1 Didier Camilo Sierra, Andrés Julián Aristizábal, Jesús Antonio Hernández and Daniel Ospina. Life Cycle Analysis of a building integrated photovoltaic system operating in Bogotá, Colombia
Abstract. In this study, the environmental behavior was characterized for a 840 Wp Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system installed in the Department of Physics of the Faculty of Sciences at the National University of Colombia, Bogota campus. The methodology focused on the application of the international technical standards for Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from cradle to grave based on the NTC ISO 14040 and NTC ISO 1404 standards, which regulate the methodological procedure. This article is based on comparing the potential of environmental impacts of five power generation scenarios, taking as reference the installation of the photovoltaic system (PV) at the University. During the analysis it was possible to determine that generation with coal has the greatest impact when generating 1kWh, with a contribution of 84% to the environmental impact, compared to 6% generated by the PV system; significantly affecting human toxicity, and this results in 1138.8 gCO2eq/kWh for the carbon source, compared to the PV system with 35 gCO2eq/kWh, equivalent to 3% of the impact generated with that source.
2 Esraa Al-Sarray. Comparison of radiation shielding properties of Baryte compounds and polymers with some metallic elements (details)
Abstract. Each organic matter contains a high percentage of carbon. It can produce activated carbon, which is capable of absorbing pollutants, Dates nuclei are made up of carbohydrates at 55%. It is useful in the production of high-efficiency activated carbon. In this research, the ability of the kernel of dates to investigate the ability and effectiveness of this material was investigated. In shielding of this radiation. The radioactive source was used for Cs-137 gamma. And the source of the use of the Beta-Cr-90 particle. This experiment was conducted and took readings and results from Directorate and Treatment Radioactive waste, Baghdad, Iraq. This material has demonstrated the ability to shield from these radiation.
4 Mohammed Alhamadani and Ali A-K. Hussain. Estimation of shock wave position in plasma plume using Sedov-Taylor model
Abstract. In this work, radius of shock wave of plasma plume (R) and speed of plasma particles (U) have been calculated using Matlab program. Both parameters (R and U) were calculated using Sedov-Taylor model in Ar back ground gas. The effect of laser pulse energy (Es) on radius of shock wave of plasma plume and speed of plasma particles has been investigated in this study. Also the temporal profile of both R and U has been studied. As Es increased, plasma plume shock wave radius (R) and plasma species speed (U) increased. The cylindrical explosion of plasma has been assumed in this study of Sedov-Taylor model.
5 Aboubakr Benazzouz and Jim Sorensen. Comparison of measured field performance of a grid connected CdTe photovoltaic system to expected performance via PlantPredict software
Abstract. System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of solar photovoltaic systems at a given location. Therefore, the accurate prediction of power delivery over the course of time is crucial for the development of the PV industry. First Solar, Inc. has launched a photovoltaic project assessment application focused on utility scale projects, known as PlantPredict |1], which is an interactive assessment tool allowing engineers, developers, and investors to evaluate the feasibility and the energy output of ground-mounted projects using First Solar’s advanced thin film technology, and any other module technology, anywhere in the world. In this work, the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) installation is assessed. The plant consists of a grid-connected centralized system, where the supplied power is independent of any particular electricity customer. Operational data from this PV system, ground-mounted and located at the Green Energy Park in Benguerir , has been collected since early October 2016. The plant is equipped with CdTe PV modules (FS-4115-2), with 115 Wp per module, and a total generating capacity of 4.83 kWp. Our work aims to confront the prediction methodology of First Solar’s propriety modeling tool Plant-Predict with the measured field performance data in the challenging climate conditions in Benguerir and to assess the performance demonstrated First Solar’s advanced thin film technology in this specific region. The characteristics of all the system components were introduced in the interactive assessment tool PlantPredict, together with meteorological data (Global horizontal irradiance, ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity) measured at a local meteorological station in addition to an estimation of the soiling losses via individually and separately monitored control modules. The operational data (energy output and module temperature) is collected during the first operation year in order to compare the predicted and the measured energy yields. The module performance indicators such as the performance ratio, final yield shall be supervised during the monitoring period to assess the reliability of this technology in this specific region, as well as other similar climates. A comparison between the measured and predicted performance for this advanced thin film technology has not sufficiently been performed under controlled conditions and published for this specific region. This work should as well help assess the losses better and demonstrate the opportunities for the CdTe PV technologies development in the desert conditions.
6 Aissa Abidi-Saad, Hadj Abbas Abbas, Mahfoud Kadja, Guillaume Polidori and Mohammed Bouraoui. Square Ribs Size Influence On Dissipated Heat Removing From The Rear Side Of Pv Panels Through A Back-mounted Channel
Abstract. In this paper, the heat removing from the rear of PV panels through a back-mounted channel or when the PV panels are integrated in building as a double skin facade was numerically studied. In fact, the effect of size of two adiabatic square ribs on dissipated heat removal from the back-side of PV panels and flow dynamic within the back-mounted channel is investigated. The two square ribs are symmetrically installed above the heated zone on each wall of the back-mounted channel. This later is represented by an asymmetrically heated channel immerged in water tank (its environment). The use of water is to neglect radiation effect. In the computational procedure, the bi-dimensional continuity, momentum and energy equations in the unsteady state were resolved using finite volume method. Three ribs sizes are studied, namely Rd = 1/18, 3/18 and 6/18. The numerical study was undertaken under realistic environmental and geometric conditions, i.e. the considered heat flux density (q” = 510 W/m2) corresponds to the average annual solar heat flux in France, and the value of the channel aspect ratios Rf, it is within the range of those found for horizontally divided double-skin facades of high-rise buildings. The considered modified Rayleigh number based on the two later parameters is equal to Ra* = 4.5×106. The current numerical results were compared with those experimental and a very good agreement was found. Also, it is noticed that the ribs size variation has a strong effect on heat transfer and fluid flow within the back-mounted channel. Furthermore, an optimal ribs size is detected.
7 Abdelhak Bouchakour, Abdelhalim Borni, Seif Eddine Boukebbous, Amor Fazzani Amor and Layachi Zaghba Layachi. Optimisation of a Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems Driven by Direct Current Motor (DCM) and Induction Motor (IM), Comparative Study
Abstract. This paper presents a comparison between two photovoltaic water pumping system driven by a separately excited DC motor (DCM) and an induction motor (IM), via a DC/DC buck-boost converter coupled to a centrifugal pump. The two systems are optimised by a P&O MPPT algorithm, which aims to the maximisation of the global efficiency, will lead consequently to maximize the drive speed and the water discharge rate of the coupled centrifugal pump. Each component of the PV water pumping system is studied and analyzed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The two systems are then compared in terms of efficiency and quantity of water pumped per day. The study concludes that the IM-driven PV system yields highly favorable results and requires less maintenance compared with other systems.
8 Abdelhalim Borni and Abdelhak Bouchakour. Optimization of the Fuzzy MPPT Controller by GA for the Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Controlled by Sliding Mode
Abstract. This paper focuses on the performance of a single-phase inverter coupled to the grid in terms of optimal photovoltaic transfer, using the concept of sliding-mode variable structure systems. Moreover, a fuzzy logic control technique optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) associated with a boost converter is used to extract the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).The validation of the results using Matlab/Simulink software is carried under different environmental and operating conditions to verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies.
9 Hamza Laouini. Characterization of saline wetlands in an arid Saharan climate of the Ouargla basin (southeastern Algeria) from Landsat ETM +.
Abstract. Wetlands in the region of Ouargla (southeastern Algeria) show outcrops in depressions in the form of Oasis, Chotts and Sebkhas (salty wetlands). Their presence is important in arid regions through the creation of a microclimate favoring the preservation of an oasis ecosystem. The high salinity in these areas directly influences the biotope and hampers the existence of oases. The objective of this work is to help update maps of saline wetlands that are characterized by geochemical activity in an arid desert climate (case of the Ouargla basin). The visual analysis of the colored compositions of the Landsat ETM + satellite image made it possible to identify the different forms of saline wetlands in the desert environment of the southeastern Ouargla wilaya of Algeria. Digital processing (unsupervised and supervised classifications of satellite imagery) has made it possible to map the main units of oases, salty surface waters and wet soils as well as salty soils in the Ouargla basin.
10 Latifa Kahloul, Hacene Chadli and Abdenour Hebbaz. Wear and friction behavior of the porous TiNiCu alloy for biomedical applcation (details)
Abstract. Porous TiNiCu alloys are used in wide and different engineering applications due to their excellent mechanical properties such as ductility, strength, toughness, etc. Also, these alloys have a good resistance to corrosion and the excellent biocompatibility properties, the demands increased to use it in different medical applications. The biomedical application of these alloys requires good structural and surface biocompatibility. It is characterized by the damage caused by the implant-tissue interaction. This damage is related to products released by friction. For this purpose, the objective of this work is the study of the tribological behavior of porous TiNiCu alloys, using two static partners: alumina ball and bone pion.In this research work, porous TiNiCu alloys were prepared from the pre-alloyed powders. The milling was realised using a planetary ball mill for 10 hours an under argon atmosphere. The The milled TiNiCu powders were then sintered at temperatures of 950°C for 7h.The results of the investigation confirm that wear degradation is manifested by the abrasive mechanism for both partners. The addition of copper improves the tribological properties of the alloys developed by decreasing the coefficient of friction
11 Juan Carlos Beltrán, Andrés Julián Aristizábal, Alejandra López, Mónica Castaneda, Sebastián Zapata and Yulia Ivanova. Comparative analysis of deterministic and probabilistic methods for the integration of distributed generation in power systems
Abstract. In this article, a comparative analysis is made between three statistical methods (TOAT, Monte Carlo and Two-point method) by integrating the uncertainty of primary sources of renewable generation in systems of electric power. The modeling of the IEEE test system of 13 nodes is made by integrating the Distributed Generation (DG) with two different sources: wind and photovoltaic. For the simulation of wind power generation, the wind speed data is from El Cabo de la Vela in the Guajira department in Colombia and for the simulation of solar power generation, the solar radiation data is from Bogota city in Colombia. Once the IEEE system of 13 nodes is modeled and incorporated to the variability of primary resource and the load in each case; the load flow can be made by using the MATPOWER tool in MatlabTM for each one of the statistical methods proposed. The voltage, power generated, and power demanded data is recovered for each method to create comparison charts, establish the advantages, and disadvantages of each one in the analysis of the distribution of power systems with DG.
12 Bensaha. Sanitary Assessment Of An Agricultural Greenhouse Equipped With Thermal Storage System In The Ghardaia Region
Abstract. The main aim of the study was the evaluation and health monitoring of the two agricultural greenhouses installed in the research unit as part of a research project. This is a zucchini culture located in a greenhouse equipped with a thermal storage system and another greenhouse. The study showed that the rate of disease in the experimental greenhouse is very high compared to the control greenhouse. This magnitude of damage is explained by the favorable climate provided by the system. A descriptive analysis was also carried out in order to estimate the damage in the greenhouses.
13 Abdelmadjid Bensaha, Fatiha Benkouider and Ali Cheknane. Design and Size optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic systems
Abstract. In this paper we have presented a proposed size optimization for the PV system components especially for the PV array and batteries bank to choose a PV installation at lower cost. Mathematical approach was presented for optimal sizing of PV system components in addition to the total capital cost of the system. As a result, the optimised PV array size is 2.24KWc, batteries bank capacity is 48 KWh, the charge controller capacity is 55A and the inverter size is 3kVA, the total cost of the PV system is 6683 $. Our results are very encouraging as they show us the significant improvements in photovoltaic performance.
14 Youssef Errami, Abdellatif Obbadi, Smail Sahnoun and Boaz Wadawa. An Improved Control of Grid Integrated Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Abstract. This study proposes a Vector Control Approach (VCA) for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) connected to the grid. Regarding the configuration of system, the stator of the induction machine is connected directly to the power grid and the rotor is connected to the power grid via a back-to-back converter. The control schemes are presented, including the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) control, Grid Side Converter (GSC) converter and the pitch angle control. The RSC is used to implement Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). The GSC regulates reactive and real power flow to the power network. Besides, it regulates the dc bus voltage and the ac side power-factor. The controller system abilities are tested via simulations performed with MATLAB/Simulink. A complete simulation model is developed for the control of the active and reactive powers of the DFIG under varying wind conditions and system responses of open loop control are compared with those of closed loop control for different grid voltage conditions.
15 Monica Castaneda, Andrés Julián Aristizábal, Judith Cherni, Isaac Dyner and Sebastian Zapata. Assessing renewable energy policy integration cost, emissions, and affordability (details)
Abstract. In the late 1980s, Argentina faced frequent blackouts due to a lack of investment in generation capacity and high electricity demand growth. Argentina was one of the first developing countries to implement the liberalisation and privatisation of public utilities. In 2015, the Argentine electricity market faced a crisis due to low capacity investment. This arose from consumer prices that poorly reflected the true electricity cost, increasing risk for companies to invest in new generation capacity. Since 2016, Argentine government has called an auction to increase generation capacity; in addition, the government has cut incentive to consumers looking for reduce the electricity demand. Moreover, Argentina’s government is promoting policies to increase renewable energy share. However, it is unknown how renewable energies may affect security of supply and electricity price. This paper presents a simulation model to analyse policies for increasing generation capacity and promote renewable energy in Argentina. In this paper is concluded that renewable energies do indeed reduce the energy dependency of fossil fuels, and they lead to reduce electricity prices.
20 Olatokunbo Ofuyatan, Oluyemi Fayomi and Adeoye Olowofoyeku. Sustainable Skill Development through Industrial Training For Engineering Students In Nigeria (details)
Abstract. Industrial training for engineering students is of paramount importance. Training is a key factor in enhancing the efficiency and expertise of the workforce. The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) program prepares students for the labor market. It has become an innovative phenomenon in human resources development and training in Nigeria. This study examined the relevance of (SIWES), 265 students across the faulty of engineering report were analysed, and oral interview was used to gather data from students, supervisors and coordinator. Three factors were used to study the self-relevance of SIWES i.e. the knowledge, skill, and attitude. The students from the faculty 38% were of the opinion that they had good knowledge, 46% had the skill and 68% good attitude before the training. After completing the training these factors were increased to 88% of the knowledge, 85% gained skill and 96% for attitude. On the relevance and benefits of the industrial training, 95% of respondents agreed it has added more value to their career, 84% agreed that after graduation it has exposed and enlighten them to face the challenges of the labor market and 96% agreed that it has made them not to depend financially on their parents too much and clear direction on their career path.
21 Olatokunbo Ofuyatan, Oluyemi Fayomi and Adeoye Olowofoyeku. Influence of Palm Ash on Properties of Lightweight Self-Compacting Concrete (details)
Abstract. The huge amount and non-utilization of oil palm biomass has created a major disposal problem. The use of lightweight concrete improves structural efficiency, as well as constructability for ease of repair and renovation works. Self compacting concrete (SCC) reduces voids without vibration. This research focus on the effect of influence of Palm ash (PA) on light weight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC). Palm ash was used to replace cement in the production of light weight self compacting concrete in order of 10, 20, 30, 40 & 50% respectively; slump flow, V-funnel and L-box test were carried out for the workability and passing ability test on fresh concrete. While Compressive, flexural and split tensile strength tests were carried out on the hardened concrete. The result showed 20% palm ash replacement as the optimum replacement within which the standard strength requirement for hardened concrete remained satisfied. The result of this study can be applicable to effective concrete mixtures suitable for repairing existing structures and element in rural areas.
22 Funmilayo Shalewa Ojesanmi. Assessment Of The Environmental Quality And Health Issues
Abstract. This paper assesses the nexus between the environment and health The quality of the local living environment has a direct impact on human health and well-being. An unspoiled environment is a source of satisfaction, improves mental well-being, and allows people to recover from the stresses of everyday life and perform physical activities.. There is a close relationship between quality of life and the environment (Diener and Suh, 1997, UNECE, 2009). People's lives are strongly affected by the health of their physical environment. The impact of pollutants and hazardous substances on people's health is sizeable. Environmental quality also matters intrinsically because most people value the beauty and health of the place where they live and care about the depletion of its natural resources (Brajša-Žganec, Merkaš, & Šverko, 2011). It should be emphasizes that The environment directly affects health status and plays a major role in quality of life, years of healthy life lived, and health disparities. Poor air quality is linked to premature death, cancer, and long-term damage to respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Moreover, smoke containing toxic and cancer-causing chemicals contributes to heart disease and lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. The methodology for the study is basically qualitative. Preserving environmental and natural resources is also one of the most important factors in ensuring the preservation of well-being over time (Van Liere & Dunlap, 1980).The paper concludes that the issues of the environmentally responsible behavioral living should be taken into cognizance in the environmental policies that are critical to global health priorities have a critical role to play in dealing with global health priorities.
24 Razika Kharchi, Khaled Imessad, Sabrina Sami and Sid Ali Hakem. Solar Energy For Heating A Building Used For Offices
Abstract. National energy consumption has grown more, mainly as a result of improved living standards for citizens, which has led to an increase in the use of heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment. Energy efficiency is an appropriate response to this problem. Actions are needed to influence energy consumption. This paper presents the results of a study conducted on a newly constructed office building at the Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER) in Algiers. This building obeys the norms of the Algerian thermal regulation. The RETA software, developed by CDER researchers, is used to check the building's compliance with these standards. The energy demand for heating the building is provided by a solar thermal system. TRNSYS software is used for dynamic simulation of building performance. The annual energy demand for heating and cooling are respectively 2754 kWh and 3575 kWh. This leads to installing a thermal solar collector field with an area of 10 m².
25 Djillali Ghobrini. Production of biodiesel from locally isolated yellow strain of Chlorella sp. using wastewater from dairy effluents as a growth medium
Abstract. Fossil fuels have served humans well for a long time. However, they remain exhaustible and contribute to pollution. Microalgae seem to be an alternative to fossil fuels through biofuel production. These microscopic plants have the opportunity to be grown in different ways to produce biofuel. The aim of this study was to isolated the indigenous unicellular microalgae for their potential of biodiesel production by characterizing their ability to growth in wastewater from dairy effluents under heterotrophic condition. Thus, a local wild yellow strain of Chlorella isolated in oases of Metlili (Algerian Septentrional Sahara) were screened for biomass and lipid production. The results showed that the use of whey wastewater can replace using of a synthetic medium such as BG11 for the cultivation of the fresh water algae. The addition of nitrogen and magnesium to the whey wastewater increased significantly the productivity in terms of biomass and lipid. The biomass productivity reach to 0.0367 g/h, where the productivity inside the BG11 medium was 0.033 g/h. The investigation of lipid production showing high potential of the wild yellow strain to produce biodiesel. Thus, the presence of nitrogen and magnesium let the strain accumulates some fatty acids and total lipid exceeds on average 27% of the algal biomass produced at the decline growth phase.
26 Ziad Khodair, Mohanad Mahdi and Asmaa Almohaidi. Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) and its Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity Against P. aeruginosa Biofilm Gene's
Abstract. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen in different disease as Diabetic Foot ulcer. Present study Focused on virulence gene as specific gene which increase the capacity of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms. Biofilm is an important Features for chronic colonization of Inflamed bacteria. From Diabetic Foot Patients ulcer isolated this bacteria, after diagnosing by bacterial method, sequencing for ElfC gene as specific virulence genes was studied in Iraqi hospital, P. aeruginosa consider as a chronic colonization in foot ulcer, therefore there is a real needing to suggest an alternative treatment materials effect on virulence genes. CuO-NPs became accepted solution used as an alternative to antibiotics. Evaluation the effect of nanoparticles on the genetic variation of ElfC gene before and after treatment was the aim of present study. Present results illustrated increasing deletion effect for CuO-NPs on Cytosine nitrogen base which consider as evolution steps among genetic variation.
