Publishers:

Energy Reports J. (EGYR UK, IF=3.83, Elsevier)

ISSN: 2352-4847

 

 

Key Engineering Material J. Trans Tech Publications

H-Index-50, ISSN: 10139826

 

APC J. (AIP USA, H=60), American Institute of Physics

H-Index-60, ISSN: 0094243X, E-ISSN: 15517616

 

Indexed: Web of Science, Scopus, Inspec, CAS, ADS

Copyright © ELSEVIER, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS, EURACA

 

 

Program

This booklet contains the detailed program and sessions’ distribution of the accepted papers for Tmrees20 Int’l Conference: Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, held remotely on June 25 to 27, 2020 in Athens.

“TMREES Conference Series” aim to promote sustainable, healthy and diverse ecosystems; encourage and support the Sustainability and development of security systems through green-based and clean resources, bringing together participants from international organizations, universities, industry and administrative to exchange innovative ideas, explore enabling technologies, share experiences in sustainability issues and to open a new window on the circumstances of the classical energy sources and their harmful impact on the society.

 

The TMREES19-Greece international conference has as a general philosophy to bring together different disciplines of the global research community, in order to discuss, present and network the latest developments and innovations in sustainability; as well as funding opportunities.

 

European Academy for

Sustainable Development

EURACA

Tmrees20-Gr Preface

This volume contains the papers accepted for Tmrees20 Int’l Conference:

Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability,

Held on June 25 to 27, 2020 in Athens.

“TMREES Conference Series” aim to promote sustainable, healthy and diverse ecosystems; encourage and support the Sustainability and development of security systems through green-based & clean resources, bringing together participants from international organizations, universities, industry & administrative to exchange innovative ideas, explore enabling technologies, share experiences in sustainability issues & to open a new window on the circumstances of the classical energy sources & their harmful impact on the society.

“TMREES Conference Series” has as a general philosophy to bring together different disciplines of the global research community, in order to discuss, present and network the latest developments and innovations in sustainability; as well as funding opportunities.

Conference Topics Include, but are not limited to:

Special Session: Technologies for the Energy Transition of Societies

Energy Transition technologies, renewables and power electronics for energy transition, smart grids, societal and educational challenges for the energy transition

Materials Science & Engineering for Sustainability

Physics of Advanced Materials, Condensed Matter Physics, Energy Materials, Nanotechnology, Mechanics, Computational, /Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering/ Structural Materials and Characterization/ Polymer Science and Technology.

Solar Energy & Photovoltaic Applications

Thin Film, Cells-Modules-Systems-Dye Sensitized, Organic Based-Polymer-Nanotechnologies/ Microelectronics, Characterization, testing, Concepts, Modeling & simulation / Solar thermal technologies & applications/ Photo chemical-thermal Conversion /Integration in buildings and urban planning.

Renewable Sources of Energy

Recovery from wastes, Harvesting Technologies, Efficiency/Smart grids, Power electronics, Quality/ Storage-Saving-Management, Wind energy & Applications/ Bioenergy; Conversion technologies, biomass, Biofuels/ Hydropower, Marine.

Hydrogen Energy & fuel cells

Production/ storage/ transmission/ utilization/ enabling technologies/ environmental impact/ economic/ thermochemical/ photochemical/ electrochemical (fuel cells)/ nuclear conversion of hydrogen.

Environmental Quality and Health

Pollution Control, Transport, smart metering, Carbon Emissions, Climate Change, Landscaping, Environmental Protection and Management, Water resources, Ecological Issues, Radioactive waste, toxic products, Nutrition, Agriculture, Stress and disease

Molecular Biology application with Climate change

Molecular Application with nanotechnology, Nano vaccine, Environmental Biotechnology, Nano genetics effect, Nano cancer treatment, Climate change genetically variation, Biomarkers and Environmental Biomarkers

Management, Laws and Sustainable Development

Energy Policy, Planning, Taxation and Management laws/ Building Management Systems, Smart Grid, Smart metering, Industrial waste treatment management/ Future Markets, Business Opportunities. Green Economy and Sustainability.

Environmental Diplomacy and International Governance

Environmental governance, practice theory and narrative theory, Diplomacy, green growth governance, climate-friendly economy, Sustainability

The conference has been organized by the, European Academy for Sustainable development (EURACA)

Contact: info@tmrees.org / info@euraca.fr / www.tmrees.org

 

 

ID

Submission details

1

Anissa GhezlounHamza Merabet, Nassima Oucher and Radia Djouder. COP 24 : Algeria's commitments in the fight against climate change

Abstract. After two weeks of negotiations, the 196 states gathered in Katowice, Poland, closed the COP24 with a compromise that allows for the entry into application of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But without any stronger ambition on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The 196 states have not committed to increasing their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions beyond the goals set by the Paris Agreement. After the IPCC published an alarming report on CO2 emissions, many climate advocates called for a strong response from COP24 with a clear commitment from all countries to revise upwards by 2020 their promises greenhouse gas reductions. Algeria stressed, its commitment to fight against climate change by ambitious commitments. According to the Algerian Contribution presented at COP21, Algeria pledges to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% by 2030 by using national resources through actions aimed at making an energy transition and economic diversification, It is based in particular on the national program of renewable energies and energy efficiency.

