and 4 (energy saving), respectively. Further conclusions and perspective recommendations terminate the article.

9383

Andres RigailDemis CabreraJavier VeraMiriam LazoEstephany Adrian and Rodrigo PerugachiEnergy demand of rice husk/ recycled HDPE composite extrusion

Abstract. The circular economy encourages the preservation of the planet's resources. In this sense, plastic recycling is one of the critical strategies in line with the circular economy. The energy demand in single screw extrusion has been studied to optimize production cost in extrusion process manufacturing. This study examined rice husk's effect on the extrusion process's energy demand using a recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE) with a tapered compression screw with dispersive and distributive mixers. Rice husk was reduced to a maximum particle size of 45 µm. Two commercial compatibilizers based on Maleic anhydride-grafted polyethylene-octene elastomer (POE-g-MA) and ethylene-glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-gMA) were used to enhance compatibility between the rice husk and the polymer matrix. The energy consumption was measured on the total energy of the extruder machine. The energy consumption (EC) and specific energy consumption (SEC) were measured to contrast the effect of the rice husk (3 wt%) and the addition of the compatibilizers. The SEC of RH/E-gMA and RH/ POE-g-MA were at about 41.11% and 55.32%, respectively, lower than rHDPE. This work suggests that rHDPE/RH bio-composite processing incurs minor costs when coupling agents, processing conditions, and screws are carefully selected.

9472

Yogender Pal Chandra and Tomas MatuskaEnergy modelling of thermal energy storage (TES) using intelligent data streaming system

Abstract. Thermal energy storage (TES) is the central component of any renewable energy system (RES) and can considerably affect its overall efficiency. A good storage tank should enhance the stratification by restricting inlet mixing. In this paper, an experimental study is presented to evaluate the performance of thermal energy storage (TES). Discharging of the tank was conducted with different inlet flow rates to assess the effect of inlet mixing on thermal stratification. Combined results of temperature distribution, MIX number, and Richardson number were visualized to predict the behavior of TES. In addition, the data modeling – acquisition, curation, and transformation is done in live mode with custom-built data streaming layer. Finally, the use-case of hyper-tuned DL framework of LSTM neural networks to predict the energy efficiency in the process loop is demonstrated. It was concluded that discharging rate of 800L/hour has the maximum mixing and thus the worst stratification, while prediction efficiency fell well within 5% of the error range.

9619

Mohamed Ibrahim Ali and Kareem Emara. Comparative study of waste tires pyrolysis oil and diesel oil for spectral flame zones analysis, temperature distribution contours, and emissions

Abstract. This paper aims to investigate the energy valorization of waste tyre pyrolysis using coaxial continuous flame burners. Tire Pyrolysis Oil (TPO), as well as its blend (B1) with light diesel oil (LDO), are prepared, physically and chemically characterized, and then combusted in coaxial burners for energy conversion. Flame spectroscopy techniques are used to detect the spectral emission peaks, especially for the two zones: vaporization and combustion zone and hot recirculation zone of the produced flame via a hyperspectral camera. In addition, the mass-specific emission indices and the axial inflame temperatures were considered as an indication of the flame radiation intensity and combustion homogeneity in the flame zones. The coaxial flame is investigated for excess air factors of 1.33, 1.04, and 0.9. The higher intensity is noted for the vaporization zone where fuel droplets are evaporated at first and then the chemical reactions mostly start in vapor form producing exhaust gases and thermal energy. B1 flame length is taller than that of LDO by 48% at λ = 1.33, which indicates higher radiation intensity of TPO/LDO blend flame. On the other hand, CO emissions levels decreased for the combustion of waste tire pyrolysis oil and B1 by an average of 4 – 12% compared to HDO and LDO for CO, and NOx emission is reduced by 8.5 – 26%. The highest axial inflame temperature of 1,205⁰C was recorded for TPO at condition λ = 0.9, where the presence of oxygen molecules in fuel will help for flame improvements.

9722

Yijing Feng, Haitao Liu, Laibin Zhang and Wenpei Zheng. In-Line Inspection Technology of Long-distance Pipeline Based on AC Electromagnetic Field

Abstract. Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) has the advantages of fast inspection speed, high efficiency, sensitive inspection, and easy quantification. It has become a very promising electromagnetic nondestructive inspection technology. This paper proposes a non-contact AC electromagnetic field inspection probe for pipeline inspection. The arc rectangular excitation component in the probe is simulated and numerically simulated. The lift-off distance and excitation frequency parameters are optimized, and The influence of uneven magnetic permeability of the pipeline on the test results is analyzed; the probe inspection test is completed, and the inspection performance of the probe is verified. The minimum axial crack length that this probe can inspect is 15mm and the depth is 1mm. The research results of this paper show that the probe has the ability to quantitatively evaluate the axial cracks on the inner surface of the pipeline, which has certain guiding significance for the design and development of the AC electromagnetic field inspection probe.