28 Djamel Daoud, Tahar Douadi, Djillali Ghobrini, Nacéra Lahouel and Hanane Hamani. IInvestigation of Some Phenolic-type Antioxidants Compounds Extracted from Biodiesel as Green Natural Corrosion Inhibitors; DFT and Molecular Dynamic Simulation, comparative Study
Abstract. To solve the problem of environmental pollution during the metal cleaning process, new compounds extracted from biodiesel such as Pyropyl-Gallate (L1), Pyrogallol (L2), 4-Methyl-catecho (L3) and Protocatechuic-acid (L4) were investigated as green corrosion inhibitors by using density functional theory (DFT) and Molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) methods. The computed quantum chemical parameters obtained from DFT for instance: the total energy (ET), the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the dipole moment (µ) and the polarizability (α) indicate that those examined molecules were efficient corrosion inhibitor. The tested molecules present a generally planar structure. This structure unit may be in favor of the important interaction zone if the molecule adsorbed on the metal surface at nearly 0° contact angle. As can be seen from Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), it is clear that more electron rich regions are largely located around the heteroatoms and the conjugated double bonds, means that L1, L2, L3 and L4 can promote the formation of a complex on the metal surface by transferring electrons and forming a coordinate covalent bond through the chemical adsorption. From MDS study, the binding energy of the adsorption system (Inhibitor-Fe) is more important, showing that this adsorption system is very stable, and has high inhibitory efficiency. According to the study of quantum chemistry, the oxygen atoms of the molecules tested can give electrons to the unoccupied iron orbital "d" to form coordination bonds while the orbital π of aromatic rings can accept electrons from the iron orbital "d" to form coordination bonds. A good agreement was found between DFT and MDS methods.
30 Murtadha Nayyef and Naz Talab Jarallaha. Study Mass Parabola and Most Stable Isobar from Some Isobaric Nuclides
Abstract. This study aims to determine most stable isobar from some isobaric elements with mass number (A= 50-65 & 180-195). This aim achieved by, firstly: plot mass parabolas for these isobaric family, second: calculated the atomic number for most stable isobar (ZA ) value. To plot the mass parabola, the binding energy (B.E) calculated from semi empirical formula for these isobars. The mass number (A) plotted as a function to the (ZA) for each range; we get a linear relationship between them. An empirical formula for the most stable isobar has been developed from this linear dependence. From the results, we can see that mass parabolas for isobaric elements with odd mass number (A) are different from the mass parabolas of even mass number (A) isobars, so there is only one stable nuclides for odd (A) while for even (A) there is more than one stable nuclide.
31 Kamel Benyelloul, Smain Bekhechi, Abdelkader Djellouli and Youcef Bouhadda. Formation enthalpy: A comparative study for datamining approach and first principle calculations: Hydrogen storage.
Abstract. The main and crucial fundamental thermodynamic properties are the enthalpy’s formation (∆H). It is know that the ∆H plays a keys role in energy balance calculation combustion properties, equilibrium constants of reactions and fuel characteristics of materials. Several methods have been carried out in calculation and estimating the ∆H, such a semi empirical model, Miedema model and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Currently, the datamining is the newly developed approach which attracts and increasing care of the material science researches. In the current paper, the one know datamining approach based on artificial neural network (ANN) (predictive technique) has been proposed to estimate the enthalpy formation for several hydrides. Firstly, an ANN with (3-13-1) architecture structure has been developed to predict the ∆H for rare-earth dihydrides CeH2, PrH2 and DyH2, secondly, the (6-15-1) architecture of ANN has been developed to estimate ∆H for the other ternary hydrides selected from different published works. The performance indices such a relative error, coefficient of determination (R2) and mean square error (MSE) were used to control the performance of obtained results. Finally, the results obtained from ANN’s model were compared with those experimental data available in the literature and DFT calculations.
32 Ali Taha, Zahraa Abdulhady and Wasnaa Mohammed. TAT – Poly A1 peptides and siRNA loaded on calcium phosphate nanoparticles for ESR1 gene targeting in RD –cell line (details)
Abstract. Calcium phosphate is the dominant mineral in the calcified mammalian tissues. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNPs) have been used as non-viral cell infection vector along 50 years ago. In present study, CPNPs were synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as spectrophotometer, zeta potential, XRD and SEM. A single crystal, monophase and spherical nanoparticles of CPNPs had been obtained with diameter average of 36 - 67 nm. CPNPs loaded with TAT - Poly A1 peptides and designed siRNA was prepared and used for in vitro targeting of estrogen receptor (ESR1) in RD – cell line. Real time PCR quantification applied in our study with SYBR green dye to recognize any double stranded DNA and to determine the cycle threshold value (Ct) of their amplification. On the other hand, GAPDH as a housekeeping gene, had been used to monitor constant gene expression in the RD cell line. Furthermore, ESR1 gene expression, before and after targeting by siRNA, was also determined. From results obtained, Ct value of GAPDH in control sample was 20.29, while Ct value of GAPDH and ESR1 genes in the presence of 100 µl siRNA were 20.28 and 29.32, respectively. Finally, the fold of ESR1 gene expression reduced to 3×10- 4 in RD- cells.
33 Mahdi Mahdi and Hameed Abduljabbar. An Analytical Study of Soil Temperature with Respect to its Salinity
Abstract. In this study, the relationship between the bare soil temperature with respect to its salinity is presented, the bare soil feature is considered only by eliminating all other land features by classifying the site location by using the support vector machine algorithm, in the same time the salinity index that calculated from the spectral response from the satellite bands is calibrated using empirical salinity index calculated from field soil samples. An analysis for the temperature rising from the minimum temperature (from the sun rise time) due to the solar radiation duration tell the time of the satellite capturing the scene image with respect to the active range of calibrated salinity index is presented.
34 Hussein Sabti and Hameed Abduljabbar. Quantization Approach to Steganography Perceptual Color Spaces
Abstract. In this study, we present a new steganography method depend on quantizing the perceptual color spaces bands. Four color spaces are used to test the new method which are HSL, HSV, Lab and Luv color spaces, where different algorithms to calculate the last two-color spaces are used. The results reveal the validity of this method as a steganoic method and analysis for the effects of quantization and stegano process on the quality of the cover image and the quality of the perceptual color spaces bands are presented.
35 Khiat Mounir, Khiat Sidahmed, Chaker Abdelkader and Leila Ghomri. Real time digital simulation – based modeling of microgrid Jordan campus
Abstract. This paper presents the modeling and a digital simulation in real time of the microgrid of the German Jordan University (GJU) pilot. Aim is to provide an overview of the future situation and capabilities of microgrids with the benefits of integrating renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic panels, diesel energy and storage energy for project on campus. We will apply the model in real time simulation thanks to RT-LAB platform. Results obtained by this tool will allow us to have a very accurate vision of microgrid operation, in term of power flow or default responses. Several scenarios have been realized, which will help us to implement project in the future. Eventually, the model of proposed project would be a blueprint for future microgrids for training and research purposes.
36 Fatimah Al-Hasani. Studying the effect of Cobalt percentage on the corrosion rate of sintered Titanium dental implants
Abstract. Titanium and its alloys are getting great attention in both medical and dental fields because of; excellent biocompatibility; light weight; excellent balance of mechanical properties; excellent corrosion resistance. The goal of this work is to study how the Co addition to Ti influences on the corrosion behavior of dental alloys. The Preparation of samples was accomplished by using powder technology technique. In which the raw materials used was pure titanium powder and pure cobalt powder. Characterization of sample includes (X-ray diffraction patterns, microstructure observations (scanning electron and optical microscopic), porosity percentage and corrosion test. sample without cobalt addition was refer to an alloy with single α phase, while After the additions of cobalt in different percentage (5%, 10%,15%) the samples consist of two α-Ti and intermetallic compound Ti2Co. this is obtained from XRD and microstructure observations, the amount of Ti2Co phase slightly increase with increasing cobalt content. The porosity percentage decreases with increase in cobalt percentage .The corrosion rate decreases with increase in Co percentage.
37 Paula Andrea Fajardo, Raúl Avila, Andrés Julián Aristizábal, Alejandra López, Mónica Castaneda and Sebastian Zapata. Regulation on distributed generation: an international review and the current status in Colombia
Abstract. Over the years, the insertion of generation through renewable sources has become stronger around the world. That is why, the interest for the installation of massive and small-scale devices of these types of technologies has been intensified, which generates the necessity of quickly implementing public policies that allow the integration of these technologies and allow to establish clear rules in between the parts involved. Because of this, this article makes a revision of the progress that different countries have made around the world when it comes to the formulation of public policies that allow the interconnection of Distributed Generation (DG) into their power systems. It also makes a general revision of a Colombian case in this aspect. Additionally, a compilation of the most important regulations for each one of the countries studied in GD and Smart Grids (SG) is made. In general, it is important to highlight the progress made by different countries at an international level when it comes to the expedition of clear regulations in a timely manner for GD aspects. Among the aspects to highlight the benefits given to the renewable GD technology, maintenance of the grids and providing service under quality and trustworthy standards are included.
38 Hesham Elqady, Abdallah Ali, Ahmed Elshazly, Marwa Elkady and Mohamed Khalil. Electrospinning of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from agro-waste for fabrication of composite nanofiber thin film
Abstract. Open burning processes of rice husk (RH) often lead to magnificent environmental hazards. Generally, RH is considered the largest cereal crop that represents a crucial agricultural waste. To begin with, the present work clarifies, a new composite created for adsorptive exclusion of methylene blue (MB) as a dye model fabricated from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/ Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) composite thin film [CNC/ABS] manufactured using electrospinning technique. Morphological structure and physicochemical characteristics of the CNC/ABS composite membrane fibres were portrayed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, assessment of prepared CNC/ABS composite membrane for MB absorption has been investigated. The outcomes verified that MB percentage removal surpassed 85% after 135 min. Moreover, the CNC/ABS membrane exhibited great potential for MB adsorption.
39 Hiba S. Rasheed, Israa A. Abbas, Ameera J. Kadhum and Hiyam Ch. Maged. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Optical Properties of (PVA-PAA-Al2O3) Films
Abstract. Thin films of (PVA-PAA-Al2O3) nanocomposites composed of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) have been prepared with different concentrations of aluminum(III) oxide (Al2O3 ) nanoparticles and thicknesses by using the casting method. The main focus of the present work is to study the effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of the nanocomposites obtained. These films were irradiated with (50 kGy) of 60Co gamma rays. The optical properties of (PVA-PAA-Al2O3) nanocomposites have been measured in the range (300-800) nm of the wavelength. The transmittance, absorbance, coefficient of extinction (k), coefficient of absorption (α), the index of refraction (n) and the dielectric constants of real (ε_1 ) and imaginary (ε_2) components and are increasing by increasing the Al2O3 nanoparticles weight proportions. The polymers gap of energy (E_g) decreases by increasing of the Al2O3 nanoparticles concentrations. The results show that the effect of γ-irradiation leads to increase the absorbance, extinction coefficient of extinction (k), the index of refraction (n) and the dielectric constants (ε_1 and ε_2) of the real and imaginary while the energy gap (E_g) and the transmittance decreases.
41 Milidin Bakalli, Danjlela Bakalli and Julis Selamaj. Assessment of Quality of Water Wells in Rural Areas in Tirana City, Albania (details)
Abstract. Supply of safe water remains a challenge for the city of Tirana. Despite the improvement of the distribution network and recent investments, in many rural areas near the city of Tirana, drinking water supply is still not provided by the Tirana water supply distribution network. The lack of tap water has led to alternative findings of residents of these areas. One of them is the construction of private wells. The water quality doesn’t monitor by Laboratory of quality of water or Sanitary Inspectorate of Tirana. The lack of water quality control can lead to an undesirable situation for well water users. Given this situation, we thought to control the quality of well water in these areas. In this study are presented the microbiological data for the quality of well water used by families who have migrated from different areas of Albania to live near the city of Tirana during the last 5 years. The depth of wells varies from 5-100 meter. Sampling was done from April to September 2018. The total of samples was 180 from five areas of Tirana. Number of wells analyzed is 30. The data of this study show that 100% of water wells are contaminated by the presence of Escherichia coli. In 30% of water, wells are observed the presence of Entreroccocus faecalis. Based on the data of this study, the water wells not recommended consuming by these families. We suggest residents treat the water before using. The simple method is chlorinating of water after deposition in tank, to eliminate the microorganism because they can be caused human health effects.
42 Mustafa Abbas and Ayser Ibraheem. Study the effect of nanoic Indium oxide (In2O3) on electrical properties of ZnO- based varistor
Abstract. In this present work, we studied the effects of nanoic (In2O3) doping on the electrical properties of ZnO varistors, I-V nonlinear coefficient, the leakage current, break down voltage and grain size, have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical measurements, with different sintering temperatures (1000, 1050, 1100) ᴼC for 2h. The results exhibit the nonlinear coefficient (α) gradually increased by increasing concentrations of (In2O3), the sintered varistors leakage current decreased as the dopant concentration of the (In2O3) was increased, the breakdown voltage values decreased with increased the sintering temperature. With the increasing (In2O3), the average grain size decreased slightly, which are improving the voltage gradient.
43 Akram Jabur, Majid H. Abdulmajeed and Shafaq Y. Abd. Effect of copper chloride salt (CuCl2) addition on the DC , AC conductivity and tensile strength of PVA electrospun polymeric film.
Abstract. PVA/with (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) CuCl2 wt.% films conductive polymers were prepared by electrospinning technique. Prepared films morphology test by SEM and the average fibers diameters measure statically was (115 nm). The nanofibers films show enhancing the DC electrical conductivity with increase CuCl2 concentration, since it improved four orders from (3.7 x 10-7 S/ cm) for pure PVA film to (8.32x10-3 S/cm) for 10 wt.% CuCl2. AC electrical conductivity enhanced by increasing CuCl2 concentration, since it increased five orders from (1.17 x 10-6 S/ cm) for pure PVA film to (2.97×10-1 S/cm) for 10 wt.% CuCl2. The activation energy and S factor decreased with increasing the CuCl2 concentrations. The tensile strength of PVA film enhanced with adding of CuCl2 by enhanced the modules of elasticity from (12.87) MPa for pure PVA to (123.4) MPa for 8 wt.% CuCl2.
44 Layachi Zaghba, Messaouda Benbitour Khennane, Abdelhalim Borni, Amor Fezzani, Idriss Hadj Mahammed, Abdelhak Bouchakour and Samir Hamid Oudjana. Performance enhancement of solar tracking PV systems using an intelligent maximum power point tracking strategy: a case study in Ghardaia, Algeria
Abstract. This paper deals the performance comparison and efficiencies of single axis and dual axis tracking PV system to an identical fixed mount PV system for two typical clear sunny days (Ghardaia area), two typical days are chosen, the first day in winter and the second day in the summer. For the three types of PV systems, P&O-PI MPPT techniques optimized with a genetic algorithm is proposed. This paper has two different objectives. 1stly, a proposed MPPT technique has been presented to optimize P&O-PI controller via the GA technique to increase the tracking response of MPP with high efficiency and that improves the limitations of the traditional MPPT techniques. 2ndly, a performance comparison of efficiencies of single axis and dual-axis tracking system and an identical fixed inclination system .Simulation results with MATLAB/SIMULINK are presented and discussed to verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed MPPT control, in which the optimized P&O-PI controller by GA algorithms gives the better performance. The simulation results also have shown that both single-axis and dual-axis are highly efficient in terms of the electrical energy output when compared to the fixed mount system. The results show the effectiveness of the tracking system of about 25% in energy efficiency
45 Emad Al-Hassani and Wehad Midhat. Effect of Ag Addition on Cp-Ti Dental Implant
Abstract. In order to replace a missing tooth, a lot of materials, such as cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) and stainless steel, had been attempted to make an implant. The development of materials science and technology improved the materials for implant application. Nowadays, Ti becomes the most popular implant material due to its advantages. In fact, Ti is widely and successfully used as an implant material primarily due to various factors. Ti is biologically inert, able to bond with osteoblasts and has excellent biocompatibility. In this research, all the samples are prepared using powder metallurgy technique and the preparation process included adding Silver element to the commercially pure Titanium at different weight percent of (10,20 and 30) to investigate the effect of adding Silver element to the commercially pure Titanium on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the resulted samples. There are two sets of Silver-Titanium alloys sintering on different temperatures first one on 900 C° and the other on 700 C°. Hardness test stated that it will be better in 900 C° with increase in Silver at (30% Ag) and so on in microstructure.
46 Andy Gyamfi Kumi, Mona Gamal Ibrahim, Mahmoud Nasr and Fujii Manabu. Synthesis, characterisation and adsorption properties of a sewage sludge derived biochar modified with eggshell.
Abstract. Recently, sewage sludge-derived biochar (SDB) has found several applications, as an appropriate adsorbent material, for the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. The SDB adsorbent is composed of a highly porous structure, and it contains multiple functional groups and exchangeable cations. However, it has been reported that the SDB texture could be improved to obtain large amounts of adsorption sites. In this work, the SDB material was treated using eggshell to obtain a novel adsorbent, namely eggshell-modified sludge-derived biochar (EMBC). The EMBC composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore-distribution properties of EMBC were enhanced compared to the unmodified SDB. Moreover, the chemical composition of EMBC was strongly associated with the proliferation of carbonate minerals, amine, and oxygen-containing functional groups such as C-O, C=O, –OH, and –COOH. Moreover, EMBC was highly porous, containing rough surface and significant amounts of vacant sites. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda model revealed that the pore sizes of EMBC were well distributed. Based on the results mentioned above, EMBC could be employed as a promising, low-cost, and alternative adsorbent material for the elimination of various pollutants from aqueous solutions; and that will be the focus of our future works.
47 Linda Hassaine and Mohamed Rida Bengourina. Control Technique for Single Phase Inverter Photovoltaic system Connected to the Grid
Abstract. In photovoltaic system connected to the grid, the main goal is to control the power that the inverter injects into the grid from the energy provided by the photovoltaic generator. In this paper, a control technique for a photovoltaic system connected to the grid based on the digital pulse-width modulation (DSPWM) which can synchronise a sinusoidal current output with a grid voltage and control a power factor is proposed. This control is based on the inverter controlled by bipolar PWM Switching. The electrical scheme of the system is presented. The approach is widely explained. Simulations results of output voltage and current validate the impact of this method to determinate the appropriate control of the system. A digital design of a generator PWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on an Xilinx FPGA
48 Laheeb Mohammed, Haider Hussein, Haider Haider, Kareem Jasim, Auday Shaban, Samir Asker and Fouad Ali. The Influence of Partial Substation of Sb2O3, La2O3 on Electrical and Structural Properties for the Superconductor Compound Bi2-xSbxBa2Ca2-yLayCu3O10+
Abstract. In this research the Bi2-xSbxBa2Ca2-yLayCu3O10+compound was prepared and studied the influence of partial substation of Sb2O3 and La2O3 on the electrical and structural properties Samples synthesis by solid state reaction method .The examination of XRD diffraction shown that all samples have bulk polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. The results shows that the increasing of the c-axis lattice constant for the samples substation with Sb2O3 and La2O3 as compared with those have no content, It was found that changing in lattice parameters (a,b), ratio c/a ,mass density and volume fraction Vphases with increases of (Sb2O3,La2O3) concentration. All samples have highest phase 2223 major relative to the other phases .The electrical properties tested by using four probes technique to calculation critical temperatures ,it was found the sample Bi1.8Sb0.4Ba2Ca1.8La0.2Cu3O10+ has a highest critical temperatures Tc=122.5K.