2

Daniel Adu and Du Jianguo. Investigating the state of Renewable Energy and concept of Pump As Turbine for Energy Generation Development

Abstract. Access to consistent and clean energy is a main challenge faced by several countries globally. Mainly Asia and African countries. Most of the communities within these and other Regions in the world are faced with continuing electricity crisis causing most their economies been crippling. It is estimated that billions of people worldwide are living without access to clean and reliable source of energy. Renewable energy is the biggest source of energy and characterizes the basis to steer the energy system in the direction of sustainability and supply security. Several countries globally are blessed with rich Renewable Energy resources that have not been fully develop; these renewable resources have the potentials to change the status quo of power generation and consumption in these countries. In this study the status of renewable energy generation and storage has been discussed and identify Using pump in reverse mode as hydraulic turbine as one of the best alternatives for small and micro hydro generation. As it is an option for meeting energy needs and supplying electricity to rural communities as well as those outside the national grid. It can also help improve economic growth due to its cheapest source of power generation as well as providing sustainable energy source that will create more employment opportunities and improve the social conditions of people. pump as turbine (PAT) method is also very good because of low acquisition and maintenance cost. The characteristics of pump as turbine have been discussed numerically to analyze pressure and velocity distribution on the impeller blade at different rotational speed. The study concludes that PAT is the best alternative for energy generation.

3

Raed Salih and Mudhir Ahmed. Simulation of the analytical solution of lasing output power for Yb^(3+):YAG thin disk laser regime in a fundamental mode operation

Abstract. An analytical model is established to describe continuous wave (CW) lasing output power equation for a quasi-three-level thin-disk laser. Also, a numerical solution of this equation for a multi-pass pumping Yb^(3+):YAG thin-disk laser, which is pumped at (940 nm) and emits laser radiation at (1030 nm) regime in a fundamental mode operation (M^2<1) at room temperature were performed. In addition to that, it has been calculation the variation of many parameters of the laser design on the output power, to find the typical value of these parameters are used to obtain high lasing output power.

4

Raghad S. Mohammed, Haitham M. Mikhlif and Waleed J. Mhana. Evaluation Cross Section of Production for Indium Medical Radioisotopes

Abstract. Abstract There are many ways in which doctors attempt detecting cancer early and then control it before being worse and difficult to treat. Some of latest findings of modern medicine to reduce the spread of these diseases used the isotopes of radioactive Indium in the treatment of some diseases and diagnosis of others where the radioactivity emitted from the dissolution of radioactive isotopes such as the emission of Auger electrons, positrons and gamma rays plays an important role in medical, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The half-life of radioactive nuclei with a few hours are appropriate for diagnosing situations and this called imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). These techniques give a three-dimensional image of the organ to be scanned. For therapeutic cases, the ionizing radiation emits over short distances are appropriate to penetrate the tissue and change the structure of DNA of the infected tissue. The main methods of Indium production use Cd targets. The cross sections of proton reactions (p,n), (p,2n), (p,3n) and (p,4n) for producing isotopes of radioactive Indium were evaluated depending on the experimental values which are available in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), especially (EXFOR) library which measured cross sections by different authors and for several years so far. The best reactions for producing In-111 is 112Cd (p,2n)111In, as well, the best reactions for the production of In-114 is 116Cd (p,3n)114In. The programmers evaluating cross sections, were built using Matlab-8 in the present work.

5

Alexandru Serban, Simona Lizica Paraschiv and Paraschiv Spiru. Assessment of wind energy potential based on Weibull and Rayleigh distribution models

Abstract. The present study aims to analyze the wind power potential in two locations in Galați county, Romania, before making a decision on the appropriate area for wind turbine installation. The hourly series of wind speed and wind direction were analyzed for the period January 2017 to December 2018, measured at two meteorological stations of the national network at 10 m height. The Weibull and Rayleigh distribution models were applied to hourly wind speed data to evaluate wind speed characteristics and wind power potentials at wind turbine height. The annual values of k parameter for the Weibull analysis range from 2.15 in 2017 to 2.1 in 2018 for the GL3 site, while for GL5 site the values are 1.33 in 2017 and 1.46 in 2018, respectively. Another important factor in wind resources assessment in addition to the average wind speed is the wind speed distribution in the regime at the site, because two wind turbines installed in two different places (locations that have the same average wind speed), may generate a very different amount of energy, due to differences in wind speed distribution in the two locations. Thus, in 2017 at the two locations the average annual wind speed was approximately the same, being 5,44 m / s at GL3 and 5,41 m / s at GL5, respectively, but the maximum values of power density for the two locations were determined to be 260 W / m2 for GL3 and 361 W / m2 for GL5, in 2017. It was observed that the average annual wind speed does not coincide with the most frequent wind speed, being higher than this. Another important conclusion is that the greatest influence on the wind power potential has the speed that produces the maximum energy of the wind regime and not the average wind speed or the most frequent wind speed. From the data analysis, it was found that the application of the Rayleigh distribution is not suitable for the GL5 case, as the wind speed does not have a normal distribution.

6

Noor Adil Mohammed and Sameera Ahmed Ebrahiem. Assessment of Radiation Risk Parameters for Natural Radon in three Iraqi Institutions for February

Abstract. During the winter season, inside 18 rooms chosen in randomly of three institutions of Iraqi government located in different regions of Baghdad and dates back to 1970s, Radon concentration with its risk parameters were measured by using passive radon detector (CR-39) for a period exposure thirty days. The concentricity of Radon in these places ranged from (85Bq/m3) to (296.7Bq/m3) with an average of 150.908 Bq/m3, that’s within the agreeable radon limit reported in UNSCEAR, (200-300 Bq/m3). As well as the value of radon risk parameters (AED, PAEC, and LCR) were ranged (1.462-7.482mSv/y), (0.0062-0.032WL), and (26.329-134.68 per106 person), respectively, which are also within the universal accepted limit.