9846

Rafal Hamiri and Mustafa Al-Alwani. Urban Form and Social Sustainability (The City Of Hilla)

Abstract. Global commitments to make cities more sustainable are accompanied by discussion over the type of urban form needed to attain this goal. Then reviewing , An important initial step is to review the approaches utilized in prior urban form studies. After undertaking a review of related literature, We provide a solid theoretical framework for the practical side. This research is concerned with proving the relationship between social sustainability and urban form and its impact on type of housing and density. Rather than depending on total density increases to produce sustainable outcomes, future metropolitan planning policies should provide a more specific understanding of the influence that diverse urban structure and form types might have from a sustainable behavior standpoint. The problem with this paper is that yet there is a lack of research and frameworks that can be applied successfully at a local level (city of Hilla). This poses a fundamental problem for sustainability assessment. The general objective of this paper is to develop a framework that provides us with sustainable indicators Through the research methodology followed, which includes several steps, the first step is to identify the main issues, needs, and problems in the study area (Al-Hilla) using documentary sources, focused group discussions and interviews, then the second step consists of reformulating the problems and needs that appeared in the objectives (solution) The next step consists of Formulating indicators and then arranging them in the fourth step, and through these indicators, which will assist us in evaluating the urban form of the city of Hilla.

9853

Mohd Radzi Abu MansorStudy of Heat Loss Mechanism in Argon-circulated Hydrogen Engine Combustion Chamber Wall Surface Conditions

Abstract. The feasibility of argon-circulated hydrogen engines for use in vehicles was recently investigated. The substitution of nitrogen by noble gas argon (Ar) as the working gas in a hydrogen engine led to the realization of a zero carbon and nitrogen-emission, high-efficiency engine and allowed low-ignitability hydrogen to ignite instantaneously after injection. However, high temperature rises from the argon compression tend to heat loss problem. This research aims to study the heat loss mechanism on wall surface condition in argon-circulated hydrogen engine combustion chamber. Experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel for different conditions of ambient pressure and ambient temperature and to study the effect of different heat flux sensor location and effect of ignition delay to heat flux. The ignition characteristics and combustion processes of the hydrogen jet were also observed using high-speed shadowgraph images, and local heat flux measurement were collected. The ignition delay that occurred near the combustion wall will result in larger heat loss throughout the combustion process. Higher ambient pressure results in a bigger amount of heat flux value. Other fundamental characteristics were obtained and discussed, which may help in contributing the local heat loss data in controlling the operation of an argon-circulated hydrogen engine in future engine operation.

9872

Nawal Khudhair and Kareem Jasim. Study the effective of Tin on the energy density of states of Se60Te40-xSnx chalcogenide glass

Abstract. In this paper, Se60Te40-xSnx chalcogenide glasses with different concentrations of Tin (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared) by melting point method. The electrical properties, i.e. electrical conductivity as a function of temperature, were studied. The activation energy was calculated and was found that at the extended state it changes from 0.223 to 0.281, local state, the activation energy changes from 0.159 to 0.306 and at the Fermi level; it is found that it changes from 0.151 to 0.231. As for the width of energy tails, they are decreasing, and this indicates that the randomness of the compound is decreased, meaning that it has become more crystalline. The Energy density of state the extended, localized, at Fermi energy and the effect of adding Sn on it also was calculated. The increase in Tin (Sn) concentration led to a change in the density of extended, localized, and at Fermi level. it was found that the extended levels changed from 1.650x1024 to 6.226x1025, localize state, they change from 2.881x1020 to 2.113x1024, as for Fermi level, the density of states changed from 5.033x1021 to 1.942x1023 when the Tin concentration increased from 0 to 20.

9937

Amal Herez, Hassan Jaber, Hisham Elhage, Thierry Lemenand, Mohamad Ramadan and Mahmoud Khaled. A summary review on solar water heating technology: pros and cons, classifications and applications

Abstract. Solar water heating system is one of the most commonly utilized applications of solar energy all over the world. The main benefit of this system is exploiting solar energy to heat water by converting it into thermal energy. The purpose of this work is to present a review on solar water heating systems (SWHS). In this context, principle, components, advantages, and disadvantages of SWHS are being presented in this paper. In addition, the classification of SWHS as well as a summary of several studies conducted on SWHS are established in this review.

9976

Vasiliki Rokani, Petros Karaisas and Stavros Kaminaris. Fault Diagnosis of Induction Motors using Artificial Intelligence techniques: A Systematic Review

Abstract. This paper presents a systematic review of the latest (2010-2021) publications on the outcomes of primary studies that investigate Induction Motor Fault Diagnosis (IMFD) using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a novel branch in science and engineering. AI techniques constitute the most cutting-edge method in IMFD. Induction motors are widely regarded as more extensively used than other electric machines. Therefore, maintaining the health of induction motors is critical. It is essential to prevent incipient faults by monitoring the condition of the (IMs) and using diagnostic techniques. An incipient failure in an IM should be detected as early as possible to interrupt the evolution of the fault and reduce the financial losses and the repair period. To condense the existing surveys concerning the fault diagnosis in induction motors using AI technique by searching the benefits and limitations of those surveys. To determine the gaps in existing research to recommend ideas for further investigation. To implement a background in this realm of AI, for novel research projects A systematic review was conducted. we follow a particular review protocol that defines the research questions and the methods applied to conduct the review

9978

Wongkot Wongsapai and Manitta Onwanna. Analysis of Energy Utilization Indicators (EUI) in Thailand large scale public hospital buildings

Abstract. This article presents a study of the energy efficiency index of hospital-type buildings that was a value that could indicate energy efficiency for the production or service of each organization. The objectives of this study were to find physical variables correlated with electricity consumption and to find a correlation between energy efficiency index values and physical variables that affected energy consumption in public hospitals. Data was collected and analyzed from 128 public sector hospitals in Thailand from 2010-2019 and regressive analysis methods were used to find mathematical models of energy efficiency indexes that were suitable for businesses of public hospital buildings by using data from public sector hospitals with small, medium, large service sizes, respectively, as a sample for the study.