49 Ghuzlan Ahmed and Bushra Al-Maiyaly. Cu doping Effect on Characterization of Nano Crystalline SnSe Thin Films
Abstract. A thin film of (SnSe) and SnSe:Cu with various Cu ratio (0,3,5 and 7)% have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique with thickness 400±20 nm on glass substrate at (R.T). The effect of Cu dopants concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of (SnSe) Nano crystalline thin films was explored by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurement respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis reveal the polycrystalline nature of the all films deposited with orthorhombic structure which possess a preferred orientation along the (111) plane. The crystalline sizes of the films vary in the range of (18.167–25.91) nm, depending on the Cu doping ratio. The SEM study show that the film exhibit growth of small grains and the morphologies of SnSe could be changed from spherical grains to platelet-like particles. The AFM investigations show that the films grain size vary in the range (56.84 to 70.59) nm with increasing Cu doping ratio. The optical measurements on un doped and Cu doped SnSe thin films indicate that the samples have direct transition with an optical band gap of (1.35–1.45) eV and the absorption coefficient ≥104 cm−1, which is make these films suitable for photovoltaic devices. Hall Effect measurement illustrate that all samples have p-type conductivity and the carrier concentration of the thin films was of the order of 10¹4/cm³
50 Abdul Kareem Ali, Ismaeel Jasim, Kareem Jasim and Maher Hassan. Manufacture of C-TABCCO superconducting system and study the electrical and magnetic properties
Abstract. The present study includes the calculation of the electrical and magnetic properties of the C-TABCCO superconducting system in solid-state interaction by adding silver to the first system under pressure of 7 ton / cm2 and the thermodynamic temperature (800 K). The electrical properties are measured using The LCR meter shows that the dielectric constant (K) and the loss factor (D) decrease with increasing frequency and the alternating electrical conductivity (AC) increases with increasing frequency. Therefore, we deduce that the inertial properties and all the samples depend on the addition ratios. The higher the frequency, the better the connectivity and the lower the density. The. Using the technique of (vibration sample magnometer) (VSM) where the hysteric rings were extracted, magnetic properties of the hysterical ring forms of magnetic affectivity (M s) and magnetic susceptibility (M s) and magnetic delay (M r) relative permeability (μ r) of magnetism.
51 Zeane Rheem and Bashair Saied. Energy loss of Carbon ion in Lung Tissue
Abstract. One of the most important developments in modern medicine is the use of carbon ion in the treatment of tumors, where the Carbon ion is adorable in the treatment because it deposits its energy deeply specific into the tissue therefore, in order to control the killing of cancer cells in tissues, should be provided an accurate description of the energy loss from Carbon ion within Lung tissue. The interactions of carbon ion with matter were studied and the mass stopping powers of carbon ion with Lung Tissue, were calculated by using Beth-Bloch equation and (SRIM, CasP, PASS) software. also the Range and Liner Energy Transfer (LET) and The depth of penetration of carbon ion in lung tissue As well as Dose and Dose equivalent for this ion were calculated by using Mat lab language with energy interval (0.025- 1000) MeV .
53 Amor Fezzani, Idriss Hadj Mahammed, Said Drid, Layachi Zaghba, Messouda Khennanea, Abdehak Bouchakoura and Samir Hamid Oudjana. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Systems Using Simulation Model and Solmetric Analyzer
Abstract. The performance of photovoltaic (PV) generator is affected by outdoor conditions. Outdoor testing consists installing a generator, and collecting electrical parameters data and climatic data over a certain period of time. It can also include the study of long-term performance under real work conditions. Tests are operated in URAER (Applied Research in Renewable Energy) located in desert region of Ghardaïa in southern Algeria characterized by high irradiation and temperature levels. The degradation of PV generator with temperature and time exposure to sunlight contributes significantly to the final output from the PV generator, as the output reduces each year .This paper presents an analytical and experimental evaluation of the performance of generator. First, this study used the data provided by analyzer PV (Solmetric PVA-600) translated to standard conditions. Secondly, it based on the results of modeling and simulation with MATLAB of the PV field of the mini-photovoltaic plant connected to the grid installed in the URAER.
54 Safaa Alzaidy, Iftikhar Ali and Aliyah Shihab. Effect of Thickness Variation CdO/PSi thin Films on Detection of Radiation
Abstract. Abstract ;CdO films were deposited on substrates from glass, Silicon and Porous silicon by thermal chemical spray pyrolysis technique with different thicknesses (130 and 438.46) nm. Measurements of X-ray diffraction of CdO thin film proved that the structure of the Polycrystalline is cubic lattice, and its crystallite size is located within nano scale range where the perfect orientation is (200). The results show that the surface’s roughness and the root mean square increased with increasing the thickness of prepared films. The UV-Visible measurements show that the CdO films with different thicknesses possess an allowed direct transition with band gap (4) eV. AFM measurement revealed that the silicon porosity located in nano range. Cadmium oxide films have been used in many applications especially in the photo sensors, the results showed high response for sensitivity in (277) nm within ultraviolet region, So that, the sensitivity reached to (1156) % when the films have the thickness (130) nm by using the porous silicon substrate.
55 Ali Ali, Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar Abdulsattar and Bahjat Kadhim. Structural and Electronic Characteristics of CdS – Wurtzoid for Tandem Solar Cells Window: Experimental and Simulation
Abstract. One of the most frequently asked questions in photovoltaics is about efficiencies. Wurtzite Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have properties that are suitable for solar cell fabrication especially in tandem. According to the start point of nanostructure using in solar cells like tandem, we have gone to use the wurtzoid instead of wurtzite structure for CdS as a window in tandem solar cell. Simulation of nanostructure parameters of CdS in wurtzoid structure have been performed with Gaussian 09 program with its view. For simulation study; optimization of structure, total energy, energy gap, potential of ionization, electron affinity, Fermi energy, work function, electronegativity, chemical potential, electrophilicity, chemical hardness, softness, and amount of charge transport have been investigated. For experimental work CdS in wurtzoid structure as a window was produced by direct laser ablation on a methyl-ammonium lead tri iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite thin film which is prepared by solution processing drop casting in tandem solar cell. The analysis provides: the absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary components of the dielectric constant of perovskite. The energy gap of the CdS wurtzoid molecule is 2.476 eV compared to bulk experimental 2.42 eV. The efficiency of tandem perovskite solar cell with CdS wurtzoid window was reached 16.3 %.
56 Ari Ahmed and Hemn Hussein. New Technique for Solving Harmonic Oscillator System in Momentum Space
Abstract. Laplace transformation has been used for solving Schrödinger equation in momentum space without using integral equation (Fourier transformation) because it is much harder and more complicated. Furthermore, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues have been demonstrated by using Schrodinger differential equation without ignoring dimensions or units . In addition, a maple program has also been considered to solve the method since it is highly beneficiary for learning. It can pave a way for other models to work in quantum mechanics.
57 S. E. Zayan, A. H. El-Shazly and M. F. El-Kady. Assessment of Polypyrrole Nanoparticles Synthesized in Presence and Absence of Surfactant for Heavy Metals Decontamination
Abstract. Polypyrrole black powder nanoparticles (PPy NPs) have been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization in the absence and presence of surfactant and tested as an adsorbent for manganese ions sequestration from aqueous solution. PPy NPs were chemically prepared by chemical oxidation using ferric chloride (FeCl_3) as an oxidant, distillate water as a solvent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as surfactants. PPy NPs were found to be mesoporous with surfaces area of approximately 8 m^2/g, 22 m^2/g,and 32 m^2/g , and average pore size 51 nm, 33 nm, and 29 nm for PPy, PPy/PVP, and PPy/PVA respectively. The prepared PPy adsorbents were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) which was used to measure the manganese concentration. The batch adsorption process was conducted by varying agitation time at constant pH. Data from the AAS analysis showed that manganese ions removal from water effluent was almost 78%, 86%, and 95% after 2 hours for PPy, PPy/PVP, and PPy/PVA respectively. The results demonstrated that PPy prepared in the presence of PVA is a super-adsorbent for manganese decontamination from wastewater and can be a potential material in this field.
58 Hayat Hameed and Widad Jassim. Improvement of some mechanical properties of epoxy using uncarbonized and carbonized eggshell powder
Abstract. During the previous years, utilization of natural bio-fruit waste has received way more attention than ever before, this because the low cost of bio-fibers and to improvement some properties of polymer composite and also to reduce the environmental west. Egg shell powder, with grain size (100μm)was added with 5,10,15,20 and 25% weight fraction to epoxy to improve some mechanical properties like: hardness, impact, compression, tensile and bending.
59 Vaclav Novotny, Jan Spale, Monika Vitvarova and Jana Poplsteinova Jakobsen. Intermediate pressure reboiling in geothermal flash plant for increased power production and more effective CO2 capture
Abstract. Non-condensable gases (NCG) in geothermal flash plants contain mostly CO2 and ways for its abatement are being searched for. At the same time the NCG have further negative effects in condensing plants as they worsen heat transfer and thus deteriorate vacuum in condenser as well as it needs to be sucked off the condenser by vacuum pumps which substantially increases plant parasitic load. When NCG processing is required for abatement of gases as CO2 or H2S, further compressors are usually required to push the gas through absorption columns. Alternative methods of gas separation assume using of reboiler upstream of a turbine. This process is however connected with significant loss of steam parameters, moreover the NCG in high content have also certain work potential. Therefore this method is often not considered as very perspective. We are proposing a novel solution where the turbine is split in two parts with high and low pressure. The point of splitting is at a pressure right above an ambient pressure, into which place a reboiler is placed. By doing so the NCG stream is easily obtained without energy penalty of vacuum pumps, without decreasing turbine admission parameters and also its pressure potential is being utilized. This stream is thus easily ready for processing and subsequent CO2 separation and conditioning. Condensed water is from large part turned in the cold side of reboiler back to steam which gives further work in low pressure turbine with achievable lower backpressure and therefore potential for higher power production. Another advantage of this method is liquid phase elimination from the turbine thus achieving higher turbine efficiency.
60 Ruaa Taha and Auday Shaban. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on pyrolysis of microalgae
Abstract. Pyrolysis has been considered a method for recovering the power from combined micro alga bio mass here, next executing heat probe of or involving sound waves with a frequency above the upper limit of human hearing as a pretreatment to increase the bio-crude yield. Pyrolysis of mixed- microalgae was carried out in a batch reactor made up of steel at a temperature range 350-600 Co ,nitrogen gas was used as sweep gas for maintaining oxygen free atmosphere in the pyrolysis .the results show that the using ultrasonic probe for both frequency 60 &90 KHz increase the bio-crude yield from 50.72 to 44.13 and 44.83 % respectively at 550Co .the thermal degradation temperature of microalgae are studied using TGA .also the results show that the ash content after applying ultrasonic sound as a pretreatment for both frequency 60 &90 KHz were reduced from 7.21 to 4.83 and 4.21 %respectively .the aim of the work was to study the effect of using ultrasound for different frequency on algae pyrolysis as a pretreatment steps.
61 Sabah Mezher, Rihab Fadhil, Abdulkareem Alkhafaji, Kareem Jasim and Auday Shaban. The effective of partial replacement of barium by Yttrium on HgBa2-xYxCa2Cu3O8+δ superconducting compound
Abstract. The enhancement of superconductor compounds contribute in reducing the heat pollution that gain from electric transfer. The main focus of all researchers pointed on high temperature superconductors where they aim to get higher critical temperature. This research focus on investigations the effect of simultaneous substitution Yttrium at the Barium site of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ cuprate superconductor with (x=0 to 0.3), have been synthesized samples by using solid state reaction method, All the samples in the present investigation were subjected to gross structural characterization by X-ray diffraction. The XRD data collected from various samples correspond to Hg-1223 phases and the analysis showed that tetragonal structure were presents. Electrical resistivity measurements were done by using the four-probe technique to find the critical temperature Tc. The Tc increase with the addition of Sr from 95 K to 120 K.
63 Panagiotis Panagakis and Petros Axaopoulos. Comparison of Heating and Cooling Loads in a Controlled Environment Growing-Finishing Piggery under Different Climatic Conditions
Abstract. Transient simulation was used to study the heating and cooling loads in growing-finishing piggeries under different climatic conditions aiming at always keeping the inside temperature and relative humidity within the animals’ production space. Hourly climatic data from Heraklion in South Greece and Kastoria in North Greece, the pigs’ sensible and latent heat loads, the heat flow through the building elements and the carbon dioxide concentration control ventilation heat loads were considered. For all studied weights (40 kg, 70 kg and 100 kg) the annual heating loads for Heraklion were zero and for Kastoria ranged from 1.8 kWh/m2year to 2.92 kWh/m2year or 0.04 kWh/kg to 0.02 kWh/kg. The corresponding cooling loads for Heraklion were 1.86 to 1.9 times higher than for Kastoria, namely 359.02 kWh/m2year to 669.30 kWh/m2year vs. 188.84 kWh/m2year to 359.76 kWh/m2year or 7.02 kWh/kg to 5.24 kWh/kg vs. 3.69 kWh/kg to 2.81 kWh/kg. An efficient energy design of the piggery (i.e. appropriate orientation, proper insulation thickness and summer sun shading using deciduous trees) would possibly result in a significant reduction of cooling loads, which could be covered using an air-conditioning system operating based on renewable energy technologies.
64 Faleh Mahmood, Ali Resen and Ahmed Khamees. Wind Characteristic Analysis Based on Weibull Distribution of Al-Salman Site, Iraq
Abstract. This paper aims to analyze the characteristic of wind speed data in Al-Salman site - Iraq using Weibull distribution. Maximum likelihood method (MLM) was used to find out two essential Weibull parameters. The best wind distribution was described by using probability density function and cumulative distribution function. Based on Weibull parameters, an analysis is carried out for various wind turbine hub heights. The characteristics of wind wave for this site are regular, uniform, and close to Rayleigh function. Furthermore, the shape factor and scale factor have fluctuated from 1.8 to 3.2 and from 5.93 m/s to 8.3 m/s for different period respectively. It was found that, at 50 m height, the mean wind speed is 5.93, mean power density for this site is 219 W/m2, and that almost 50% of the wind speed was above 5 m/s within the total hours per annum. As consequence, this site has a potential wind power to erect small wind turbines for electricity production. Wind turbine model was proposed relying on capacity factor.
66 Mohsin Hassooni. Theoretical Analysis of Charge Flow Rate at Dye Sensitized -Semiconductor Interfaces Cell System
Abstract. The dynamics of charge flow at the interface of the Dye/Semiconductor cell have been investigated using a quantum transfer theory. At the interface between the N3 and CV dyes complex such as CdS and InAs semiconductor, the potential determines the flow charge transfer rate and indicates the efficiency of the devices. The flow charge rate at N3/CdS, N3/InAs , CV/CdS and CV/InAs increases along with decreasing the energy of transition and increasing the coupling parameter. The potential at the interface also indicates the effect of the structure of the material on the flow charge rate in DSSC devices. The flow charge rate at DSSC system is polar dependent region. In this study, the flow charge rate was found to be higher compared to InAs.
68 Emad Al-Hassani. Effect of Laser Pulses on Ion Release Behavior of Ti-Base Alloys
Abstract. Modifications achieved by laser irradiation on titanium-base alloys were studied to promote their surface properties in addition to the ion release behavior. Laser pulses was use for three different types of Ti-base alloys; commercial pure Ti alloy, Titanium-Tantalum alloys, and Nickel-Titanium alloys. The alloys were manufactured by using powder technology then the Nd: YAG laser pulses were used. The characterizations of samples have been done which includes; microstructure observation, XRD, surface roughness (AFM), and ion release analysis. The microstructure observation show that the use of Nd: YAG laser pulses was effective method to provide energy focused on one spot especially at the surface which produce complex microstructures and roughening the surfaces to increase effective surface area. XRD showed the sintering process under controlled atmosphere produced samples with complete sintering reaction. AFM results show the same response to the laser irradiation and the slight differences in the roughness values was observed. From the results of ion release analysis it was found that the release of Ti ion rise in first three days and after that released of Ti ions begin to stabilize after the laser pulses. The appearance of a slight differences in the amount of titanium ions that released from the samples for each group was due to the influence of the surface activation process that have been employed as a primary treatment which effect on the stability and thickness of the titanium oxide.
70 Abbas Saadon and Hadi Al-Agealy. Study of Photoemission and Electronic Properties of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Abstract. We have investigated the photoemission and electronic properties at the PTCDI molecules interface on TiO2 and ZnO semiconductor by means of charge transition. A simple donor acceptor scenario used to calculate the rate for electron transfer of delocalized electronics in a nondegenerately TiO2 and ZnO electrodes to redox localized acceptors in an electrolytic. The dependent of electronic transition rate on the potential for interface of system has been discussion using TiO2 and ZnO electrodes in aqueous solutions. The charge transfer rate is determine by the overlapping electronic coupling to the TiO2 and ZnO electrodes, the transition energy ,potential and polarity media within the theoretical scenario of the electronic transition ,it can be expected the transition rate at electrodes interface with PTCDI dye using MATLAP program
74 Hanan Hassun, Bushra H. Hussein, Ebtisam Salman and Auday Shaban. Photoelectric Properties of SnO2: Ag/P-Si Heterojunction Photodetector
Abstract. N-type Tin dioxide thin films with thickness (350 nm) prepared by thermal evaporation method, Ag with (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) doped SnO2 thin film. Force Microscopic (AFM) to determine the grain size and roughness. The electrical properties were determined by mean of Hall Measurement system and mobility was calculated. SnO2: Ag/P-Si photodetectors demonstration the highest described visible responsivity of (0.287 A/W) with the Ag ratio of [0.03], I-V characteristics with different power density were measured, the best sensitive value of the spectral response, specific detectivity and quantum efficiency at wavelength (422 nm).
75 Haitham Saadon and Maha Rahmah. Organic Dye Sensitizers Extracted from Plants and their Applications to All-Photonic Devices (details)
Abstract. Nowadays the photonics will be the stage of all-optical photonic applications. In this stage, photonic devices with develop to light controlling with light. The digital optical information processing will be realized, the computer chip will adopt the all-optical elements. The optical communication will use all-optical switching technology. All these all-optical technologies are based on the all-optical switches. Therefore, the all-optical switch is a key technology of future photonic technology. Thus, researchers continue to search for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with diﬀerent optical nonlinearities to realize all-photonic switching. An optical pump-probe technique was presented to demonstrate the possibility of realizing the all-photonic switching. Two overlapping laser beams are used for this purpose, due to which a low-power beam passing collinear to a high-power laser beam will undergo cross phase modulation and thereby distort the spatial profile. Organic dyes extracted from plants, such as, beet root (BR), blackberry (BB) and cherry (CH) possessing large optical nonlinearity were prepared in ethylene glycol (EG) was used as solvent. Optical properties was performed to characterize the prepared the solutions. Based on the optical nonlinear response, an interesting of all-optical figures of merit was calculated to assess the materials for presented device. The results showed that the organic dyes for design of high contrast and low threshold switches. References  M.A. Rahma, H.L. Saadon, M.A. Mahdi, All-photonic switching based on selective input pump polarization states in Fe-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite ﬁlms, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50 (2017) 135103.  A. Almosawe and H. L. Saadon, Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of new structures of organic nonlinear optical materials for photonic applications. Chi. Opt. Lett. 11 (2013) 041902–041905.  M.A. Rahma, H.L. Saadon, M.A. Mahdi, High-performance all-optical limiting based on nonlinear refraction of metal-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films, Optik 174 (2018) 580-590.  Haus J W, Fundamentals and Applications of Nanophotonics (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016).  I. M. Radwan, T. M. Wl-Agez, Sofyan A. Taya, and M. S Abdel-Latif, Performance of purple carrot as a sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells, Sci. Technol. Dev. 36 (2017) 196-2015  G. Calogero, G. D. Marco, S. Caramori, S. Cazzanti, R. Argazzi and C A Bignozzi, Natural dye sensitizers for photoelectrochemical cells, Energy Envion. Sci. 2 (2009) 1162-1172  A. Thankappan, S. Thomas and V. P. N. Nampoori, Effect of Betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root on the nonlinear optical properties ZnO nanoplates embedded in polymeric matrices, J. Appl. Phys. 112 (2012) 123104-1
76 Fatin Mousa, Ali Mahdi, Bahjat Kadhim and Ali Ali. Technological Characteristics of Perovskite Solar Cell Windows Using CdS – Wurtzoid Structure
Abstract. One of the most important things about clean electric power at present is the use of alternative sources that are harmful to nature. Solar cells are one of the most important sources of clean energy for electricity production, and the issue of increasing the efficiency of the requirements governing the manufacture of solar cells. The perovskite cells like methyl-ammonium lead tri iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) of the promising cells and the process of technological development to manufacture these cells are urgent priorities. Development includes window materials used Hole Transport Layer (ETL) and Electron Transport Layer (HTL). Cadmium sulfide CdS in wurtzoid instead of wurtzite structure has been used as windows for perovskite solar cell. CdS in wurtzoid structure as a window was produced by direct laser ablation on a Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) substrate as first step to perform perovskite solar cell; (FTO) / CdS – wurtzoid (ETL) / (CH3NH3PbI3) / CdS – wurtzoid (HTL) / Cu. Composition and crystal structure of the thin films and powder preparation samples were studied by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), beside calculations of lattice constants, crystallite size, dislocation density and micro strain. The surface morphology of sample was studied by investigation of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Light I-V Measurement Test Reports were recorded by manual photovoltaic measurements system. Optical properties such as the absorption, the energy gap and transmittance of the film coated are investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometer. Results of efficiency were shown that the new solar cell have excellent stability and good performance with efficiency reach 22.3%.