7

Amenah Altaie and Mazin Al-Ani. Pollen Morphology of Some Taxa of the Family Apiaceae Growing Wildly in Iraq

Abstract. In this study, an optical microscope was used to study the morphological characteristics of pollen in some Taxa belonging to the Apiaceae, which are: Bupleurum lancifolium var. heterophyllum (Link) Boiss., Malabaila secacul (Mill.) Boiss., Myrrhoides nodosa (L.) Cannon, Scandix pecten-veneris L., S.iberica M. Bieb., S. stellate Banks and Sol., Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss., Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm., and T.lisaeoide C.C. Townsend. According to our data we able to set qualitative and quantitative data and divide these species into five types depending on their shape in the equatorial veiw. The results also showed that the species under study varied in the dimensions of pollen measured in polar and equatorial veiw, as the minimum length of the polar axis reached (17.5-25) μm and equatorial axis (15-20) μm in Bupleurum lancifolium, while both axes reached their highest limit between species within the study in Turgenia lisaeoides as the polar axis reached (60-75) μm and the equator axis (30-47.5) μm.

9

Alwan M. Alwan, Mohammed S. Mohammed and Russul M. Shehab. Optimization of an ultra-sensitive Ag core/Au shell nanoparticle/Si Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor

Abstract. Precise Ag core/Au shell nanoparticles (NPs) of various shell thicknesses were synthesized in water using a laser ablation process via a low energy 1060 nm Nd-YAG laser with fluence of approximately 14 J/cm2 and a 1 Hz pulse repetition. Ag core NPs with a mean diameter of 42 nm were prepared by circa 300 pulses of a fixed energy fluence of 14 J/cm2, while Au NPs ranging from 10 to 45nm shell thickness were achieved by delivering pulses of 250 to 400nm to the Au plate. Ag core/Au shell NPs surface-enhanced Ramen scattering (SERS) sensors were synthesized by depositing the resulting bimetallic NPs onto silicon substrates using a drop casting process. The composition of the synthesised SERS sensors was confirmed using FE-SEM, HRTEM, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD diffractometer, and Raman microscopy. These results showed that the performance of the novel SERS substrate had a significant effect on NP shell thickness. The shell thickness was improved by a factor of 4.8×1011 to 1.2 ×1014 for 250 to 400 nm, respectively, due to the hotspot dynamics of the core/shell NPs.

10

David Gómez-Camazón, David Borge-Diez and Enrique Rosales-Asensio. New improvements in existing combined-cycles: Exhaust gases treatment with amines and exhaust gas recirculation

Abstract. The combined cycle plants (CCGT) in 2019 are upswing due to definitive closure of conventional coal-fired power plants. The increase in the price of a ton of CO2, will close to 25 euros in 2019, could allow to increase their capacity factor above 50%. Already achieved a high flexibility imposed by the regulator of the Spanish network, REE, possible hybridizations in both gas turbine (GT) and heat recovery steam generator (HRGS), it is necessary one step ahead directed to the reduction and treatment of the flow of exhaust gases at the outlet of the HRGS boiler during operation. An optimization study based in a parametric analysis of this possible reduction, with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) and the treatment of them with amines in a CO2 capture plant (PCC) both at the exit of the boiler, has been carried out, using real data base, to study their possible integration within the existing CCGT. Results obtained are very promising: firstly, with the use a 35% of EGR+PCC in existing CCGT the efficiency of the GT26 improve 0.5%. Secondly, the total number of tons of CO2 avoid per year would be around 633 kilotons (using a capacity factor in 2019 close to 0.41). Therefore, the avoid cost in ton of CO2 for one existing CCGT would be around 21.4 million of euros/year. However, it is necessary to say that its current inclusion would have a negative impact on a reduction in efficiency and power (close to 4 points and 21% respectively). All boil down to a conflict of interests between € / Mw lost vs € / ton CO2 avoided. Clearly the existing now rising in capacity factor and flexibility in current CCGT´s will be decisive in future to elucidate this conflict.

12

Bilal Nasir. Modeling of Stray Losses in Equivalent Circuit of Induction Machines

Abstract. In this paper accurate modeling and calculations of stray power losses in induction machines are proposed. These losses are calculated by derived formulas based on the leakage fluxes in the stator and rotor circuits of the induction machines. These leakage fluxes induce voltage drops in the stator and rotor iron cores and eddy current in the stator and rotor windings causing stray power losses in iron cores and winding and by adding these losses a completed determination of stray losses can be obtained and implemented in the equivalent machine circuit as stray loss resistances in the stator and rotor circuits. Due to the stray loss in the rotor circuit depends largely on the machine slip, this can be neglected without influencing the accuracy of stray loss calculation. The validity of the derived formulas for stray loss calculation is satisfied by comparing the theoretical results with that obtained experimentally.

13

Paphada Limpachanangkul, Licheng Liu, Mali Hunsom and Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan. Low energy photocatalytic glycerol conversion to valuable products via Bi2O3 polymorphs in the presence of H2O2

Abstract. In this study, two polymorphs of bismuth oxide were synthesized via the solution-based route for the aqueous phase glycerol transformation to high valuable compounds with low energy photocatalysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor. The results showed that the hydrogen peroxide was deficient to produce OH radicals in tetragonal bismuth oxide (b-Bi2O3) photocatalyst system because it decomposed very fast to H2O and O2 and unoxidized glycerol, resulting in a low glycerol conversion at almost 6.6 times comparing with that of monoclinic bismuth oxide (a-Bi2O3) photocatalyst. Also, more valuable products could be produced with a-Bi2O3 photocatalyst system. In addition, the possible mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide on the low energy photocatalytic performances of both bismuth oxide polymorphs were discussed.

14

Shaymaa Abdul Hasan, Ahmed Obaid, Mohammed Mustafa and Hanan Kadhem. Studying the Effect of the Annealing on Ag2Se Thin Film

Abstract. This paper considers the silver selenide (Ag2Se) thin films, which are established using a thermal evaporation technique based on a glass substrate with a thickness of 450nm.These thin films are annealed considering different temperature values, i.e., (375,450) k. In this study, the X-ray and atomic force microscopy (AFM) based-techniques are used to investigate the physical structure properties of the thin films considered. In addition, the absorbance and transmittance spectra are further investigated and recorded according to the range of wavelength from (400-1000) Nano mater (nm). To this end, the nature of electronic transitions is determined. The results demonstrate that the thin films under consideration have a direct allowed transition with an optical energy gap of (1.9) and (1.7, 1.4) electron volt (e) before and after annealing, respectively.

16

Shaimaa A. Abbas, Khalid H. Mahdi and Necla Cakmak. Form factor calculations for some light nuclei in the framework of electron scattering

Abstract. In this study, some selected states of p- and sd-hells namely 10B, 6Li, and 29Si nuclei were conducted, the transvers and longitudinal electron scattering form factors were studied in consideration of the configuration with higher excitation energy above the cores 4He and 16O. When using a microscopical theory, the effect of high-configuration outside the model space (Core-polarization (CP)) is included. Cohen-Kurath interaction for p-shell, Wildenthal’s standard interaction for sd-shell. For core polarization calculations higher energy excitations up to 4ℏω are considering. The addition of CP effects greatly improves the form factors calculations and explains the measured data as dependence of momentum transfer very well.

17

Aeshah Ali Hussein, Hadi J M Al-Agealy and Raad Hameed Majeed. Theoretical Estimation of The Trapping Reaction Rate for Deuteron- Deuteron Fusion In Nickel Metal Using Bose-Einstein Condensates Phenomena

Abstract. A mathematical model has been introduced to investigate the effect of nuclear reaction constant ( A ), probability of the BEC ground state occupation Ω i, n_D is the number density of deuteron (d) and the overall number of nuclei N_D on the total nuclear d-d fusion rate (R)_. Under steady-state of the condensates of Bose-Einstein, the postulate of quantum theory and Bose-Einstein theory were applied to evaluate the total nuclear (d-d) fusion rate trapping in Nickel-metal The total nuclear fusion rate trapping predicts a strong relationship between astrophysical S -factor and masses of Nickel. The reaction rate trapping model was tested on three reaction d(d,p)T, d(d, n)3He and d(d,(_ ^4)He)Q=23.8MeV respectively. The reaction rate has described with astrophysical S -factor 110, 110 ×10^6 and 110× 10^13 (KeV.barn) for three reactions respectively. The masses of Nickel in the range (1-10) g can be taken to reach a small region for D-D trapp in metal. Results show that the reaction rate can be increased with an increase in metal masses and astrophysical S-factor.

19

Antonio Colmenar-Santos, Andrés León-Betancor, Ana-María Diez-Suárez, Alberto González-Martínez and Enrique Rosales-Asensio. Large-scale Desalination Based on Parabolic trough Collectors and Double-effect Absorption Heat Pumps

Abstract. Natural resources can not satisfy current water demand in the world, so the desalination industry has become essential for population survival in locations with water scarcity. The technologies of distillation and reverse osmosis are those prevailing in the future so it is necessary to analyze their current situation and their relation to renewable energies. Large-scale desalination with renewable energies is virtually non-existent, so a specialization of the distillation systems, reverse osmosis, and renewable energy facilities are needed to make it competitive in comparison to the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is proposed a specialization of the parabolic trough collectors to be used jointly with distillation plants, obtaining with high and medium solar radiation water at a temperature of 180 °C (using an absorption pump), and with low solar radiation water at a temperature of 70 ºC. It increases the operating time of the distillation plant by multiple effects, which leads to a cost reduction.

20

Enrique Rosales-Asensio, Álvaro de la Puente-Gil, Francisco José García-Moya, Jorge Blanes-Peiró and Miguel de Simón-Martín. Revision of decision-making tools for sustainable planning and proposal of a novel conceptual framework for the energy-water-food nexus

Abstract. Evaluating the impact of energy strategies, more specifically those that promote an integrated approach, on resource management in other sectors such as water and food requires knowledge related to the measuring of the quality and knowledge that may be estimated by quantitative means. The present paper makes enquiries into those two knowledge requirements in addition to reviewing the means used to obtain it—including the entries they require and the results they provide. In response to the problems recognized in knowledge, this paper introduces a reference basic structure underlying a system to evaluate the way a progressive development of inexhaustible energies in the final energy consumption in a given geographical region can affect the demand for water and food.

24

Hayder A. H. Al-Shemmary, Fadhil Hashim and Sura Salim Ahmed. Collapse behavior of thin-walled cylinder tubes under quasi-static axial loading

Abstract. thin-walled cylinder tubes of different sizes made of copper and aluminum under axial compression test were performed in an Instron machine. The diameter to thickness (D/t) and length to diameter (L/D) ratios were varied from 18.4 to 50.76 and 1 to 3 for both metals respectively. All these tubes deformed in several modes and the effects of both ratios on this failure mode are appropriately studied. Load-displacement charts as a comparison behavior between copper and aluminum metals are presented. The amount of absorbed energy with maximum and average collapse loads are tableted to show which of the two metal’s behavior is better in terms of energy absorption principle. Therefore, results presented are of help in understanding the collapse behavior of circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading when used in energy absorption dissipation systems.

27

Lee Wing Hang. Application of landscape architecture for rehabilitation of quarry in Hong Kong and an overseas case study

Abstract. Background: The objective of this study explores the application of landscape architecture in quarry via case study. This study could have significant positive implications to inspire readers’ more comprehensive thought and inspirations get from findings for our imitations. Methodology: Desktop research is preliminarily adopted. 2 case studies (Shek O Quarry and Serra da Arrabida Natural Park) are selected. Findings: There are perceptible benefits from Shek O Quarry in Hong Kong and Serra da Arrabida Natural Park in Portugal for the use of landscape in quarry. Benefits are the creation of diversity in ecology, vegetation, landscape visual impact and nesting areas created. Its disbenefits are in immeasurable results of negative environmental impacts and high initial costs. Conclusion: Based on the research undertaken, it can be ascertained that the benefits for using landscape in quarry are greater as compared to the disbenefits. This can be perceived through the 2 case study analysis.