77 Ban Adil, Mohammad Al-Halbosiy and Hamid Murbat. The Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Pentostam Enhancement as Leishmaniasis Treatment in vitro
Abstract. This study illustrates in vitro effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on the treatment of Leishmania. In addition, the study evaluated the effect of drug treatment (pentostam) and the combination treatment of pentostan and CAP at different doses and incubation time 24 h in order to assess the most effective treatment. The duration of the cold plasma doses was 1 min, 2 min and 3 min, while the pentostam doses were 2.5 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml. The combinations therapies included combining the three cold plasma doses with the pentostam doses to test 6 combinations of treated in vitro. The maximum growth inhibition was given by combination treated 46% and 44% for donovani and tropica leishamnia respectively; these results give an indication that the cold atmospheric plasma is a promising treatment of this parasite that threats people all over the world.
78 Petros Axaopoulos, Emmanouil Fylladitakis, Alisher Shaislamov and Nodirbek Ogli. Financially Optimum Insulation Thickness of External Building Walls
Abstract. Abstract The building sector accounts for nearly half the energy consumption of Uzbekistan, with the residential energy consumption being much greater than that of even the most developed European countries. This is mainly attributed to the very low cost of energy in the region that, in combination with the lack of subsidies, offered no incentive for energy conservation measures. However, the price of energy has been rising at an alarming pace over the past few years, making building energy saving measures a nationwide concern. In this paper, we investigate the financially optimal insulation thickness for the most common external wall configurations using the two most commonly used building insulation materials in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, expanded polystyrene and mineral wool. Annual heating and cooling transmission loads are being calculated based on transient heat flow through the external walls and by using hourly climatic data. Additionally, we performed a financial analysis for each wall configuration and orientation, as well as for various thicknesses of insulation material. Depending on the wall type and orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was found to be between 3.75 cm and 11.0 cm. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicates whether changes of the economic parameters affect the optimum insulation thickness.
79 Salima Sarikh, Mustapha Raoufi, Amin Bennouna, Ahmed Benlarabi and Badr Ikken. Photovoltaic Failure Classification Analysis in Terms of Characteristic Curve
Abstract. The warranty of the photovoltaic modules is up to 25 years. However, operation and maintenance actions take place more often all this period long, due to the exposure of the PV unit to harsh conditions causing various degradation modes, and sometimes precipitating the aging process of a photovoltaic entity. Implementing reliable and automatic fault detection and diagnostics tools will not only mitigate safety concerns but also will reduce the operations and maintenance costs associated with PV systems. This paper presents a classification of occurred failures in a photovoltaic module in terms of nature and characteristic curve. The purpose is to understand the causes of these failures, their identification methods, and their effect on the electrical parameters and therefore, the power generated. An experimental classification is presented in terms of the electrical parameters and the characteristic curve signature.
80 Allal Babou, Yasmina Kerboua Ziari and Youcef Bouhadda. Absorption of hydrogen in a metal hydride reactor using Lattice Boltzmann Method
Abstract. In this study, a numerical investigation was carried out to predict the coupled heat and mass transfer during hydrogen absorption process in a metal hydride storage tank filled with Lanthanum-Nickel alloy, LaNi 5 in powder form. A Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with D2Q9 structure is used to solve the problem. The effect of different operating parameters such as: Hydrogen supply pressure, convective heat transfer coefficient and cooling fluid temperature on the performance of the absorption process were rigorously investigated. The numerical results indicate that the adequate choice of these operating parameters were found to be important for the optimal heat and mass transfer in the metal hydride storage tank. Compared to the other traditional CFD methods, the implementation of the LBM code on a computer is simple with reduced CPU time.
81 Asmae Chakir, Mohamed Tabaa, Fouad Moutaouakkil, Hicham Medroumi, Maya Julian, Abbas Dandache and Karim Alami. Optimal energy management for a grid connected PV-battery system
Abstract. The increase demand for electricity and the non-renewable nature of fossil energy makes the move towards renewable energies required. However, the common problem of renewable sources, which is the intermittence, is overcame by the hybridization of complementary sources. Thus, whenever the load demand is not fully accomplished by the primary source, the second one will absolutely support it. On the other hand, the production, the interaction with the grid and the storage system must be managed by the grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system, which is the main objective of this paper. Indeed, we propose a new system of a grid-connected PV-battery, which can manage its energy flows via an optimal management algorithm. The source connection topology, DC bus, in our proposed hybrid architecture ensures that synchronization problems between sources are overcome when the alternative load is powered. We consider in this work that choosing a battery discharge and charge limiting power provides an extension of the battery life. On the other hand, we simulated the dynamic behavior of the architecture’s various components according to their mathematical modeling. Following this, an energy management algorithm was proposed, and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to serve the load. The results have shown that the load was served in all cases, taking into account the electrical behavior of the inhabitants as well as the weather change after one day. Indeed, the load was served either by instant solar production, or the recovery, which could be a stored or injected energy.
82 Vladimir Djurisic, Sunčica Rogić, Julija Cerović Smolović and Milena Radonjić. Determinants of household electricity consumption: evidence from Montenegro
Abstract. The aim of this paper is to examine various socio-economic, dwelling and appliance factors which influence electricity consumption in Montenegro. Data were collected via questionnaires completed by 964 households in the second quarter of 2019 in Montenegro. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied in order to simultaneously examine the causal relationships between multiple factors. The obtained results indicate the importance of income, dwelling size, family composition and routines, appliance age and region in determining household electricity consumption in Montenegro. These determinants exert the same influence in winter and in summer, with the only statistically significant difference being observed in the variables that describe the types of heating or cooling.
83 Hafida Daaou Nedjari, Ouahiba Guerri and Mohamed Saighi. Full rotor modelling for wind turbine wake investigation
Abstract. This paper purpose a numerical study of the flow around a moving wind turbine rotor. In order to identify the vortex generated in the wind turbine wake a 3D numerical simulations were performed within an open source CFD code Saturne 4.0 developed by EDF. These simulations, requiring the physical representation of the blade geometry, have used U-RANS statistical modeling to solve the Reynolds averaged equations in a fixed and a rotating subdomain. The interface between the two domains was modelled by the sliding mesh technique. The k-epsilon high Reynolds number model modeled the turbulence. The computations were performed on an O-grid domain that surrounds the 40 meters diameter wind turbine rotor. The mesh was generated using a non- conformal structured multi block technique. The wind speed deficit downstream the wind turbine was determined and the results were in good agreement with experimental and others published numerical data. The results have provided access to interesting information on wake physics.
84 Auday Shaban, Ali Resen and Nathalie Bassil. Weibull Parameters Evaluation by Different Methods for Windmills Farms
Abstract. The generation of electrical power from the movement of wind will give the world a clean energy and renewable. The wind turbines have to be placed at a promising site for wind power, so this work focused on building an accurate method for estimation the power gained from the wind farm. This work is combined between real data and theoretical methods that cover Al-Najaf site at Iraq. The real data were collected on different levels above the ground (10, 30, and 50) m. Four criteria are displayed to get more penetration into the wind data fitting procedures; these are Root Mean Square Error, Chi-Square, correlation coefficient, and coefficient of determination. The valid distributional model was determined according to specific conditions that gives the best results. The findings indicate that the Equivalent Energy Method is the best one to calculate the value of the Weibull shape parameter and the Weibull scale parameter for the Weibull distribution curves in this site depending on goodness of fit tests.
85 Uday Jallod and Kamal Abood. Characteristics Measurement of Baghdad University Radio Telescope for Hydrogen Emission Line
Abstract. The goal of this paper is to measure characteristics of 3 m radio telescope that installed inside Baghdad University campus. The measurements of this study cover some of the receiver and antenna parameters at 1.42 GHz. The receiver parameters concentrated on, the system noise temperature, signal to noise ratio and sensitivity parameters. While the antenna parameters are the half power beam width, aperture efficiency, and effective area. From the results of this study, these parameters are found to be approximately 64 K, 1.2, 0.9 Jansky, 3.7°, 0.54, and 3.8 m2 respectively. All these measured values showed perfect correlation with theoretical values.
86 Hind Abdellaoui. the effect of illite clay on the epoxy matrix : mechanical and rheological properties
Abstract. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the filled epoxy matrix of different Illite percent (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) was studied. The preparation of samples of different hybrid matrices (epoxy / Illite) was performed. Crosslinking of the samples was carried out at a temperature of 150 ° C for a period of 15min. the viscosity of the hybrid matrices increases with increasing in the Illite percent. The mechanical properties of the samples are studied by tensile and torsion tests. Experimental results show that the epoxy reinforcement by low Illite percent weakens the mechanical properties of the matrix. However, an increase in the percentage of Illite (15% and 20%) increases the properties of the matrix. This increase is due to the good dispersion of Illite particles along the polymeric epoxy chains.
87 Sambeet Mishra, Chiara Bordin, Kota Taharaguchi and Ivo Palu. Comparison of Deep Learning Models for Multivariate Prediction of Time Series Wind Power Generation and Temperature
Abstract. Wind power experienced a substantial growth over the past decade especially because it has been seen as one of the best ways towards meeting climate change and emissions targets by many countries. Since wind power is not fully dispatchable, the accuracy of wind forecasts is a key element for the electric system operators, as it strongly affects the decision-making processes. The planning horizon can be short term (1 -3 months) and long-term (6-12 months) depending on the process. The objective of this paper is to conduct a performance comparison of five deep learning models each combined with three types of data pre-processing and used for short term and long-term multi-variate predictions. The input data are time series of the wind power capacity factor and the temperature. In addition, this paper sets out to demonstrate and review the state-of-the-art deep learning models for prediction with a secondary objective to present the reader a reference point to better understand which model to choose and what factors are significant. The first contribution of this paper is to apply, assess and compare a selection of the novel and cutting-edge deep learning models for multi-variate prediction. Multi-variate predication is achieved through a proposed multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) architecture. Compared to traditional prediction models, machine learning techniques have the advantage of generalization. Among various techniques deep learning is particularly getting more attention due to the applicability to various data-set such as numerical and character. This investigation focuses on five models- Deep Feed Forward (DFF), Deep Convolutional Network (DCN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Attention mechanism (Attention) and Long Short-Term Memory Networks (LSTM). The second contribution is to propose a novel approach to transform the time series dataset to signal for input and reconstruct the model predictions through inverse transformation, by means of the so-called discrete wavelet transformation and fast Fourier transformation. The different models are assessed also by comparing their performance with and without the input dataset manipulation through wavelet and FFT transformation. Beyond that, the model performances are outlined in detail, to give the reader an overview of the models to choose from for short-term or long-term prediction. The results demonstrate that that the Attention and DCN perform best with Wavelet or FFT signal, whereas some other models perform better with no data preprocessing.
88 Michel Aillerie. Factorial design and response surface optimization for modeling photovoltaic module parameters
Abstract. Abstract In this paper, based on factorial design of experiments method (DoE), predictive model and surface response analysis methodology was used for studying, modeling, characterizing and optimizing the parameters of a mono-crystalline photovoltaic (PV) panel behavior considering the interactive effects of two variables surface PV cell temperature and solar irradiation levels. The DoE concept allows finding the predictive model of each parameter behavior that uses the experimental data. It enables accurate predictions of the responses according to input factors variations. This contribution evaluates the output parameters by predicting these mathematical models of the three responses of a mono-crystalline PV panel: the maximum power Pm, the short-circuit current Isc and the open circuit voltage Voc as function of the influences of both input parameter factors: illumination and temperature. In addition, to validate the results of the DoE predictive models, the surface response and the contour curves analysis were used to bring out the optimum of each response in each operating point covering the domain of the study by the use of a script developed under Minitab is deduced. The obtain results are compared with experimental data.
89 Amel Boukadoum. 3D Numerical investigation of convective heat transfer and friction in rectangular Cross-Section channel roughened by triangular ribs of downward solar air collector
Abstract. Solar air collectors are widely used in drying process of food and agricultural products. They are combined with dryer room to form the indirect solar dryer. In this kind of solar dryer the performance of drying process depends on the solar air collector's one. Heat transfer augmentation using artificial roughness have been studied both numerically and experimentally. Most of them are related to upward solar air heater ( the air flows above the absorber). In this work, we were interested into studying the effect of triangular cross-section ribs provided on the absorber of downward solar air heater ( the air flows under the absorber) on the increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient in a differentially heated channel which represents a air solar collector. 3D numerical study has been performed using CFD (Fluent Code) based on finite volumes method. The air flow is considered turbulent (Re=4000 to 14000), so RANS formulation were used. From the obtained results we recorded an improvement of Nusselt number (from 48 to 78) at Re = 14000. Also an augmentation friction factor was observed (from 0.008 to 0.02) which still acceptable and do not penalize the collector thermohydraulic performance. Our results are concordant to most of authors results found in literature. Hence, transverse triangular cross-section roughness can be used successfully to improve convective heat transfer and thermohydraulic performance. of solar air collectors.
91 Nada Karam and Hind Jani. Reliability of Multi-Component Stress-Strength System Estimation for Generalized Lomax Distribution
Abstract. In this paper, The research methodology adopted here is to estimate the parameters for Generalized Lomax distribution by using maximum likelihood, least square, weighted least square, regression and moment estimation. The reliability of the multicomponent S out of K stress-strength system is estimated using the same methods of estimation and results are compared by Monte-Carlo simulation study using MSE and MAPE criteria, the results show that the Ml was the best between them.
92 Abdallah Ali, Mohammed Fuseini, Marwa Elkady and Ahmed Elshazly. Pressure Drop Investigation of Graphene Oxide and Magnesia Nanofluids in a Cylindrical Microtubes
Abstract. The fluid flow in laminar conditions and pressure drops characteristics in a three-dimensional 3D cylindrical shaped microchannel with graphene oxide (GO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanofluids as the working fluids were prepared and evaluated at different concentrations in a microchannel. The diameters of the plain pipes are 0:770 mm and 0:510 mm and the length 500 mm for both microchannels. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles with a surfactant, Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) to reduce the surface tension between the MgO and water forming the nanofluid. The synthesized nanoparticles morphologies were characterized using XRD and TEM. GO nanofluids recorded higher pressure drop with increase in the concentration of the nanofluids due to high viscosity followed by MgO nanofluid. As a result, this study predicts the behavior of fluid flow in the microchannel for the range of dimensions used
93 Hanan J. Mustafa and Tagreed M. Al-Saadi. Synthesis, Morphology, and Magnetic Properties of Ni0.35-x Mg0.15 Agx Fe2.5O4 Nano-Ferrite
Abstract. This paper includes the synthesis of (Ni0.35-x Mg0.15 Agx Fe2.5O4) nano- magnetite by co-precipitation synthesis in the presence of the base KOH. The persent x was taken for the molar values: 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, & 0.1. The synthesized nano-magnetite was calcined at 500°C for 2 hours. morphological properties were tested including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnetic properties were also tested by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD results showed that the crystal structure of the prepared ferrite was spinel cubic. The agglomeration of the grains was clear and has clustered shaped with grain size about (21-35) nm.
94 Tagreed M. Al-Saadi. PEG-coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as Adsorbents Surface for Remove Methylene blue dye from Aqueous Solutions
Abstract. Magnetite Nanoparticles (MNPs) of Fe3O4 have been prepared by a co-precipitation method of ferrous and ferric aqueous solution at sodium salt to controlling by the grain size of (MNPs). The prepared nanoparticles coated by polyethylene glycol, to obtain PEG-MNPs composite for the efficient removal the Methylene blue dye from the aqueous solutions. The prepared samples have characterized by several techniques like (FTIR) spectroscopy, (XRD), (AFM) and (SEM). The research testing the ability of coated magnetite as adsorbents surface for removing of methylene blue dye from the aqueous solution within variable experimental factors. The obtained data from this study revealed that high efficiency was observed and all adsorption processes well agree with Frindlesch model, the adsorption capacity increases with the pH increases, which enhances the process of dye removal.
95 Plamen Punov and Svetoslav Mihalkov. Soot reduction in light-duty vehicle direct injection diesel engine by means of post injection (details)
Abstract. This paper presents an experimental study on soot reduction by means of post injection. The post injection leads to higher temperature during the late combustion in the combustion chamber thus increases the oxidation rate of the soot previously formed. However, the optimization of the timing and quantity of the injection fuel is essential. The higher amount of injected fuel and retarded injection cause to lower thermal efficiency due to higher heat loses. The experiments were conducted on an automotive turbocharged diesel engine at typical operating points. The injection strategy consists of a pilot injection, main injection and a post injection. In order to assess the effect on post injection the pilot and main injection were constant. In-cylinder pressure was also recorder in order to evaluate the engine efficiency.
96 Zouaoui Benayad, Laouedj Samir and Filali Abdelkader. Numerical Investigation on the Cooling of Electronics Components with Synthetic Multi-Jets and Non-Sinusoidal Bi-periodic Forcing Functions
Abstract. Recently, the cooling process for electronics components has attracted many researchers and several techniques for improving the cooling efficiency and heat transfer rate have been demonstrated. One of the best efficient techniques is the introduction of a synthetic jet and the modification of heating surface. In the present study, the form of heating surface and the signal of the diaphragm has been modified to improve the synthetic jet. These modifications are novel and have been applied for the first time with very good thermal enhancement efficiency for microchannels with synthetic jets applications. This study allowed us to make a quantitative comparison between a basic case with a periodic signal and modified case with bi-periodic signal with two cavities having a slope of 3°, 60 percent obstruction orifices and 10 µm of undulation heated wall. The unsteady flow and heat transfer for the two-dimensional synthetic jet are solved using ANSYS fluent code and k-ω (SST) model is selected to account for fluid turbulence. Obtained results showed an increase of Nusselt number by about 51% for the modified case compared with the basic case.
97 Bashair Saied, Taghreed Younis and Adeel Shbeeb. Mass Stopping Power of Alpha Particles in Liquid Water and Some Gases
Abstract. The interaction of charged particles with the chemical elements involved in the synthesis of human tissues is one of the modern techniques in radiation therapy. One of these charged particles are alpha particles, where recent studies have confirmed their ability to generate radiation in a highly toxic localized manner because of its high ionization and short its range. In this work, We focused our study on the interaction of alpha particles with liquid water; since the water represents over 80% of the most-soft tissues, as well as, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ,because they are key chemical elements involved in the synthesis of most human tissues. The mass stopping powers of alpha particle with H_2 O_ , CO_2,O_2,H_2 and N_2have been calculated in energy range (0.001-1000) MeV, using four methods (Beth-Bloch equation, Zeigler formula and SRIM2013 software, ASTAR program).We have produced semi-empirical formulas for calculating the mass stopping power of alpha particles, for such targets by knowing alpha particle energy. Comparing our results of the calculated mass stopping power with ICRU- Report 49 we find very good agreement between them, this confirms the ability of our result to be used in such cancer treatment and other fields where this quantity is used.
99 Yosra M. Sadiq, Entisar Eliwi Al-Abodi and Tagreed M. Al-Saadi. Preparation and Characterization of a New Nano Mixture, and Its Application as Photocatalysis in Self-Assembly Method for Water Treatment
Abstract. Abstract. This studied is directed to water treatment by using developed self-assembly method by prepared a new nano mixture consist of three nanomaterials. The catalyst that showed the excellent synergy between photocatalysis and Fenton-like reactions. The catalyst prepared demonstrated efficient and reproducible catalytic activities for water treatment. It takes only a few minutes to degrade methylene blue dye (MBD) completely, from its solution. The prepared catalyst is stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures, and can be easily extracted from the solution and repeatedly used with little loss of catalytic activity.