28

Lee Wing HangEnvironmentally Friendly Linkage System is showcase among engineering projects in Kai Tak Development

Abstract. Background: kai Tak Development (KTD) is a huge and highly complex development project spanning a total planning area of over 320 hectares covering the ex-airport site together with the adjoining hinterland districts of Kowloon City, Wong Tai Sin and Kwun Tong. Independent Environmental Checker is employed to undertake the overall Environmental Management & Audit and environmental issues for engineering projects in KTD. The purpose: the study critically reviews and explores the engineering projects in KTD to select a truly excellent project as showcase in order to promote awareness and enhance presence of the engineering industry. Methodology: desktop research is preliminarily adopted. Language for relevant documents and related information are English from source of documents review. Content analysis identifies the essential issues. Findings: Environmentally Friendly Linkage System (EFLS) is selected as a showcase among engineering projects in KTD. Not EFLS only fulfills all selection criteria, but it also achieves environmental protection. Contributions: the significances of the study inspire readers’ more comprehensive thought regarding relationship between engineering projects and environmental protection in KTD.

29

Kouamé Norbert N'Guessan, Yao N'Guessan, Alphonse Diango, Christelle Perilhon, Mohamed Koïta Sako and Joseph Saraka. Energy impacts of transport modes in Abidjan (Cote d´Ivoire).

Abstract. Abidjan, with a population of 4,395,243 at the last census in 2014 (INS, RGPH 2014), alone accounts for 19.39% of the Ivorian national population. Which value in 1975 was 14.18 at the first census of Cote d'Ivoire. Abidjan is thus the most populous city in French West Africa. For a national rolling vehicle fleet of passenger transportation estimated at 474,874 (INS, 2017; Ministry of Transport, 2017; Kouadio, Célestin, 2014), Abidjan alone accounts for 81.7% of the national rolling stock, hence the stake of this study on the Abidjan mode of transport. The investigation focused on all 7 modes of transport within the city of Abidjan: Municipal taxi; Intercommunal taxi; Taxi counter; Bus Sotra; Sotra bus boat; Personal car and Mini-bus commonly called Gbaka. All passenger cars (municipal taxi; intercommunal taxi; Taxi counter; personal car) consume an average of 11.10 lge/100 km, well above the area defined by North American CAFE standards set at 8.6 Lge/100 km and that of the EU fixed at 5.6 Lge/100 km. The explanation is partly due to the aging of the fleet of light vehicles in Côte d'Ivoire which is one of the oldest in the sub-region with 22.4 years in 2016, whereas in Senegal it is 11.9 years, 11.0 years in the EU and 11.6 years in the USA. In terms of energy consumption to transport a passenger over 1 kilometer, Sotra buses (0.0174 MJ/passenger.km), Sotra bus boat (0.1296 MJ/passenger.km), Gbakas (0.4254 MJ/passenger.km) and Intercommunal taxi (0.8439 MJ/passenger.km) are the most efficient modes of transport. Taxi counter (3.4646 MJ/passenger.km) and personal cars (2.2781 MJ/passenger.km) are the least efficient.

30

Julija Cerović Smolović, Milica Muhadinović, Milena Radonjić and Jovan Đurašković. Does renewable energy consumption affect economic growth in old and new member states of the European Union?

Abstract. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in old and new EU member states over the 2004-2018 period. In order to examine the relationship between the defined variables, we use a Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator in a dynamic panel setting. The obtained results show that the impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth is positive and statistically significant in the long run in both samples of countries. In the short run, impact of renewable energy consumption on economic activity proved to be negative in new member states, while in old member states it had no statistically significant impact.

31

Mustafa Kamil, Maher Hasan, Kareem Jasim and Auday Shaban. Characteristics and synthesis the HgSr2-xYxCa2Cu3O8+ δ superconducting compound

Abstract. In this paper, the superconductivity phenomenon and the method of preparing the superconducting mercury-based (HgSr2-xYxCa2Cu3O8+δ with x=0 to 0.15) compound were presented. Then some practical procedures and physical properties of the compound are presented at a high temperature in some detail, with a special focus on the effect of partial substitution of strontium with Yttrium (Y) and effect on structural and electrical properties. All the samples in the present investigation were subjected to gross structural characterization by X-ray diffraction. The XRD data collected from various have the Hg-1223phase and the analysis showed that all samples correspond to the tetragonal structure. The electrical resistance uses the four probe technology to find the critical temperature and found that it drops from 116 K to 81K by increase the yttrium concentration. Keywords: Superconductivity phenomenon, Partial substitution, strontium with Yttrium, X-ray diffraction, Electrical Resistance and Tetragonal structure.

32

Shahbaa Yousif, Nada Karam, Ghada Karam and Ziad AboodStress- Strength Reliability Estimation for P(T<X<Z) using Exponentiated Inverse Rayleigh Distribution

Abstract. In this research, we introduce and derive the reliability of the stress-strength model for the probability P(T<X<Z) of a component strength X relation between two stresses T and Z follows to have Exponentiated Inverse Rayleigh Distribution (EIRD) with different unknown shape parameters and common known scale parameter. Several methods to estimate the parameters of EIRD are discussed by using the Maximum Likelihood, Ordinary and Weighted Least Square and Regression estimators, and compare these estimates based on a simulation study by the mean squared error criteria for both small, medium and large samples. This comparison confirms on the performance of the maximum likelihood estimator works the best for all experiments.

33

Abbas Karim Saadon, Abbas Maher Mhayyal and Kareem Ali Jasim. Effect of BaTiO3 Mixture on the Structural Electrical Properties and Morphology for PET/ BaTiO3 Composite

Abstract. In the present work, the focusing was on the study of the x-ray diffraction, dielectric constant, loses dielectric coefficient, tangent angle, alter- natively conductivity and morphology of PET/BaTio3. The PET/BaTio3 composite was prepared for polyethylene terephthalate PET polymer composite containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 wt. % from Barium titanate BaTio3 powder. The composite of two materials leads to form mixing solution and hot-pressing method. The effect of BaTio3 on the structure and dielectric properties with morphology was studied on PET matrix polymer using XRD, LCR meter and SEM.

34

Suhir Abd –alaziz Jabir and Khalid Hellal Harbbi. A Comparative Study Of Williamson – Hall Method And Size- Strain Method Through X-Ray Diffraction Pattern Of Cadmium Oxide Nano Particle

Abstract. In this research, the Williamson-Hall method and size-strain plot method were used to analysis the X-ray lines for estimate the crystallite size and lattice strain of cadmium oxide nanoparticle. The value of the crystallite size are (15.2 nm) and (93.1 nm) and lattice strain (4.2 ×10-4 ) and (21×10-4) respectively. In addition, other methods have been used for the calculation of crystallite size. These methods are (Sherrer method, modified Sherrer method ) and their results are (14.8 nm) and (13.9nm) respectively . Each method of analysis has a different result because the change in crystallite size, lattice strain, stress and energy density calculated from W-H analysis and SSP method reveals that a non-uniform strains in the particles.

35

Yago Villar, Marta Menéndez, Zulima Fernández and Antonio Bernardo. Sustainable Earthworks: Optimization with the ICOM Method

Abstract. In the construction of highways and roads, one of the main activities is earthworks. This activity has an economic and environmental impact that cannot be overlooked. The classic method, based on the use of mass diagram and optimization models, does not take into account the type and quality of the material found in the work, which makes it difficult to optimize the actual flow of each material. The iCom method allows the optimization of classic works such as excavations and backfills giving results in optimized operating costs. This versatile method contemplates different options for each project and allows choosing the most appropriate one taking into account, among other factors, the distance travelled by each type of material, which translates into the amount of CO2 emitted and waste generated. This is the reason why using the iCom method we will make work sustainable, reducing environmental pollution and the amount of waste. This article compares the results achieved by applying the iCom method to twenty-four work projects in Spain and Portugal with those attainable from classic method. The results analyzed show that the iCom method achieves a significant reduction in financial costs between 5% and 14.1% and a shortening of the time required for completion of the work. The method also obtains a decrease in CO2 emissions (between 5.1% and 14%), while generating a smaller volume of waste materials, which implies a reduction in environmental impact. Besides, this method provides the necessary reports, plans and diagrams for the complete definition of earthworks to be carried out.

36

Maurizio Carlini, Mirko Rotondo, Sara Selli and Andrea Mennuni. Simulation of a Coil Cooling System for an Innovative Compound Solar Concentrator plant by FEM Approach

Abstract. Nowadays the environmental policies have been changing to reduce the emission of pollutants, promoting as a consequence the exploitation of renewable energy sources. In those terms, the solar energy has to be considered one of the most suitable solutions as an energy source. However, many efforts have been made to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion systems. The work presents a multi-physical analysis of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) provided with a coil cooling system fed by water. The transient scenarios are solved by implementing both heat transfer and non-isothermal pipe flow phenomena. The simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to solve the FEM scenarios, investigating the temperature field of the solar cells and the heating of water inside the coils. A CPC-powered photovoltaic plant, composed by a series of 18 cooled CPCs, is considered to define the thermal response of the whole system while cooling water flows inside the coils. A comparison with a non-cooled CPC-powered photovoltaic plant is then conducted. Results quantify how the presence of a cooling system decreases the temperature on the solar cells, improving in the meanwhile the efficiency of the whole system, directly related to the conversion of sun radiation into electrical energy by photovoltaic effect. Nowadays the environmental policies have been changing to reduce the emission of pollutants, promoting as a consequence the exploitation of renewable energy sources. In those terms, the solar energy has to be considered one of the most suitable solutions as an energy source. However, many efforts have been made to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion systems. The work presents a multi-physical analysis of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) provided with a coil cooling system fed by water. The transient scenarios are solved by implementing both heat transfer and non-isothermal pipe flow phenomena. The simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to solve the FEM scenarios, investigating the temperature field of the solar cells and the heating of water inside the coils. A CPC-powered photovoltaic plant, composed by a series of 18 cooled CPCs, is considered to define the thermal response of the whole system while cooling water flows inside the coils. A comparison with a non-cooled CPC-powered photovoltaic plant is then conducted. Results quantify how the presence of a cooling system decreases the temperature on the solar cells, improving in the meanwhile the efficiency of the whole system, directly related to the conversion of sun radiation into electrical energy by photovoltaic effect.

37

Vladimir Đurišić, Julija Cerović Smolović, Nikola Mišnić and Sunčica Rogić. Analysis of public attitudes and perceptions toward renewable energy sources in Montenegro

Abstract. The main objective of this research is to identify the attitudes and public perceptions towards renewable energy sources (RES) in Montenegro. The underlying research motive in this paper is reflected in the importance of renewable energy sources topic and its role in process of the energy market transformation. Study was fueled by the fact similar research had not been conducted in this area. For the purpose of the survey, questionnaire was designed and distributed from November 2019 to the end of January 2020, with a sample of 1012 respondents from all regions in Montenegro. Application of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) was intended to examine the cause-and-effect relationships between defined constructs in order to determine what influences consumers' perceptions and behaviors towards RES. The obtained results show that, with the other unchanged conditions, construct of perception towards RES determines behavior the most, with the level of 32.8%, while the information construct is in the second place explaining behavior towards RES in the amount of 20.7%. In the end, special contribution of this research is in recognizing the gap between attitudes and perceptions on the one hand, and actual behavior on the other, as a barrier to greater implementation of RES in the Montenegrin energy market.