100 Maurizio Carlini, Sonia Castellucci, Andrea Mennuni and Stefano Morelli. Numerical modelling and simulation of pitched and curved-roof solar greenhouses provided with internal heating systems for different ambient conditions
Abstract. During the past few years, the plant nursery sector has drastically minimized its carbon footprint by using geothermal systems for heating rather than fossil fuel. This study aims to define the temperature range inside a greenhouse by means of a multiparametric analysis, with regard to several inner and external conditions imposed. In detail, it has been used the Finite Element Method (FEM), contained in the modules for the thermal analysis of the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software. The greenhouse structures considered are the most common in the north of Italy and Europe. Through the development of a stationary study, it has been possible to choose the suitable design solution for the heating standard required for both the floriculture and the horticulture. A 2D study of the transitory has been implemented with the intent to consider as influential factors the irradiation and the daily temperature throughout the year. The temperature trend over horizontal direction is investigated to detect any non-uniformity on the temperature distribution to which floriculture and horticulture plants are exposed. This study aims to be a starting point for the development of a system to be exploited during the design phase of these kind of greenhouses, to enhance the functioning relatively to inner and external conditions fluctuations, maximizing the thermal performance.
101 Thamir A. A. Hassan, Mohammed A. Ajeel and Ali Jasim Mohammed. The Preparing of Polyaniline- Silver Composites by Oxidation in Comparison with Polyaniline –Carbon Nanotube Composites Prepared by Electro-Oxidation for Hydrogen Sensors
Abstract. The first series preparation of polyaniline (PANI) – silver composites by the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate in the 0.2 and 1 mol L-1 M aqueous solutions of acetic acid, the reaction condition produce a composite that have a conductivity of about 4000 S cm-1 at 72 wt. % (20 vol%) of silver (Ag). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) illustrates the formation of nanostructured Ag (nanowires) coated with polyaniline. In the second series, the preparation of polyaniline - multiwall Carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) composites were included MWCNTs of 0.25wt %, 0.5wt % or 1wt % added to 0.1 M distilled aniline under reflex procedure with 0.3M H2SO4 (pH 4) investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A cyclic potential ranged from -100 mV to 1500 mV (scan rate of 30mV S-1) at room temperature for fabricating PANI/MWCNTs composite. Images of SEM showed that the PANI/MWCNTs Nanofieber structure with diameters has the range of 50nm-70 nm. Results of current-voltage (I-V) curves showed increase in electrical conductivity with increasing proportion of MWCNTs. PANI-silver composite which has been prepared in 1 mol L-1 of acetic acid and PANI-1wt% MWCNTs composite as hydrogen sensor, the results have showed that PANI-MWCNTs sensor have more sensitivity compared to PANI-silver sensor.)
102 Nassira Mebrouki, Messaoud Hacini and Abdellah Lamini. Geomodeling Area In Hassi Messaoud Field
Abstract. Hassi Messaoud is considered as one of the largest fields of raw oil in the world. It is a part of a set of structures forming the northern part of the Triassic province. Its reservoir consists primarily of quartzite sandstone of Cambrian-Ordovician age. The area 13 is located in the North-East of Hassi Messaoud field. The study showed that both uni modal and bi modal distributions of porosity and permeability in the drains which not affected by erosion are totally exploited. The three-dimensional geological and dynamic modelling made from the PETREL, has shown that the reservoir properties: structural, petrophysical are closely related to tectonic movements. Besides, the aforementioned properties prevailed in the area nearby the faults and their structural position by contribution to the water.
103 Stefan Predoi, Stefan Grigorean and Gheorghe Dumitrascu. Comparative Analysis Regarding Burning Process for Different Fuels in Hybrid Rocket Engines (details)
Abstract. Hybrid rocket engines represent a propulsion system which at the moment needs to be improved by two ways: NOx and CO pollutant reduction together with safety and cost issues. In present paper there is represented a comparison between different fuels upon the combustion parameters. For this purpose there are assumed different input values from experimental tests. Presented case it is a necessary step to achieve improvements in hybrid rocket engines design and development, starting from the analysis of regression rates for different fuels like HTPB, paraffin, HTPB+AL, PE Wax. Early versions of hybrid rockets were not used at large scale either for commercial or military domain, main reason is that they had a slow fuel regression rate and a reduced combustion efficiency. To increase the regression rates it is necessary to increase the flow rate of pyrolyzed fuel, this way also increasing the thrust level. At the actual stage, the regression rate for the fuels based on polymers are higher than the conventional fuel used in hybrid rocket engines.
105 Ikram Labtaini and Khalil El-Hami. Characterization of the fibrous filter media used in a baghouse phosphate dust collector by scanning electron microscopy
Abstract. This study concerns the characterization of some fibrous filter media for the baghouse phosphate dust collectors by scanning electron microscopy. Observations were carried out on three types of filters: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) filter media, surfaced with Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, an Intensive filter Jet and a treated polyester filter. As revealed by the micrographs of PAN filter media, despite the entangled character of fibers, the phosphate particles are able to penetrate inside the filter medium through the filtration surface. By comparing the results of the three types of new filter media, we can predict the one that will lead to the highest value of the pressure losses.
106 Ikram Labtaini and Khalil El-Hami. Individual element mapping of baghouse phosphate dust collector deposits
Abstract. In light of evaluating the performance of the baghouse phosphate dust collector. The distribution of elementary composition of phosphate dust withdrawn from baghouse dust collector installed in the drying unit of Beni-Idir located at Khouribga, Morocco has been determined. Dust deposits on the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter surface, upstream, and downstream of the filter bag, and untreated phosphate powder were collected, sampled, and analyzed. Investigation on a particle scale was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) SEM coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the morphology and the distribution of the mineral elements over the sample surface. SEM results exhibited the creation of coarse and large agglomerates formed by particles of different sizes. Element mapping by SEM/EDS reinforced the result that phosphate dust is mainly composed of calcium, phosphor and a small percentage of silica, sulfur, and iron that varies according to the locations of the sample collection. In addition, elemental cartography shows different spatial distribution and concentrations of elements inside the samples. EDS analysis confirmed that calcium and phosphor were the main components of the phosphate samples and showed the presence of other trace elements.
107 Constantinos Psomopoulos, Ioannis Limperis and Konstantinos Kalkanis. Evaluating the Energy Demand for Municipal Solid Wastes Treatment Facilities: A Critical Approach toward Sustainable Development
Abstract. The European Directives, along with the general notion that wastes are resources, and the effort to reduce the environmental impact in urban environment from waste management, are the driving forces behind waste to energy philosophy. The most sustainable cities in the EU consider that their sustainability is also based on energy recovery from wastes. They all use Waste-to-Energy facilities to treat a significant segment of their waste in order to produce energy in the form of heat and electricity. They do so in a very successful and environmentally friendly way, as they mainly utilise waste fractions that cannot be recycled or reused, and they do not dispose of these resources in landfills. This approach proves that sustainable waste management cannot be achieved without Waste-to-Energy facilities, since a fraction of wastes consists of non-recyclable and non-reusable materials, which provide a significant heating value that cannot be neglected as an energy source. Apart from recycling, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) treatment is achieved through various processes that aim towards the conversion of waste into useful forms of energy or easily biodegradable, stabilized products. Dedicated treatment methods for getting different refuse derived products that can be used as fuel for producing energy are available. The aim of this paper is to briefly present these methods, review their processes and reveal where their individual energy costs/losses are derived from. A review and a calculation example for the methods of Recycling, Anaerobic Digestion, Composting, Biodrying and combustion are presented concisely. Finally, these methods are compared in terms of energy costs and recovery. Moreover, the calculation methodology of the energy costs of MSW treatment facility is presented. Energy costs/losses are not a synonym for the efficiency of a MSW treatment method, but are an important factor that must be taken into consideration when designing a MSW treatment facility. Furthermore, different waste mixtures will provide different results for this study but the main conclusion remains unaltered: In terms of energy demand for waste management a percentage of methods are energy consuming and others are energy producing, or lead to significant energy savings, which is key action for a sustainable future. Municipal wastes is one of the greatest problems that the modern societies must solve. The current approach is the environmental impact of the method considering the volumes that must be treated and the sustainability of the method. Last but not least, energy consumption must be adopted in each and every human activity so as to achieve sustainable development.
108 Mohammed A. Ibrahim and Khalid H. Mahdi. Design and manufacture of neutrons shield from composite materials
Abstract. The three principles of radiation protection are limiting time , distance and shielding , so the aim of this work is to make a shield for neutrons that we get from Am- Be source, the neutrons will be fast that made the shield will be made from three layers. The first was to attenuated fast neutrons by composite material made from Epoxy as a matrix reinforced by Boron with different concentration (0,5%,10%,12% and 15%), then concentration 12% was choosen with different thickness of (0.5,1,1.5,2 and 2.5)cm, then 2cm was choosen to start the second step to attenuate thermal neutrons. The shield for thermal neutrons made from Epoxy reinforced by cadmium with different concentration (0,10%,15%,20%25%),then thickness of (0.5,1,1.5,2,2.5)cm, the concentration of 15% with thickness of 0.5 were choosen . Finaly the shield for gamma made from Epoxy reinforced by lead with concentration of (0,10%,15%,20%,25%) and with thickness of (0.5,1,1.5,2,2.5)cm, the concentration of 15% with thickness of 2.5 were choosen. So that the shield will be contain 3 layers made from Epoxy reinforced by Boron , Cadmium and Lead respectively, that choosen with appropriate attenuation and mechanical properties.
109 Sarab Jahil, Ahlam Khazaal, Shatha Mahdi and Kareem Jasim. Influence of laser irradiation on the electric and structure properties of Y0.94Ag0.06Ba2Cu3O7− δ compound
Abstract. This paper presents the influence laser irradiation on the electric and structure properties of Y0.94Ag0.06Ba2Cu3O7−δ compound with different time irradiation ( 50, 100 and 150 second ) was investigated utilizing XRD analysis and four probes technique. Results of XRD explained that there are no phase's transformations take place before and after laser irradiation, where the irradiated specimens have orthorhombic crystal structure too, but there are changes in peaks intensities ,lattice parameters, Mass density, oxygen content and volume fraction. Four probes technique was used to investigate the influence of irradiation on critical temperature of prepared specimens. Test results explained that all specimens with different time irradiation exhibited changes due expose to laser ray, where it is noted that specimens exhibits increase in its critical temperature by approximately 92 K, 97 K, 101 K and 107 K.
110 Vasilios Orfanos, Stavros Kaminaris, Dimitrios Piromalis and Panagiotis Papageorgas. Trends in Home Automation Systems and Protocols
Abstract. Contemporary Home Automation Systems have become very popular to the end-user as they provide them easy and convenient ways to control their home and their appliances with the use of a networking device such as a PC, tablet or a Smartphone. The market provides a plethora of home automation protocols and technologies, with the end-user having a difficult decision as to which of these is the most appropriate. Unfortunately, such a decision is a complex, time-consuming task, as technology solutions are changing over the years. The existing standards and protocols do not provide always enough information for the extraction of the appropriate metrics for comparing their technical characteristics and capabilities. This paper is an effort to present a complete information set about the most popular home automation protocols and technologies including standardized, proprietary and open-source implementations. In addition, an approach from the end user’s perspective is given, by providing critical details for administrators about their management and configuration procedures. Finally, the last section of this paper presents for each protocol it’s realization according to the OSI 7 layer model, in an effort to extract their common characteristics and differentiation.
111 Nooralhuda Abdalhussan and Iman Khudayer. Study of the structural and optical properties of CuAlxIn1-xTe2 thin film
Abstract. CuAlxIn1-xTe2 thin films were evaporation on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique at the thickness (400) nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of these films found out that the films have good crystalline structures with tetragonal phase and the degree of the crystalline increases with the increase in the ratio from (0.3-1). Where AFM show that the grain size increase from (85.21-99.40) nm and the roughness increase from (1.62-10.3) nm. The optical properties, absorption, transmission, reflection, and optical constant as a function of In ratio show that the direct energy gap decrease from (2.1-1.71) eV by the increase of the In ratio.
112 Raad Majeed and Hassan Hag Dakhel. Theoretical calculations involving a standard neutron yield distribution for the T-T nuclear fusion reaction
Abstract. A standard theoretical neutron energy flux distribution is achieved for the triton-triton nuclear fusion reaction in the range of triton energy about ≤10 MeV. This distribution give raises an evidence to provide the global calculations including the characteristics fusion parameters governing the T-T fusion reaction.
113 Stefanos Tzelepis and Kosmas Kavadias. Theoretical simulation model of a Proton Exchange Fuel Cell (details)
Abstract. Current trends in the energy production sector call for alternative energy production methods with a high focus on renewable energy sources. Most of the countries in the world, and especially the developed countries, fund research towards distributed generation and zero energy balance communities. In order to eliminate the consumption of fossil fuels, a crucial role is taken by hydrogen as a fuel, as, if it is produced from renewable energy sources, it could contribute in substituting the fossil fuels used in transport or building’s thermal energy sectors. Moreover, it is well known that electrolysis-fuel cells can also be used as a storage medium in autonomous renewable energy systems. In this case, fuel cells need to be carefully sized in order to optimize the storage system both in energy and economic aspects. In this respect, a theoretical model was developed, able to simulate the operation of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, by using as input data the technical characteristics of the cell and the hydrogen flow at any time step. The developed model is based on both theoretical, experimental and semi-empirical models in order to provide a flexible algorithm in terms of fuel cell sizing. The model is validated with an existing fuel cell experimental system (Nexa 1200) at different hydrogen flow profiles. The results showed high precision which verifies the reliability of the proposed model for using it in optimization procedures.
114 Stefano Mazzoni, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui and Sayyed Benyamin Alavi. Thermodynamic cycles in concentrated solar power plants for improved performance and flexible operations (details)
Abstract. Climate changes and environmental concerns call for the use as a primary energy source (PES) the solar radiation concentrated on meeting the requirements of advanced thermodynamic cycles. Concentrated solar energy systems like dishes for factories or small coastal villages are explored as primary energy feeders. The paper presents a state of the art analysis of the most promising concentrated solar power CSP plant-based cycles and investigates novel cycles characterized by the integration of different technologies for concurrent polygeneration of electricity, heat, cooling, and water. Solar capture, concentration, and heat power transfer to the working fluid is the most expensive part of the plant, higher than 60%. The improvement of the solar capture can lead to producing higher electric work without modifying the solar equipment quality. Various combinations with ORC that utilized intermediate and low-temperature heat power can improve the efficiency and enlarge the power time availability using medium-low temperature heat storage system. An ample analysis of such alternatives is reported in the paper. The high level of the plant integration has required a deep thermodynamic analysis addressed to investigate the best size plant components (i.e storage technologies such as thermal storage based on phase change materials) and the optimal level of heat recovery and integration among the plant section for minimizing the entropy generation and maximizing the plant utilization of the PES, increasing the global CSP plant efficiency dramatically. In the paper, a description of the CSP plant arrangements is presented, together with the description of the global models adopted for the optimization process. The optimization techniques and the solution strategy are also discussed. Result in terms of the whole system performance versus operating conditions variability (i.e., DNI variability) and plant configuration are given, highlighting which should be the criteria to follow for optimal design and operate CSP novel plants.
115 Simona Lizica Paraschiv, Paraschiv Spiru and Alexandru Serban. Calculation of combustion air required for burning solid fuels (coal, biomass, solid waste) and the flue gas composition
Abstract. Combustion processes are and will be in the near future, the most common way of generating energy in our civilization by burning fossil fuels at an increasing rate. The processes should be well-managed for environmental reasons and sustainable development. The combustion principles are common to heaters, boilers and other forms of industrial combustion. The combustion is essentially a chemical reaction between a fuel and atmospheric oxygen, which transforms the potential chemical energy of the fuel into thermal energy. Combustion aim is to recover energy from fuels burning in the most efficient way possible. Maximizing combustion process efficiency (complete fuel combustion with minimal heat loss), will lead to economic profit maximization. Fuel is the most important item of energy generation cost, and therefore, any installation design must begin with fuel combustion analysis. Combustion calculations are based on stoichiometric reactions and depend on fuel characteristics. This stage provides necessary information for sizing the most important elements of a power plant, like, fans, blowers, heat exchangers, waste handling facilities, stack size and air pollution control equipment. In this paper, a web application developed for the analysis of solid fuel combustion, (coal, biomass, solid waste), that can be accessed free online has been described. The application allows users to enter information on the elemental composition of the analyzed fuel and the excess air ratio, providing the stoichiometric and real flue gas volumes.
116 Maria Cristina Cameretti. Modelling of a Hybrid Solar Micro-Gas Turbine fuelled by biomass from agriculture product
Abstract. Sustainable biomass exploitation for combined heat and power (CHP) generation is fundamental to address concerns about climate changes related to energy conversion systems. A layout of a hybrid micro-gas turbine-solar plant fed by biomass from agriculture product (olive pits) is modelled. It provides the coupling between a gasifier, dedicated to the biomass conversion and a micro gas turbine, optimized for the operation with syngas. In particular, the MGT plant is integrated with a solar tower field, able to provide partially to the heat addition or totally replace the fuel heating in the case that the only solar heat input is enough to ensure that the working fluid reaches the turbine inlet temperature. After the solar field design able to reduce fuel consumption during daily hours, a gasifier was integrated to obtain a syngas from biomass in place of the traditional natural gas. A parametric analysis allowed to define the gasifier parameters in order to obtain a syngas able to satisfy the power demands of the MGT with good performances. A commercial software, Thermoflex®, is used to model the full plant. The results in terms of efficiency and environmental impact are reported and compared with those obtained with the traditional MGT fuelled by natural gas.
117 Christoforos Spyrou, Panagiotis Papageorgas and Georgios Vokas. Optimization of photovoltaic energy production using embedded systems and techno-economic analysis of participating in demand response programs through IoT and IoE technologies
Abstract. The rapid development of residential and commercial grid connected photovoltaic power projects led the research to energy optimization under mismatched operating conditions. The energy losses from partial shading photovoltaic panels can cause significant reduction in the produced energy of a PV system based on the classic topology of string inverter. The solution to this kind of problems can be given by incorporating embedded systems in the photovoltaic plants. This paper presents the simulation results from the comparison of the main topologies which used for power optimization of a shading PV system, the DC/DC power optimizers and microinverters, and stress their effectiveness against the conventional string inverter scheme. The financial benefits of the participation of a grid-connected PV system to a
118 Faten Zainulabdeen, Ali Alhamadani and Ghada Karam. Improving the Performance Efficiency of Solar Panel by Using Flat Mirror Concentrator
Abstract. In this research a flat mirror concentrator (FMC) has been used to increase the incident irradiance on solar panel system by concentrate the sun light ray on it and then to improve the cell performance. A comparison is made between two PV solar panel systems with and without concentrator. The FMC consists of two flat mirrors made of glass, with dimensions (146 cm × 68 cm) enclosed by aluminum frame and connected at an angle 60 ° with a solar panel (147cm ×68cm) tilted at 45° from the horizon. The results showed an improvement in efficiency because of using concentrator which will increase the concentration of the sun light on the solar panel.
119 Rui Xue. Study on the Planning of "the Characteristic Town Which Undertake Function Spillover of Big Cities ": Take " Butterfly Island Outlets Town " Program in Harbin New Area as An Example
Abstract. “Characteristic town” is one of the main national strategies to promote China's new type urbanization and industrial transformation. It is a kind of relatively independent spatial aggregation with the development of characteristic industries as its main intention. After several years of practice and exploration, the connotation and coverage of Characteristic towns are in constant expansion. Recently, one kind of Characteristic towns situated in the suburbs which are planned to undertake the function spillover of big cities have received more and more attention. Compared with other types, the Characteristic towns which undertake function spillover of big cities can make full use of the resource radiation of the city centers, form their competitive advantage through the differentiated and complementary growth path, and form compact organization form of urban land use in their fringe areas. We take “ Butterfly Island Outlets Town” program in Harbin New Area Sanjiawan Tourist Resort as an example, analyze the planning model of the“Characteristic towns which undertake function spillover of big cities” in order to provide some theoretical and empirical reference for the compact and rational development of Harbin's urban fringe areas.
120 Kaouter Karboub, Mohamed Tabaa, Sofiene Dellagi, Abbas Dandache and Fouad Moutaouakkil. Full Training Convolutional Neural Network for ECG Signals Classification
Abstract. Abstract. Heart attacks had been for many years one of the primary public health issues. According to the World Health Organization, ischemic heart diseases are in the top of ten leading causes of death. Thus, automatic detection of abnormal heart conditions may provide a necessary hospitalization for patients suffering from heart diseases, making it possible to save their lives. In the current article, we present a simple but efficient deep learning algorithm based on simple convolutional units and time frequency presentations, which can classify three types of ECG signals related to three different cases; namely patients with Congestive Heart Failure, patients with Arrhythmia and others with a normal heart beats. The 162 recordings used in this algorithm was taken from Physio Net databases; 96 of them taken from the MIT- BIH arrhythmia database, 36 from the MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm database and 30 from the BIDMC congestive heart failure database. The simplicity and flexibility of the proposed approach would present a real potential for real time monitoring with 93.75% accuracy.
121 Fattin Fadhil, Fatima Sultan, Adawiya Haider and Rusul Rsool. Preparation of Poison Gas Sensor from WO3 by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Abstract. In this work, a Nd:YAG laser beam, λ=532nm, rep -etition rate 1 Hz with the pulse duration 10 ns, has been used to deposit pt dopant WO3 films with different doping (2,3,5 )% on glass and silicon substrates at a fixed substrate temperature 400 0C, laser fluence 1.6 J/cm2 and number of pulses equal 100 pulse. WO3 thin films were investigated by using different techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), UV-VIS transmittance Spectroscopy, Hall Effect, and sensing proper- ties equipment. Senility were calculated of NO2 gas for pure and WO3:Pt with concentration 3ppm at room temperature has been determined. The highest sensitivity was 80% at WO3 dopant with Pt 5%.
122 Safa Ibrahiem and Ahmed Mkhaiber. Calculation and study of internal radiation doses resulting from the ingestion of some radioactive sources
Abstract. In this study, internal radiation doses resulting from the ingestion of some radioactive sources ( 99mTc , 131I and 213Bi ) with different activities (200MBq- 800MBq) were calculated. The effect of source activity, type of tissue and age on measured dose values was studied. The results showed that radiation dose increases with increased activity and decreases with increased the age. Also, the results showed that radiation dose values were affected by the type of tissue. The amount of energy deposited in each tissue was also studied. The results showed that this energy was influenced by the type of tissue and age.
123 Spyros Petratos, George Ioannidis, Stavros Kaminaris and George Vokas. Comparative evaluation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for speed control of DC motor applying different optimization techniques
Abstract. In this paper, a Fuzzy PI Controller used for driving a separately excited DC motor is compared to Conventional PI Controller, in terms of speed and load transient response of the motor. Further optimization of the Fuzzy PI Controller is performed using different central values for the output fuzzy sets, which are obtained from Simulink’s Autotuning function. The effect of the selection of the output fuzzy sets central values is investigated and presented. The logic behind the selection of the Fuzzy Rules is also presented by analyzing the behavior of the DC motor at different operational regions. Performance and robustness results are presented and analyzed
124 Anestis Anastasiadis, Georgios Kondylis and Georgios Vokas. Effect of Augmented Distributed Generation in Distribution Grid
Abstract. This paper aims to study the effect of augmented Distributed Generation (DG) penetration in the basic indices of the distribution network (voltage, angle, power flow, thermal fatigue of cables). For this purpose, a realistic expansion of an existing distribution grid is considered, after looking up theoretically the basic principles of distribution grids and DGs. The case study grid is analyzed as to its basic indices (voltage, angle, power flow, thermal fatigue of cables) depending on the level of penetration of distributed generation so as to find the necessary but also the optimal penetration. Subsequently, for every different penetration level, the key indices of the grid are discussed and it is estimated whether this specific level is technically sufficient. The optimum penetration level as well as Distributed Energy Resources (DER) hosting capacity is also discussed.
125 Nectarios Giannopoulos, George Ioannidis, George Vokas and Constantinos Psomopolulos. Current balancing techniques of parallel-connected silicon carbide MOSFETs: A Review
Abstract. Scientific studies have been published over the last decade, in which several researchers have proposed numerous techniques for limiting the current unbalance between a number of discrete parallel SiC MOSFETs. This unbalance is unavoidable and should be limited in order to exploit all the advantages offered by SiC semiconductors over Si counterparts as far as possible. This effort aims to optimize the operation of converters in medium and high power density applications. Such applications are converters for photovoltaic power generation, electric vehicles, high-power-density motor drives, smart grids, solid-state transformers for distribution network, HVDC transmission, railway systems, etc.. SiC MOSFET, as one of WBG devices, has become increasingly popular in the aforementioned applications because of its superior characteristics and the increasing demands for higher efficiency and reliability, higher limits of power density, lower weight/volume packages and higher thermal operating limits of electric power conversion. However, these applications are characterized by high currents and therefore the parallelism of SiC MOSFETs is necessary either by paralleling a number of discrete SiC MOSFETs or by designing and building multi-chip SiC MOSFET power module. Therefore, these techniques increase the reliability and performance of SiC MOSFETs’ parallel operation by reducing conduction and switching losses, power losses and simultaneously achieving energy savings while reducing the environmental impact. In this paper techniques for suppressing the current imbalance which occurs between parallel-connected discrete SiC MOSFET are presented. These techniques will be analyzed, discussed and compared. The aim of this paper review and comparative study is to highlight the techniques that combines low complexity and high efficiency in its implementation.
126 Anestis Anastasiadis, Ioannis Oikonomou and Georgios Vokas. Optimal Levelised Cost of System Values with increasing Renewable Energy Sources in a Smart Microgrid
Abstract. Nowadays, as manufacturing costs for distributed power generation technologies fall, the economic equation is increasingly favoring Renewable Energy Sources technologies. The high electricity cost of small electricity systems, coupled with oil price volatility, desire for energy security, and the relatively higher vulnerability of them to the impacts of climate change, build a strong rationale for them to shift towards sustainable energy systems. There is a significant research into the topic of optimal renewable energy conﬁgurations for small electrical systems, which has predominantly focused on wind, PV as generation technologies, coupled with batteries. In this paper, we will investigate how the optimum conﬁguration and costs of renewable energy systems on a smart microgrid change with increasing penetration of renewable energy sources. A well-established index in the energy ﬁeld for quantifying and comparing the costs of electricity generation technologies is the Levelized Cost of Electricity (or Energy) (LCOE). In this paper, the LCOE index serve as a useful basis for our study in proposed smart microgrid.
128 Carlos Cuviella Suarez, Antonio Colmenar Santos, David Borge Diez and Jorge Blanes Peiro. Water-Energy nexus in the Sanitary-Ware Industry. Reduction and sustainability by exergoeconomic analyses
Abstract. Ceramic sanitary-ware manufacturing is an industrial sector within the ceramic field that globally demands more than 100,000 TJ of primary energy and 21,000 dam3 of water per year. The main target of this research is to quantify the best achievable performance regarding energy and water consumption of a conventional factory in the sanitary-ware industry by thermal analysis extended through the different thermal processes along the whole manufacturing line. Water and energy consumptions are simultaneously reduced within an energy-water nexus framework of thermal relationship through a multi-effect distillation process. . Advanced exergetic analysis has been the selected technique applied to all thermal sub-processes that comprise the overall process. The novelty of this research lays on the application of heat recovery through the different thermal processes to minimize the global consumption of both, energy and water for the specific field of the sanitary-ware manufacturing where no research has been approached in this regard. This research shows that 20% of the inlet exergy in a conventional factory is recoverable and the way to achieve it by an optimized factory which saves 3% of primary energy and 100% of the flushing water for molds.
129 Ali Resen and Omar Ahmed. Wind Energy Potential Assessment to Evaluate Performance of Selected Wind Turbines
Abstract. An intensive investigation for selecting the optimum wind turbine type for Al-Najaf site was done. Mean wind speed and Weibull parameters were calculated. Weibull parameters and wind speed extrapolated at WT height. Nine types of wind turbine generators were used to do site matching study in order to find suitable wind turbine generator for the site based on capacity factor. Power electric and energy production for each WT were calculated. Eventually, the results showed that Leitwind 77 has a large capacity factor of 26%.
130 K. Gherab, Y. Al-Douri, U. Hashim, Adawiya Haider and Nathalie Bassil. Investigated Optical and Structural Properties of AZO Nanostructures under Temperature Effect for Solar Energy Applications
Abstract. Spin-coating technique was employed to deposit nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) doping aluminum (Al) on p-Si substrate. Atomic forces microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra-violet (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are utilized to investigate the influence of annealing temperature in the range, 200 to 600 °C on the morphological, optical, structural and topographical characteristics of AZO nanostructures. The average reflectance was proven by the reflectance spectra in the wavelength range, 200-1000 nm, and the absorption spectra provided the optical energy gaps of nanostructured AZO. Crystalline and grain sizes are correlated with variations in annealing temperature, thus providing a more homogenous and covered surface morphology. Our results are recommended for solar energy applications.
131 Dimitrios Rimpas, Andreas Papadakis and Maria Samarakou. OBD-II sensor diagnostics for monitoring vehicle operation and consumption
Abstract. Road vehicles operation are continuously monitored through values of the related physical parameters (temperature, air flow, rotation rate); such measurements are retrieved by electronic sensors and communicated, over the internal vehicle communications protocol, towards the Main Control Unit for further processing. In this paper we present our selection of parameters for monitoring key vehicle operations and briefly describe the sensors employed for the retrieval of these parameter values. The values are retrieved through the OBD-II diagnostics protocol and they are related with the vehicle operation and with the fuel consumption. As proof of concept, focused experimentation has taken place, through a 5 km trip with low and heavy traffic. Values retrieved from the OBD-II scanner are presented and discussed. In terms of evaluation, the raw values as well as the calculated measurements related to fuel consumption are compared with manufacturer standards and the user driving behavior has been identified as the key factor influencing the fuel consumption for a given model.
132 Niculae Andrei Laurențiu, Miron Lucian and Chiriac Radu. On the Possibility to Simulate the Operation of a SI Engine Using Alternative Gaseous Fuels (details)
Abstract. A thermodynamic combustion model developed in AVL BOOST software was used in order to evaluate the pollutant emissions, performance and efficiency parameters of a spark ignition engine Renault K7M-710 fueled with compressed natural gas, hydrogen and blends of compressed natural gas and hydrogen (hythane). A lot of research studies have concluded that for the near future hythane could be the most promising fuel because has the advantages of both fuels. In our previous work the model was validated for the performance and efficiency parameters by comparisons of simulation results with experimental data recorded when engine was fueled with gasoline. In this work the model was improved and can predict the values of pollutant emissions when engine is running with these alternative fuels. As the percentage of hydrogen in hythane is increased, the power of the engine rises, the brake specific fuel consumption, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions decrease, while nitrogen oxides increase. The values of peak fire pressure, maximum pressure derivative and peak fire temperature in cycle are higher, leading thus to an increased probability of knock occurrence, for which avoidance needs to be found an optimum correlation between the natural gas-hydrogen blend, the air-fuel ratio, the spark advance and the engine operating condition.
133 Bari Mohammed, Nehan Jafar and Sanaa Mahammad. Estimation of Esterase Activity, Adhesion Ability, in Various Candida species (details)
Abstract. Various species of Candida secrete lipolytic enzymes such as phospholipases and esterases The esterase activities of these yeasts were previously demonstrated in a few studies by using the Tween- 80 opacity test. Systemic candidiasis is a serious infection with a high mortality rate and morbidity in those who Survive. Mucocutaneous candidal infections seldom lead to systemic candidiasis. Despite the morbidity caused by systemic candidiasis, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the adhesion of C. albicans to endothelial cells or their subsequent transmigration. The present study was conducted with an aim to determine esterase activities and adherence abilities of some candida species: C. albicans, C. glabra, C. krusei and C. kefyr, isolated from oral cavities. The activity of esterase secretion between four species of candida was determined by Tween 80 opacity test medium. Two isolates; Candida albicans and candida krusei can hydrolyzed Tween 80 and the average of inhibition zone were (21.00-15.00 mm) respectively, otherwise candida glabra and candida kefyr non hydrolyzed Tween 80 after 1 week of incubation. Whereas the result of adherence ability had been recorded that all isolates of candida can adhere to Buccal Epithelial Cells (BECs) and conducted according to microscopic methods. The number of adhered Candida krusei cells recorded the highest value ranged between (10.00-43.00 cells) whereas, adherence of C. kefyr was showed the lowest value (20.00-22.00).
134 Abeer Farouk Al-Attar, Saad B.H.Farid and Fadel A.Hashim. Ionic conductivity of Gamma-Al2O3 and Pb3O4 dopants in 8mol%YSZ as Electrolyte in SOFC. (details)
Abstract. 8mol% YSZ is the one of the most common electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC) due to its high stability at high operation temperatures with high electrical characterizations. In this empirical work, 8mol%YSZ powders manufactured in the solid state method and doped with trivalent dopant of Al+3 and quadrant Pb+4 dopant with molar percentage less than one l (>1) mo% to produce two type of electrolytes: Al2O3-8YSZ and Pb3O4-8YSZ. The majority of this work is to evaluate the ionic conductivity and study the influence of each dopant Al2O3 and Pb3O4 doped 8YSZ sintered electrolyte via electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different temperatures form 600°C to 800°. And study the morphology of sintered doped electrolytes were studied via Field Energy Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The chemical characterization analysis with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The crystal size and phases of sintered electrolytes examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results ionic conductivity at 800°C of Al2O3-8YSZ electrolyte obtained 0.412 (S.cm) and Pb3O4-8YSZ electrolyte gave 0.738 (S.cm) with lower activation energy 0.575 (eV) with grain size 7460 nm than 0.727 (eV) of Al2O3-8YSZ electrolyte with grain size 8449 nm this significant the Pb3O4-8YSZis more candidates to use as an electrolyte at high temperatures
135 Sadeer Majeed, Duah Ahmed and Hadeer Ahmed. Studying the Effect of MWCNTs/Zirconia Nano composite in Reducing Tumor Cells
Abstract. The increased popularity of all-ceramic materials as an alternative to metal ceramic restorations is attributed to their excellent aesthetics, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. Recently, the development of advanced dental ceramics has led to the Application of partially stabilized zirconia in Restorative Dentistry. In this study prepared zirconia matrix stabilized in the Tetragonal Phase by adding yttrium oxide (3% mol Y2O3) with homogeneous distribution for different weight additions of (2% - 5% - 7% - 10%)wt of F-MWCNTs as reinforced to form (3% mol Y2O3-ZrO2 / f-MWCNTs ) Nano composite materials using pressing uniaxially (624) Mpa in the metal-die cylindrical to form pellets of (10mm diameter), Then the pellets were sintering in air at (1550oC) for (2h) . The samples were characterized by using FTIR, and that the material’s Cell viability by MTT assay, the sample that includes (3% mol Y2O3-ZrO2) (10%) wt F-MWCNTs revealed the best sample to kill the tumor cells. The best antibacterial activity of samples at concentration the 150µg.mL-1 of the ratio (7% - 10%) wt of F-MWCNTs where three types of bacteria pathogen (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) which show the good antibacterial activity , also can see the good results of adhesion bacterial
137 Borivoj Sourek, Tomas Matuska and Vladimir Zmrhal. Autonomous Sorption Unit for Extraction of Water from Air
Abstract. An experimental system for extraction of water from ambient air has been proposed for hot and dry desert conditions. The energetically autonomous system is based on sorption unit with nominal flow 2000 m3/h of process air and 1000 m3/h for regeneration air, PV modules (20m2), unglazed photovoltaic-thermal collectors (77 m2) for electricity production and night radiative cooling and solar thermal collectors (22 m2) for heat production. Water storage tanks (3 x 1 m3) of heat and cold are complemented by batteries (30 kWh) to balance electric production and load. The system has been designed and built as two 20 ft. containers. First “production” container consists from sorption unit, ventilation and air-conditioning and can be supplied from external grid to produce water from ambient air. Second “energy” container together with solar roof operates as an energy source for production container to establish an autonomous operation with no need for external inputs. Autonomous operation of the system produces about 100 l/day in extreme desert condition in yearly average according to simulations. The experimental system is being tested and monitored in Sweihan (UAE) in desert conditions to get knowledge on system operation in real environment.
138 Abderrahim El Youssfi, Mohamed Asbik, Hassan Agalit, Khadija El Alami and Reda Boualou. Numerical study of a latent heat storage system adapted to the concentrated solar power (CSP) plants at medium temperatures (180–300°C)
Abstract. Latent thermal energy storage (LTES) systems have shown an increasing ability to adapt electricity generation to demand within concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, and then it could provide a relevant solution to the intermittent solar radiation problems. The LTES is a physical process in which phase change materials (PCMs) are usually used. It consists of two periods namely charging (thermal energy storage period) and discharging (thermal energy recovery period). Using PCMs for heat storage is a great asset depending on their thermo-physical properties. Indeed, its high latent heat of fusion allows energy to be stored in a small volume, as well as being available at a low cost. Nevertheless, the main drawback of these materials is their low thermal conductivity. In this work, a numerical simulation of latent thermal energy storage in a shell and tube heat exchanger was performed, and an inorganic salt (NaNO2) was used as a PCM. The tube is equipped with annular Aluminum fins to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the storage material, and it is surrounded by a thin layer stainless steel (shell). The annular space between them (the tube and the shell) is filled with the PCM maintained at an initial temperature of 180°C. As for the heat transfer fluid (HTF), it flows in the downward direction at an inlet temperature of 300°C. During the charging period (heat storage process), the heat energy is transferred from hot fluid (HTF) to the storage medium (PCM) via the wall tube in the radial direction. Additionally, the thermal heat is conducted through the wall and hence it is partially evacuated by the fins to increase PCM temperature (due to the sensitive energy received). Besides, once the PCM melting temperature (270°C) is reached, the physical state of storage medium begins to change from solid to liquid and consequently the latent heat may become relevant. Afterwards, the temperature of the liquid PCM is further increases until the full charge of the LTES system. Regarding the discharging process (heat recovery), it occurs when the HTF moves vertically in the upward direction at an entrance temperature of 180°C. The previous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both media (HTF and PCM) are generally governed by conservation equations (mass, energy and momentum); associated with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. These equations have been numerically solved using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulated data were validated and they are in good agreement with the literature results. The instantaneous PCM temperature profiles have been presented to analyze the thermal behavior performances of LTES during the charging/discharging process. It has been proven that fins contribute to improving heat transfer exchanges within the storage system, and hence the overall charging/discharging time was significantly reduced.
139 Íñigo Martín-García, Enrique Rosales-Asensio, Alberto González-Martínez, Stefano Bracco and Miguel de Simón-Martín. Hydrogen as an energy vector to optimize the energy exploitation of a self-consumption solar photovoltaic facility in a dwelling house (details)
Abstract. Solar photovoltaic facilities for domestic self-consumption purposes seem to be a promising technology in the next years, as solar photovoltaic energy costs have decreased significantly, and national regulations in many countries promote them in order to relax the energy requirements of the power distribution grids. However, electrochemical storage systems are still unaffordable for many domestic users and, thus, the advantages of self-consumption solar photovoltaic energy systems are reduced. Thus, in this work it is proposed to update the use of hydrogen systems as energy vectors between a solar photovoltaic generation plant and the power consumption, as it allows better energy storage into pressurized tanks. It should be taken into account that one of the most expensive parts in a hydrogen production system is the gas compressing device, which can be neglected for low energy storage needs, such as in the proposed application. Moreover, the energy can be recovered not only in an electric form, but also in a thermal way (by gas boilers or heat pumps), which would cover the thermal energy needs of the householders. As a preliminary study before proposing a district hydrogen network for the energy supply of a residential area, in this work it has been designed the optimal solar photovoltaic and hydrogen production self-consumption plant for a dwelling house and it has been conducted a technical and economic feasibility study and a brief sensibility analysis, by implementing the installation layout in the Homer Energy Pro energy systems analysis tool. Results show that, although the proposed system effectively increases the energy use of the produced photovoltaic system and reduces significantly the energy injections or demands from the power grid, avoiding power grid congestions and increasing the nano-grid resilience, the operation and maintenance costs may reduce the economical attractiveness of the system for a single dwelling house and, thus it should be evaluated for larger communities or power consumers aggregations.