38

Gaolu ZouThe effect of international energy prices on energy production in Sichuan, China

Abstract. Sichuan Province is one of China’s largest renewable energy bases. Natural gas supply is short, while hydropower supply is in excess. This study tests the effects of U.S. Henry Hub natural gas and WTI crude oil prices on natural gas and hydropower production in Sichuan. We define a shorter-period energy economic system from April 2002 to May 2010 and a longer-period system from April 2002 to June 2019. We conduct unit root tests using the ADF, PP, ERS-GLS and Perron structural break (IO Model C) techniques. We test for long-run equilibrium using the Johansen multivariate and Phillips–Ouliaris methods. We test for weak exogeneity and estimate ECMs and VARs. Overall, crude oil prices had insignificant effects on energy production. In the long run, both spot and futures gas prices slightly and positively impacted the production of gas and hydropower. Production was gas price-inelastic. Differences between the spot and futures gas price effects were minor. Long-run spot and futures gas price elasticities of gas output were 0.192 and 0.185, respectively. Given the strong governmental support for energy prices, Sichuan's gas market has partially integrated into the global gas market. We suggest that, in the long run, futures gas prices can be considered an exogenous variable predicting changes in gas production. Gas production appears to serve as a long-run substitute for hydropower production; accordingly, hydropower oversupply will become increasingly severe.

39

Maurizio Carlini, Sonia Castellucci, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Mirko Rotondo and Andrea Mennuni. Study of a thermal dispersion in buildings and advantages of ceramic coatings for the reduction of energy expenditure

Abstract. Energy consumption in buildings is due to the low efficiency of thermal and electrical systems and the high rate of thermal dispersion of the building envelope, defined as one or more layers of material that separate the internal environment from the external environment of a building. Their function is to protect the internal environment from external agents such as cold, heat, moisture, rain, hail, snow, wind, light, sources of noise pollution and, based on the criticality of the place, air pollution. To reduce energy consumption, it's therefore necessary to act primarily on the building envelope, which should be designed and constructed with the aim of guaranteeing thermo-hygrometric comfort and reducing energy consumption (and consequently CO2 emissions). This means the ability to meet certain performance requirements without significantly impacting energy consumption, such as maintaining the environmental temperature during the wintertime and a better thermal comfort during the summer period. Therefore, when designing a new building or renovating an existing housing unit, technologies and materials must be used to improve the energy performance of the building. This work demonstrates that with the addition of a ceramic slab as external coating, the heat losses decrease by 42% with respect to a traditional wall configuration without any thermal insulator installed. As for the existing houses already equipped with an internal insulation or a coat, the addition of the ceramic slab results in decreases in thermal variation of 31 and 40% for the internal thermal coat installation and a post construction ready-to-use insulation, respectively.

40

Rusul Ghazi, Dhay Sabur, Ruaa Al – Hasnawy, Haider Muhsen, Bahjat Kadhim, Hamad Jappor, Faiza Salim and Ali Ali. Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of Transition metal Dichalcogenides layer PtS2 (Se2) for Gas Sensors

Abstract. New class material two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides which includes PtS2 (Se2) have unique geometric structural, electronic and optical properties. It has attracted the attention of many researchers for its extensive applications in (catalysis, sensing, electronics, and optoelectronics devices). We report calculated by density functional theory based on the general gradient approximation and obtained the bond length of PtS2 slightly smaller than PtSe2, and PtS2 (Se2) have direct and indirect band gap positioned in visible light which are equal 1.887,1.775 and (1.66 and 1.401 eV). Likewise, the optical properties determined over rang energy 0.30 eV. The work function is equal 6.197eV for PtS2 and 5.628eV for PtSe2. It has been shown by studying photon dispersion of both monolayers that it is stable because it does not contain imaginary frequencies.

41

Ahmed Al-Haddad, Zainab Kadhim, Salam Khudhair, Ali Ali, Ali Muhsen, Faiza Salim and Bahjat Kadhim. TiN@Al2O3/Al Nanocapacitor Based on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Abstract. Through a facile design of the fabrication, Metal-Insulator-Metal nanocapacitor have been achieved over large scale of Anodic Aluminum Oxide template (AAO). Nonetheless, it is still a great challenge to realize a device using ordered nanostructure arrays over a large scale area (>cm2) by a technique that contains high throughput, low instrument costs and large pattern area. Unique strategy and cost effective technique to achieve an electronic nanodevice has attract much intention through past decade, AAO templates have the opportunity to play a magnificent role in this manner. The key-point in this manner was the barrier layer thickness of AAO template. With optimizes conditions, high-performance metal–insulator–metal nanocapacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiN/Al2O3 core-shell nanostructure are fabricated and characterized for mixed-signal applications, in which the core is Al2O3 and the shell is TiN nanotube (TiN@Al2O3). Nanocapacitor can reach to a high capacitance density, small linear voltage coefficient, and low leakage current of capacitance. Moreover, dependences of leakage current on constant voltage is extensively investigated, in addition, effects of frequency and thickness on capacitance (C) are also revealed

42

Adawiya J.Haider, Maha Al-Kinani and Sharafaldin Al-Musawi. Preparation and Characterization of Gold Coated Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle (Fe@Au) using Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Method

Abstract. In this study, the characterization and composition of iron-gold core-shell (Fe@Au) NP’s were discussed. Fe@Au is a type of nanoparticle that contains magnetic Fe NP’s core with a fine layer of Au NP’s synthesized using the Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) Method. These Fe@Au NP’s characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The best result and the smallest nanosize was obtained at different laser fluence (1.9, 2.2 and 2.5) J/cm2 with fixed pulsed duration 5 ns, wavelength 532nm and number of pulse equal 100 pulsed. The obtained mean size of Fe@Au NP’s, Fe NP’s core diameter and Au NP’s shell thickness was 63.65, 32.47 and 31.18 nm. Obtained results exhibited that the laser fluence play a key role in the size, and dispersity of Fe@Au NP’s.