140 Enrique Rosales-Asensio, Francisco José García-Moya, Miguel de Simón-Martín, Alberto González-Martínez and David Borge-Diez. Stress Mitigation of Conventional Water Resources in Water-Scarce Areas through the use of Renewable Energy Powered Desalination Plants: An Application to the Canary Islands (details)
Abstract. Climate change conditions in the last decades have derived in a significant reduction of rivers’ levels, irregularity of rainfall and, thus, difficulties in accessing to drinkable water. This situation is especially dramatical in islanded environments, such as the Canary Islands in Spain, where these restrictions to water resources have conducted to an overexploitation of aquifers and wells, with the deterioration of the environment that this fact entails. For this reason, desalination plants have become essential, and efforts must be done to reduce their impact and costs, as the involved processes for water desalination are high energy intensive. In this research paper, an optimized size hybrid wind and solar photovoltaic power plant is proposed to feed a desalination plant under the approach of not only feed the desalination process, but also provide the power grid with clean energy, taken advantage of the surplus electricity production. This way, not only the water resources stress is mitigated (through the desalting water production), but also the grid benefits from the integration of a distributed renewable energy source (DRES). Moreover, the business model is improved as the cost of drinkable water production is reduced and the power plant owner receives extra incomes from the water sales. Optimization results for a case study in Gran Canaria island shows that, considering the power dispatch in the island, the remuneration limits for power delivery and the remuneration for provided water, the optimal DERS associated with a desalination plant providing 5,600 m3/day of desalted water and a maximum annual electricity injection to the power grid of 5.88 GWh/year, an hybrid solar PV and wind generation installation with electrochemical storage is a feasible solution that makes the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) achieve a singular reduced value, which results highly competitive with other generation technologies.
141 Tomas Matuska and Borivoj Sourek. Energy System for Nearly Zero Energy Family Buildings – Experience from Operation (details)
Abstract. Advanced concept of energy system for space heating, hot water preparation in new family buildings has been developed. Energy system consists of innovative heat pump (5.5 kW) extracting the heat from two environments: ground and ambient air. Heat pump is coupled with simple seasonal ground storage of heat built under the house and photovoltaic system (6 kWp) installed on the roof. In case of excess photovoltaic (PV) electricity in summer, the heat pump with variable speed compressor adapts its electric power to PV system power, extracts the heat from ambient air and transfers the heat into seasonal ground storage without external electric energy input. The ground storage is charged to 35 °C in upper level during the summer. In winter, heat pump uses the heat from ground storage and transfers it through heat pump cycle for space heating with high effectivity. The experimental system has been installed in newly built house in Hamry (CZ) and it is operated for two seasons so far. Results from the monitoring show radical reduction of electricity load from external grid. System uses more than 80 % of energy from renewables. Specific non-renewable primary energy demand for space heating, hot water preparation and auxiliary energy is about 15 kWh/m2 per year.
142 Khadija El Alami, Mohamed Asbik, Hassan Agalit, Abderrahim El Youssfi and Reda Boualou. Numerical investigation of a cost-effective packed bed thermal energy storage system for CSP plants at medium temperatures (180 – 300°C)
Abstract. Packed bed thermal energy storage (TES) system combined with a concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, provides a convincing solution (key technology) to overcome the intermittent nature of solar energy. In fact, it could regulate the discrepancy between demand and electricity production, all the more so that could increase the energy efficiency and overall performances of these plants. The packed bed TES system is a dual-media thermocline composed of a heat transfer fluid (HTF) and a storage medium (filler material). Inside this storage device, an appropriate HTF transfers/receives the heat energy from a storage material during charging/discharging period. These heat exchanges occur mainly by sensible heat process. In this work, a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an industrial scale TES system (20MWth), installed at Green Park Energy of Benguerir city (Morocco) in the framework of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)-plus project, was performed. The packed bed system is filled with Magnetite as the storage medium and the heat transfer fluid (Delco Term Solar E15) is uniformly fed through them, during charging (or discharging) period. Heat storage process (charging) takes place when the hot heat transfer fluid flows in the downward direction to exit the storage system through the bottom at lower temperature. In contrast, the cold HTF moves in the opposite direction during the discharging period to leave via the TES top at higher temperature. Each process (charging/discharging) is stopped when its set point temperature is reached. The considered TES system is modeled by using transient 1D approximation heat transfer model where conservation equations of the storage medium and those of the HTF are coupled, and their thermo-physical properties are assumed to be constant. These equations associated with appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been numerically solved and simulated using MATLAB R2016a. The obtained results are compared with experimental data found in the literature, and they are in good agreement. Similarly, a comparison between the used filler material (Magnetite) and Moroccan natural rocks, in terms of thermal performances and cost reduction, is considered too. It has been shown that the proposed numerical model, in this study, assists an accurate prediction of the packed bed behavior.
143 Kahoul Fares, Hamzioui Louanes, Guemache Abderrezak, Aillerie Michel and Boutarfaia Ahmed. Phase composition and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)PZT–xBFN ceramics with the variation of BFN (details)
Abstract. The (1-x) Pb (Zr0.50 Ti0.50)O3–x Bi (Fe1/3 Nb2/3)O3 (abbreviated as (1-x)PZT–xBFN , where x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) ceramics were synthesized by a solid state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure dielectric and piezoelectric properties were systematically investigated. The analyses of X-ray difraction and Raman dates show the tetragonal phase structure is obtained in all ceramics at room temperature. The optimum electrical properties of (1-x)PZT–xBFN such as piezoelectric constant d31 = 215 pC/N, mechanical quality factor Qm = 705, dielectric constant ɛr = 1155, dielectric loss tan δ = 0.018, bulk density ρ = 7.90 g/cm3 and electromechanical coupling factor kp = 0.64 were obtained at x = 0.02.
144 Bouchra Laarabi, Fadwa Safsafi, Fatima-Ez-Zahrae Daoudi, Dounia Dahlioui, Youssef El Baqqal and Abdelfettah Barhdadi. Chemical analysis and mapping of soils naturally deposited on PV modules in several Moroccan areas
Abstract. Photovoltaic power plants development in proper sunny areas is facing to the problem of soiling. The accumulation of dust particles on the surface of PV modules affects largely their efficiency. This phenomenon becomes a serious problem that researchers around the world are trying to control and prevent. In this aim, many studies have been conducted in analyzing dust particles composition. The present work goes further this objective and presents a mapping of soils naturally deposited on PV modules installed in several Moroccan areas with different climate conditions. To do this, a climatic zoning of Morocco according to the De Martonne index was adopted in order to select representative sites concerned with the collection of soiling samples. Right now, samples have been collected from four Moroccan cities (figure 1). These samples were carefully processed and chemically analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XF) and Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) to determine their chemical and mineralogical composition. The results obtained showed a variety of chemical constituents of soiling naturally deposited on PV modules. The determination of chemical composition of soiling will be helpful for researchers working on preventive solutions of this phenomenon, especially those who are trying to develop efficient glass coating materials. It will also be useful for researchers working on PV modules surface degradation to well understanding how soiling can damage the front surface of the modules.
145 Dunia Ruda, Dr.Logean Al-Karam and Dr.Eman Ghadhban. The Effect of Calcination Temperature and Solvent on the Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles and Assessment as an anti- Leishmania Agent
Abstract. Nanoparticles based materials are emerging field that being studied as an alternative solution to control and destroy microorganisms which are being resistance to conventional drugs. Millions of people worldwide are affected by parasitic diseases and many limitations in the treatment methods are involved. Vaccine for many parasitic infections is not available and the current mainstay of control is chemotherapy which is toxic, painful and expensive for the patients. Also, resistance to the drug is demonstrated by some parasite. A need for a safer and more effective antimicrobial agent is needed for improvement of drug or prevention of microorganism’s infections. Eco-friendly, simple and cost-effective co-precipitation method was used to synthesize CuO NPs by using copper acetate monohydrate as precursor and sodium hydroxide as reducing agent. The effect of the calcination temperature (1000,2500 and 4000 C) and solvent (water and ethanol) on the synthesis process of nanoparticles was studied. The characterization of nanoparticles was examined by using UV spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). UV-VIS was used to measure the absorption spectra of CuO NPs. The functional groups and the interaction between copper and oxygen were detected by FTIR. The diameter (18-33 nm), roughness (2-8 nm ) and purity of synthesized CuO NPs were examined by AFM and EDX. CuO NPs were pure as showed by the spectra of EDX with weight percentage for O (19-28wt%) and Cu ( 64-77wt %). Different volumes (12.5 μl,25 μ1,50 μ1,75 μ1,100 μ1 and 150 μl) of CuO NPs with 150 μg/ml were used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against Leishmania Leishmania donovani and Leishmania Tropica. Shifting towards longer wavelength (blue shift) happens in all samples due to the quantum confinement effect. It has been found that as the calcination temperature increases, the size of nanoparticle increases due to atomic diffusion. The size of nanoparticles at the same calcination temperature is smaller when using ethanol as a solvent instead of water due to the difference in the alcoholic chain. Inhibition activity against microorganisms was found, as well as it was correlated with the size and concentrations of nanoparticles.
146 Samira Ali and Mahmud Mustafa. Barriers facing Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS) in Photovoltaic Thermal PV/T application
Abstract. Photovoltaic generation is a temperature-dependent technology, with each 1°C temperature rise of the PV module, the efficiency drops by 0.2-0.5 % depending on the material of the PV cells. MPCM slurry is employed in the study to work as a cooling medium that circulates through a serpentine pipe to absorb heat from the back of a (0.8m x1.6m) 1.28 m2 PV module for cooling purpose. The paper presents the experimental rig, the procedure of using MPCM slurry in PV/T and the obstructs that limit its application. The experiments run under specific laboratory conditions with three concentrations of MPCM (5%, 10%, and 15%) in the slurry to test the effect of the major parameters such as radiation, Reynolds number and the concentration of the MPCM in the slurry on the performance of the system. The results showed that the system achieves 83% overall efficiency and 5.9 coefficient of performance (COP) when it operates with 10 % MPCM concentration slurry. Despite the good experimental outputs, the system is facing some problems that impede its application mostly due to the complexity of the cooling medium (MPCMS).
147 Soumia Ayyadi, Hasnae Bilil and Mohamed Maaroufi. Optimized EV Charging model Consisted of PV Power Forecast and EV user behavior uncertainties at workplace charging station (details)
Abstract. Electric vehicles (EVs) play a major role to decrease the transport sector emissions, particularly when it charged with electricity from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, the renewable energy generation resources and the electric vehicles patterns uncertainties make the interaction between these technologies challenging. In this paper, we propose a new approach to schedule the charging process of multiple EVs parked at workplace charging station (WCS) equipped with Photovoltaic panels (PV). Considering the day-ahead electricity price, the feed-in-tariff of PV energy, a WCS model is introduced to maximize the WCS owner profit, to maximize the PV self-consumption and to compensate the EVs user for discharging their EVs. The uncertainties of EVs characteristics are modeled with parametric probability density function and the PV generation has been forecasted by back-propagation neural network model. The optimization problem is solved by Linear programming and the Latin Hypercube Sampling has been applied to handle the EVs characteristics uncertainties. The results show that the proposed method increases the WCS owner profit and the EVs user compensation by 76% and 8.66% respectively, compared to uncoordinated charging. Furthermore, the PV generation has been well exploited to charge the EVs battery.
148 Alae Azouzoute, Mostafa Chouitar and Mohammed Garoum. A New PV soiling monitoring device for optimized cleaning strategy
Abstract. The energy market until now perceives the PV technology as the most commercialized technology in the world. In this regard, many countries in the MENA region have adopted this technology as an alternative source of energy to satisfy their energy needs especially the countries with no oil or gas reserve. In fact, the most suitable sites for the installation of PV plants are commonly affected with harsh climatic conditions especially those related to the accumulation of dust. Soiling phenomenon or dust deposition is an important factor that affect the optical efficiency of solar PV panel, which consequently affect the electricity production. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new optical method to quantify the soiling loss on the surface of a solar PV panel. The results show that this new optical method can be used to evaluate the impact of soiling on the surface of the PV panel. In this regard, this paper introduce a new soiling monitoring device in order to optimize the cleaning strategy on PV power plants.
149 Noor M . Jalal, Akram Jabur, Mohammed S. Hamza and Shrok Allami. Sulfonated Electrospun Polystyrene as Cation Proton Exchange Membranes for Hydrogen fuel cells
Abstract. Cation exchange membranes have been prepared and characterized using expanded polystyrene (PS) from waste packaging (PS). Electrospun polystyrene PS membranes were synthesized by electrospinning. The electrospun PS membranes were chemically modified by sulfonation reaction. Electrospun PS membranes were immersed in(20%) diluted sulfuric acid (H2SO4), as sulfonating agent, for different periods of 1, 2,3, and 4hours. Sulfonating reaction successfulness was demonstrated by FTIR investigations.SEM and EDS were used to detect the Sulfonating and desulfonating reactions regarding the sulfonating time. Ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and the proton conductivity were reported and discussed with respect to different sulfonationtime.IEC increased with increasing the sulfonation time. Obtained results showed that the membrane sulfonated for 2 hours have the highest IEC, which was equal to 2.857mmol/g. The proton conductivities of electrospun membranes increased by increasing the sulfonation time . Maximum proton conductivity was 8.8 x10-) S/cm resulted after 3 hours sulfonating .
150 Marwa Mayhoub, Mona Ibrahim, Zeyad El Sayad and Ahmed Ali. Development of Green Building Materials’ Evaluation Criteria to Achieve Optimum Building Façade Energy performance
Abstract. Since buildings and their construction materials have negative impacts on the environment as they exploit natural resources as well as they are major sources of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, evaluating building materials is needed to have more sustainable buildings. This study proposes a methodology to define the proper selection of green building materials that can be used for building façades; whilst taking its thermal performance and energy efficiency into account. Additionally, the study compared the energy consumption for six conventional materials for two types of buildings (Educational, Residential) in four climate zones. It included also the embodied carbon and equivalent CO2 for different types of used external façades materials. The evaluation and results was an important step to identify the suitable material that could be replaced with green material and determine how it performs in terms of simulation results and matching with the proposed criteria. The proposed green material couldn’t achieve the expected performance regarding energy performance (as it achieved a minor enhancement from 3245.07 to 3239.1 KWh, U-value for both materials is close) or embodied energy (as the increase of kgCO2 from 758 to 1649.3 due to cement which is one of its ingredients). However, the results show enhancement of thermal comfort when replacing a conventional material Brickwork with an environmentally friendly one AAC Block (from 106 to 86 discomfort hours). Moreover, it has a positive impact regarding sub-criteria (from the proposed framework). Consequently, applying criteria that combines between the performance of green building materials and their characteristics that considers environmental, resource-efficiency, energy efficiency, water efficiency, and affordability factors will help designers and engineers to define the best green building material to undertake in green projects.
151 Joseph Oyekale, Mario Petrollese and Giorgio Cau. Multi-objective Thermo-economic Optimization of Biomass Retrofit for an Existing Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant Based on NSGA-II
Abstract. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was deployed in this paper for multi-objective thermo-economic optimization of biomass retrofit for an existing solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant. The existing plant consists of a field of linear Fresnel collectors (LFC), integrated directly with two-tank thermal energy storage (TES) system, which interfaces with the ORC power block. The real solar-ORC plant currently runs in Ottana, Italy, albeit with some technical challenges basically due to inconsistent availability of solar irradiation. In order to upgrade the plant, a novel scheme had been proposed to install biomass unit in parallel to the solar field, such that both LFC/TES and biomass furnace could directly and independently satisfy fractional thermal input requirement of the ORC. Being a retrofit system, existing design parameters of all the already operating units were imposed as equality constraints in this study, and the combustion excess air, as well as pinch point temperature difference of furnace heat exchangers that best optimize the hybrid plant were investigated. Results showed that biomass mass flow rate of 0.133 kg/s and investment cost rate of about 57 €/h are optimal for the studied biomass retrofit scheme. At this optimum point, excess air was obtained as 56%, furnace heater pinch point temperature difference as 28.8 oC and air pre-heater pinch point temperature difference as 38.5 oC. More generally, results showed that excess air value of less than 100%, furnace heater pinch point temperature difference of less than 80 oC, and air pre-heater pinch point temperature difference of less than 80 oC would optimize the studied biomass retrofit scheme.
152 Ikhlas H.Shallal, Falah I. Mustafa, Duha M. A. Latif and Balqees A. Ahmed. Hybrid Solar Cells of CdS, CIGS and CdTe Thin Films
Abstract. A hybrid solar cell has been fabricated by using CdS thin film as a widow buffer layer with CIGS and CdTe thin films which were deposited on the normal glass, ITO glass, and Si substrates with thickness of 200, for CdS film an 500 nm for both CIGS and CdTe . Vacuum evaporation technique has been used at room temperature. Physical properties of thin films samples were measured including X-ray diffraction, and electrical characteristics included DC conductivity and all effect for all thin films. XRD test confirmed the cubic phase polycrystalline structure for CdS and CdTe thin films with a dominant orientation along (111) for CdS film and CdTe film was exhibit orientations with (112), (202), and (311). CIGS thin film has a hexagonal phase with dominant orientations (112), (211). The optical transmittance spectra were measured in the wavelength range (500-1100) nm. Energy gap was calculated for all samples thin films and found that all films have direct band gaps with values (2.35, 1.75 and 1.5)eV for CdS, CIGS and CdTe films respectively. The Hall Effect test show that both films of CIGS and CdTe were p-types carrier concentrations and CdS thin films were n-type semiconductor. The conversion efficiency measurements included current-voltage test have been calculated with different substrate electrode as arranged in the structure of solar cell thin films that record efficiency values 4.52% and 2.11% for the Algrid/CdS/CIGS/CdTe/Si(s) and Glass/ITO/CdS/CIGS/CdTe/Al respectively and no results for Al/Al/ electrodes.
153 George Deiktas and Georgios Vokas. Economic Feasibility investigation of a Vanadium Redox BESS for the exploitation of Wind Power rejections in Lesvos Island(details)
Abstract. Greece has plenty of electrically isolated Islands. Most of them, like Crete, Lesvos, Chios have a great Aeolian Potential which remains un-exploitable due to Power Grid limitations. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of integration a Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System in order to minimize the wind power losses. For this purpose, time series data of wind power rejections of two Wind Parks in Lesvos Island which reached the 10% of their theoretical production capability in 2012 will be used. Additionally, wind energy rejections data in hourly time series format along with the Island load demand hourly variation coming from the archives of the private company that owns the wind parks are used. Based on these data and the electrical model of the Vanadium Redox Batteries found in bibliography several simulations for various VRB power / energy capacity combinations were conducted and their capability in wind energy recovery are estimated. Following, the simulated systems are examined from the aspect of economic viability with the use of economic indices such as the Internal Rate of Return and the Net Present Value. Finally, the influence on the feasibility of such an investment of factors such as the selling price of energy provided to the grid and the VRB sale price are examined.
154 Afaf Zaza. The Influence of Cooling System Fouling on the Thermal Performance of a CSP Plants: Current Researches Updated (details)
Abstract. Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants make use of renewable and inexhaustible solar energy to produce electricity. Limited by the scarce water resources, CSP plants built in arid areas choose Natural Draft Dry Cooling Tower (NDDCT) to remove waste heat. However, NDDCT suﬀers from low eﬃciency in hot summer days. To resolve this problem, inlet air spray-cooling is introduced to improve the performance of NDDCT. The single most inﬂuential factor that limits those cooling systems process performance in long-term operation is fouling. This mini-review reviewed the currently available review papers on fouling studies and summarized the research trends from the conclusions highlighted by these reviews. In the ﬁrst part of this paper, the research progress focused on the studies on NDDCT and how the hybrid(wet/dry) cooling could improve the CSP plants performance. Then, in the second part, the fouling impact on the cooling tower is presented, including experimental, characterization and model studies. The geometry of the heated tubes, water quality, water velocity, and heated tube materials are the dominant parameters that affect fouling mechanism. Further requirements are identified in this paper to develop a reliable understanding of fouling effect on the application of cooling towers
155 Abbas Hadj Abbas, Abidi Saad Aissa and Hacini Messaoud. Thermodynamic calculation to evaluate the influence of the ambient temperature on the efficiency of a gas turbine: case study on the Hassi Rmel Algerian gas field
Abstract. In recent years, industrial gas turbines play an important role in power generation systems, such as nuclear power and gas production stations. Although many advantages of this equipment, their high sensitivity to the influence of varying ambient air temperature, which changes considerably between day and night, summer and winter, makes the operating thermal efficiency of these machines is affected. The main objective of this work is a thermodynamic study of a gas turbine used in high temperatures in the Hassi R'mel gas field that located in south of Algeria, then we made a description of the turbines which exists in Algerian gas field industry, After having made the calculations of the three cases in three different months in terms of temperature (December, March and July). Thermal yields are 35.23%, 30.40% and 23.91% in December, March and July, respectively. We found that the increase in temperature caused the decrease in the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. Finally, we proposed an air-cooling system that would improve turbine yields in the summer period where we record high temperatures in Hassi R’mel gas field.
156 Reda Boualou, Hassan Agalit, Abderrahim Samaouali, Abderrahim El Youssfi and Khadija El Alami. Doping effect of magnesium oxide (MgO) on the enhancement of the thermal storage properties of sodium nitrate (NaNO3)
Abstract. Latent thermal energy storage (LTES) technology has recently gained a lot of interest thanks to its high energy density compared to sensible heat storage (SHS) system. Actually, it could be the next generation storage solution for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants to match the intermittent solar energy with the power demand. The core of a LTES system is a phase change material (PCM), which stores and releases heat using its intrinsic high enthalpies of fusion and solidification respectively. In this scope, Sodium nitrate is a promising latent heat storage material for the medium temperature range (up to 300 °C): it has excellent latent heat storage properties, as well as a good thermal stability. However, as it is the case for the other salts, the main challenge of this LTES medium is its low thermal conductivity. The later limits the dynamics of the storage system. In the present work, sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is used as the basic continuous PCM, and magnesium oxide (MgO) is dispersed inside it to enhance its global thermal storage properties, especially its thermal conductivity. The composite (NaNO3/MgO) was prepared by mixing sodium nitrate with the addition of 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 3 wt.% of MgO. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to evaluate the main thermal properties of the obtained composite materials, namely: their latent heat, specific heat and sub-cooling temperature. Their thermal conductivity is estimated based on a validated theoretical model from the literature. Finally, the chemical structures of the pure PCM and the three composites are investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Overall, the experimental and numerical results have indicated a clear enhancement of the thermal storage properties (especially the thermal conductivity and the sub-cooling temperature) of NaNO3 when it is doped with MgO: The thermal conductivity of the pure PCM was enhanced by 5 % and 19%, when it is doped by 3 wt.% and 10 wt.% respectively. While, the sub-cooling degree was decreased up to 46% when it is doped by 3wt.%, which is very good for the thermal cycling of this PCM inside the LTES system. As far as it concerns the other properties, they remained almost stable: the measured values of the latent heat are between 171.5 J/g and 172.9 J/g, while those corresponding to the melting temperature fall between 306.8 °C and 307°C.
157 Louisa Moutafi, Evdoxia Koutsoula and Georgios Vokas. Impact of energy policy changes on RES investments in Greece (details)
Abstract. Recent changes in the Greek legislation concerning the production of electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has accordingly changed the investment terms of RES investments. Therefore, the impact of these changes both on the Greek electricity market and on the RES projects is important to be examined. More specifically, the RES production units were separated with the criteria of the renewable energy source type that they use, their installed capacity and the region in which they are located. It was considered useful to determine the number of the parks per renewable energy source type, per installed capacity level and per region and to examine the number of the parks whose contract is going to be out of force in the next years. Taking into account the above separation, and in order to find out the consequences of legislation’s changes, some representative samples were selected and the Pay-Back Period, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of Wind Parks (WP) and Photovoltaic Parks (PV) were calculated.
158 Rong Guo, Xiaochen Wu and Chao Dai. Research on the Relationship between Economic Growth and Carbon Emission of Small Towns in China Based on Tapio Model(details)
Abstract. In 2006, the “Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development” has identified the development goals of “energy saving and emission reduction”. In addition, the document proposed two indicators: GDP per capita and major pollutant emissions. Discerning the stage of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions is the key to achieving coordinated economic and environmental development. Taking Changxing County, Zhejiang Province as an example, the paper calculated the carbon emissions in 1992-2018 through the carbon emission coefficient method and nighttime lighting data. Then analyzed the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in Changxing County by Tapio model and verified whether there was a simultaneous change via the EKC index. The research demonstrates that the carbon emission in Changxing County shows a decreasing trend after the increase; the economic growth and carbon emissions is weakly decoupled, and the economic growth rate is greater than that of carbon emission. Under the guidance of national policies, the carbon emission reduction work has achieved initial results. It is prone to be a strong decoupling state in the future. After that, the interfering factors of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions are analyzed by STIRPAT model. Finally, some suggestions are given from the aspects of industrial structure, energy structure, social development, ecological restoration, etc., which may be helpful to reduce carbon emission and achieve strong decoupling from weak decoupling. This work was financed by National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC0704705).
159 Dionysios Koutsouvelis and Georgios Vokas. Lithium batteries: Storage applications and methods to improve efficiency: A Review (details)
Abstract. Industrialization, overpopulation, rapid evolution and the human need to increase our living standards often has a negative impact on our environment. Novel ideas and optimized methods must be used not only to halt this negative impact but also to reverse it. One method to do this is by harvesting renewable energy and when not consumed, storing it for use when required. This paper presents a review, focused on energy storage with Lithium batteries and their penetration in the military sector. Applications of use are, from grid connected and autonomous systems with energy storage, microgrids, hybrid and electric vehicles to portable tools or even entertainment equipment. Lithium batteries provide an efficient means of storage but still require improvement. This paper shall also review literature that addresses up to date methods that improve efficiency and their positive impact on Lithium battery life expectancy.
160 Luis Balbin, Sandra Gomez and José Carlos Alvarez Merino. Natural gas distribution proposal in Lima's urban hills through lean logistic and mixed whole linear programming
Abstract. Despite the availability of natural gas in Lima - Peru, coming from Camisea, in several urban areas of Lima, there are no natural gas facilities, especially in peripheral urban areas in high parts or hills, where for technical and economic reasons there is not the natural gas network. This is compensated through government compensation social programs as FISI, providing subsidized LPG balls. In this context, a proposal to conduct natural gas to these elevated areas is developed, to the San Cristóbal hill in the Rímac and San Juan de Lurigancho districts, this proposal is based on the principles of Lean Logistic and on the entire mixed linear programming. The results would imply a better supply of natural gas to peripheral areas and with energy poverty, inherent safety issues also need to be addressed.
161 Nikolaos Korakianitis, Georgios Vokas and Georgios Ioannides. Review of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) on Electric Vehicles (EVs) Charging
Abstract. This paper attempts to provide a review of wireless charging technologies on electric vehicles (EVs) charging. Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) and strongly coupled magnetic resonance technologies are chosen for detailed review. Different cases of WPT technologies, their principle of operation and equivalent circuit based analysis is carried out. Compensation strategies and their effectiveness are reviewed. The design of coil systems for electric cars has been referenced. In addition, this paper presents special issues related to WPT and EV applications, the shielding methods, the Solar Power Satellite (SPS), the Roadway Powered Electric Vehicles (RPEVs) and the Online Electric Vehicles (OLEVs). Finally, recommendations and conclusions are made, based on the study and analysis of the available literature.
162 Mahmud Mustafa, Behrang Vand, J. Richard Snape and Samira A. Ali. Investigations towards Lower Cooling load in a Typical Residential Building in Kurdistan (Iraq)
Abstract. Energy used in cooling buildings for occupant thermal comfort is significant and any techniques to reduce this can bring great benefits, both locally in terms of reduced need for expensive infrastructure and globally in terms of reduced carbon emissions. This study focuses on Kurdistan, an area that suffers from a shortage of electricity production, alongside a high and growing demand due to the rapid expansion in the residential building sector in the last few decades. The cooling energy performance of a typical house in Kurdistan was simulated, using Design Builder and Energy–Plus software. The study identified the most effective parameters of the building fabrications to be applied for enhancing the energy performance of residential buildings such as insulation, suspended ceiling, window glazing and overhang, and block type. The study found the parameters with the most significant impact on the energy consumption to be suspended ceiling and insulation that could save a high rate of energy consumption. The impact of the double glazing and overhang of the window are generally low, due to the low window/wall ratio and the availability of the internal curtain in the buildings studied. Finally, the optimum parameter values are identified and used in energy demand simulations to show that by using the optimum parameters of the building fabrications, 28.35% of the annual energy used could be saved for cooling the housing module.
163 Amel Aouati, Aicha Hadia Roubhi, Ibtissem Boudjahem and Sélima Berchi. Study of toxicological activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. against culicidea larvae in Algeria
Abstract. The present study aims to assess larvicidal activity of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum leaf (Lamiaceae) against larvae of the most abundant mosquito species, Culex pipiens L., 1758 (Diptera, Culicidae). The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum was tested on larvae of the 4th instar Culex pipiens at different concentrations. The results obtained indicated a sensitivity of Culex pipiens larvae for the plant species. This sensitivity is even greater when the exposure of larvae to insecticides is prolonged. the highest mortality rate was checked in for the dose of 2mg/l, indeed after 24 hours of contact with the insecticide the maximum of mortality (56%) is recorded for the dose of 2mg/l against 13% of mortality for 1mg/l. After 48 hours of exposure at 2mg/l of concentration, the mortality was 72% . The highest mortality (91%) was observed after 72 hours of exposure at a dose of 2 mg/l. Thus, these results can provide an opportunity to develop alternatives of chemicals, because, which they are generally safe for the environment, as well as for the other living organisms.
164 Houda Baghli. Numerical Simulation Of Natural Convection Between Two Concentric Isothermal Spheres
Abstract. The numerical study of natural convection within an incompressible Newtonian fluid confined between two isothermal and concentric spheres is carried out. The phenomenon considered is two-dimensional and permanent, in an annular space of A = 2 ratio, filled with air (Pr = 0.7), for a range of Rayleigh numbers between 103 and 106. Simultaneous resolution of the continuity equations, of Navier-Stokes and energy, is carried out by the combination of the implicit method of alternate directions (ADI) with the method of acceleration of convergence by successive replacement (SAR), in formulation Vorticity-Function of current. The isovalues of T and Ψ obtained, as well as the number of Nusselt, are in agreement with previous studies.
165 Houda Baghli. Entropy Generation Optimization Of A Hemispherical Anchor Agitated Batch Reactor
Abstract. Agitated reactors play an important role in chemical engineering, particularly in the chemical, food and petrochemical (polymer) industries. Mechanical agitation is one of the oldest unitary chemical engineering operations in the process industries. Agitated reactors are commonly used to mix single or multiphase systems, such as when mixing miscible liquids, dispersing gas in a liquid and dispersing immiscible liquids in another liquid. The mixture in the stirred reactor also promotes heat and mass transfer. To obtain a high yield and to promote a better quality of a product, the reactants must come into close contact with each other in the reactor. Many other uses of stirred reactors are also found in metallurgical, agro-food and biological processes, etc. The agitated fluids in the stirred reactor may be Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. Products such as cosmetic creams, emulsions and polymers, as well as foods such as yogurt, sauces and soups, have non-Newtonian flow characteristics. The mixing of the high viscosity fluid is limited in the laminar zone, but in industry the turbulent mixture is not uncommon especially for low viscosity fluids. In many cases, the agitated liquid is a Newtonian fluid, but with time and transformation, the rheological behavior of the liquid becomes non-Newtonian. This can happen either because of chemical reactions or because of the formation of emulsions. This rheological change of the agitated liquid during processing directly affects the quality of the finished product and the energy consumption. There are different types of stirring mobile used, depending on the nature of the stirred fluid and the geometry of the reactor. Among them the Rushton Turbine, the propeller, the frame, the anchor, the slanted blade and the spiral rib helix. In the case of mixing a viscous fluid, the agitator used is often an anchor disposed at the bottom of the agitated reactor to stir the fluid packets that are deposited by gravity. It exerts a shearing force on the fluid in contact with the anchor. The moving fluid transfers the momentum to the stagnant fluid packets. The geometry of the mobile affects the flow profile and the temperature profile of the agitated fluid. In the present work, the industrial installation studied has a reactor agitated by an anchor and provided with a double envelope. This stirring mobile is used on an industrial scale for the production of a cosmetic cream with rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluid. The mixing and cooling of this cosmetic cream after chemical reaction is one of the sub processes of the production process. The optimization of the thermal transfer during this cooling phase depends directly on the characteristics of the stirring rotor (geometry, speed and location of the anchor), the rheological behavior of the agitated fluid (viscosity as a function of the temperature) and the characteristics physico-chemical heat transfer fluid in the double jacket. Other important parameters are set by technological constraints of the existing industrial reactor and on which the study is based. The objective of our study is the optimization of heat transfer in the process of production of a cosmetic cream on an industrial scale, in a reactor agitated by an anchor type mobile and cooled by double jacket, and this by optimizing the cooling time while guaranteeing a finished product quality and thus reducing the energy consumption of the process. To do this, we will first experimentally establish a thermo-dependent model of the rheological properties of the fluid, then we will exploit the numerical simulation results of this heat transfer to find the optimal cooling conditions and to guarantee the same energy efficiency of the process, by the entropy generation minimization method.
166 Dimitrios Alexopoulos and Georgios Vokas. Pumped hydro energy storage schemes to support high RES penetration in the electric power system of Greece (details)
Abstract. According to Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, for Greece the target of RES penetration into gross final energy consumption in 2020 is set at 18%. The contribution of RES to energy consumption in Greece during the period 2006-2016 showed a significant increase. More specifically, the total contribution of RES as a share of gross final energy consumption in the year 2016 was 15.2%, more than doubling the relative share corresponding to RES in 2006. Similarly, the share of electricity from RES to gross electricity consumption in the year 2016 stood at 23.8%. In the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) prepared and submitted to the European Commission in January 2019 on the basis of Regulation EU) 2018/1999 on the governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action and Directive (EU) 2018/2001 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, a target for the RES share in the gross final energy consumption in 2030 is set at 31%and respectivelya target for the RES share in the gross final electricity consumption is set at 55%. More specifically,in order to achieve the above target in the electricity sector, it is estimated that more than 9 GW of variable RES plants (wind and photovoltaic plants) must be installed. In order to reach such high levels of variable RES penetration into the gross final electricity consumption, energy storage needs arise. For several decades, Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) is the most widespread international format for large-scale storage of electricity. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the status and prospects of PHES in Greece. It also tries to identify obstacles in installing and operating PHES in Greeceusing experience from other countries.
167 Zakaria Elmaazouzi and Mustapha El Alami. Thermal energy storage system for CSP plants: selecting analysis of an appropriate system for medium temperature applications
Abstract. Concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is one of promising renewable energy technologies with considerable potential. Over the last twenty years, the ability of the CSP plants to couple with thermal energy storage (TES) has attracted increasing interest. This allows it to overcome the gap between produced and demanded energy. There are three types of thermal energy storage: sensible heat storage (SHS), latent heat storage (LHS), and thermochemical storage (TCS). This work aims to provide an overview of the CSP technologies and a comprehensive summary of the most plants in operation and in construction process. The different types of thermal energy storage are also reviewed and discussed. Since the latent heat thermal energy storage has a high thermal storage density with small temperature variations with respect to sensible heat storage, the paper reviews the recent advances in LHS systems and the widely phase change materials (PCM) families. In this respect, this work also classifies and introduces a methodological study to select the appropriate system (materials and configuration) for medium temperature applications (180-300 °C) regarding the thermal, physical, kinetic, chemical, economic and environmental criteria.
168 Joseph Dirisu, Sunday Oyedepo and Dr. Fayomi Ojo. Thermal energy assessment of oil bean (pentaclethra macrophylla benth) stalk as a novel additive to building ceilings
Abstract. The thermal properties of oil bean stalk,an agro-waste, are inadequately studied; thus this research seeks to assess its property suitability as a prospective material for ceiling tile production. The material was cut to 50mm diameter with jig saw to fit into brass profile of the automatic Lee’s disc thermal conductivity apparatus. This profile was also used to conduct the specific heat capacity test by employing the method of mixtures. The specific heat capacity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and cooling rate are 1563J/kgK, 158kg/m3, 0.12 Wm-1K-1, 8.68mKW-1, 4.86 x 10-7 m2s-1, 172.15 Jm-2K-1s-1/2 and 0.0014 oC/sec. The high energy values of specific heat and thermal effusivity shows the reluctance of the material to dissipate energy to the surrounding which approves it as a building material insulator. The values are within the class of insulating material required in building technology such as building ceiling tiles. This potential insulating material can be explored in the building industries as the material is readily available in the environment.
169 Alexandru Serban, Simona Lizica Paraschiv and Paraschiv Spiru. Analysis of a co-current cascade rotary drum dryer for drying wood chips to produce wood pellets(details)
Abstract. Biomass is a renewable energy source, and its use in a densified form of mass and energy in the form of pellets, can be a solution to the increasing demand for energy, emission reduction and environmental protection. In this study, we investigated the energy consumption of biomass pellets production from wood chips. Pellets properties, including proximity analysis, pellet density and higher heating value, were experimentally investigated. It is also analyzed the influences of hot flue gases humidity on the moisture content of wood chip particles in the rotary drum dryer of a pellet factory.
170 Ardiaty Arief, Muhammad Bachtiar Nappu and Anggriani Sultan. Frequency Stability and Under Frequency Load Shedding in Power System with Integration of Wind Power Plants
Abstract. The Government of Indonesia are encouraging investments in renewable energy based power plants in Indonesia, including wind power plants (WPPs). Two large WPPs in the Southern Sulawesi Province interconnected power system in Indonesia are Sidrap WPPs and Jeneponto WPPs. Both Sidrap WPP and Jeneponto WPP are the largest WPPs in Indonesia and they account for significant contribution for the Southern Sulawesi power generation mix. Considering the intermittency characteristics of WPPs and system’s failure probability, therefore it is essential to assess the system’s stability after their integration. This work evaluates the frequency stability of the Southern Sulawesi interconnected power system with the integration of both Sidrap WPPs and Jeneponto WPPs.
171 Muhammad Bachtiar Nappu, Ardiaty Arief and Ainun Maulidah. Voltage Stability Analysis of an Interconnected Power System Considering Varied Output of Wind Power Plants
Abstract. A good power system must have voltage values at all buses that do not exceed the tolerance limit of ± 5% with small power losses. Voltage instability can be caused by interference or sudden power generation outage from the system. The Southern Sulawesi power system in Indonesia has been interconnected with wind power plants (WPPs) located in Sidrap Regency and Jeneponto Regency. Wind speed energy used by WPP to generate electricity vary and not always constant. Hence, this can cause fluctuations and produce varied outputs that will affect the voltage profile and stability of the Southern Sulawesi interconnection system. This study aims to analyze the stability of the Southern Sulawesi interconnection system voltage after the integration of the Sidrap WPP and Jeneponto WPP during the peak day load and peak night load with varied output power of the WPPs.