43

Yamile Díaz TorresHernan Hernandez HerreraMario Alvares Guerra PlasenciaEduardo Pérez NovoLester Pimentel Cabrera and Dries Haeseldonckx. HVAC configurations for tourism facilities: an approach review for the design and exploitation

Abstract. The present research deals with the most important aspects that involve the design phase of a heating ventilation and air conditioned (HVAC) system for a building. The article summarizes the fundamental elements that characterize the hotel facilities and influence the operation of the installed HVAC system. Aspects such as the characteristics of the hotels from a constructive and operational point of view, the recommended HVAC systems and the current approaches that minimize the energy consumption of these systems are addressed.

45

Maurizio Carlini, Sonia Castellucci, Andrea Mennuni and Sara Selli. Simulation of anaerobic digestion processes: validation of a novel software tool ADM1-based with AQUASIM

Abstract. Nowadays pollution and GHS emissions led to the definition of action plans and guidelines aimed at improving renewable power production and circular & green economy approaches. Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes represents a meeting point between circular economy and bioenergy exploitation. The huge variety of residual biomass materials for anaerobic digestion makes clear the importance of the simulation process to underline biogas production and critical operating plant conditions for each kind of processed substrate and used reactors. Main target of this work is the definition of a software tool, called ADMS 1.0, by which the user can conduct both implementation and simulation of anaerobic digestion biochemical processes (HRT and batch reactors). This software tool is composed by an ad-hoc user interface developed in Python and a computing core, written in MATLAB. Anaerobic Digestion Model N.1 (ADM1) was implemented. Two simulations were carried out implementing the same scenario both in AQUASIM and ADMS 1.0 to validate the correct functioning and numerical consistency of the proposed tool. The scenario is based on experimental data. The results obtained by both software tools were compared to confirm the consistency of numerical outputs. Differences between these results have been measured by the introduction of a mean of the relative errors associated to the singular simulated biochemical component. This error, expressed in percentage, represents the discrepancy between AQUASIM and ADMS 1.0 results. The value of the relative errors average value is equal to 0.0648%, which is consistently less than the acceptable engineering value of 5%.

46

Hussein Ibrahim and Aqeel Salih. Studying Properties of Propagated Transverse Modes through Optical Fibers

Abstract. In this study, a multimode fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.17 and the wavelength of 850 nm has been studied. Two core radii 5 and 10 µm were used. The mode parameters associated with optical propagation were calculated by using RP Fiber Calculator. The fractional power in the core is about 75% –100%. The intensity profiles of the modes were illustrated.

47

Stefan Grigorean, Stefan Predoi and Gheorghe Dumitrascu. Comparative analysis regarding hybrid rocket engines with single or multi-stages.

Abstract. In the field of rocket propulsion systems, there is a lot of interest pointed to hybrid engines so there is a need to improve the combustion efficiency. To design a rocket with smaller dimensions, and with a reduced weight it is necessary to obtain larger output power higher thrust values. A step for this purpose is to estimate the gain obtained using a multi stage hybrid rocket engine instead of a single stage. In present paper there is represented a comparison between hybrid rocket engines using one and three stages for thrust generation. This task is achieved based on a numerical modeling which use input values determined on experimental tests. Presented study is a starting point in the design of various solutions for hybrid rocket engines, starting from numerical modeling for a single stage hybrid rocket engine, and extending these studies to a three stages hybrid rocket engine. In this paper the authors started the numerical modeling from a certain payload imposed for rocket, this way it was determined the necessary thrust force, for imposed mass flows for fuel and oxidizer, then it was determined the length and diameter for the exhaust flow. Obviously, obtained values from numerical modeling are estimated values and need further investigations in order to obtain a better design solution It is estimated that a multi stage hybrid rocket engine have the main benefit to reduce the amount of pollutant resulted from combustion process for same amount of thrust developed on a single stage hybrid engine, but also to obtain a small dimension device, with lower weight, fact which increase the possible payload.

48

Jurarat Nisamaneenate, Duangduen Atong, Anun Seemen and Viboon Sricharoenchaikul. Mitigating Bed Agglomeration in a Fluidized Bed Gasifier Operating on Rice Straw

Abstract. Fluidized bed gasifier is a promising technology with respect to converting biomass to useful energy. Bed agglomeration is an operational challenge that arises during fluidized bed gasification with rice straw as raw materials. Rice straw contains high amounts of potassium and other components that may lower the melting point of ash, causing bed agglomeration. Using alternative bed materials such as alumina, in the place of silica, can mitigate this problem. In Thailand, rice straw is an agricultural by-product of the rice milling processes, produced in large quantities every year. Usually, rice straw management comprises open field burning, which releases greenhouse gases, particulate matter, and other pollutants. In this paper, the behaviors of bed agglomeration and defluidization were investigated during the fluidized bed gasification of rice straw, using silica and alumina as bed materials. The effect of the percentage ratio of silica and alumina (0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25; 100:0) was examined. The operating parameters were as follows: rice straw particle size of 425–850 µm, reaction temperature of 700–900°C, and equivalence ratios of 0.2 and 0.4. The results showed that the percentage ratio of silica a d alumina, 0:100 at 700°C, had extended the defluidization time of 60 minutes. The effect of equivalence ratio on bed agglomeration was found to be apparently heightened at a high temperature. The result of SEM/EDX analysis showed that the major elements at the linkage point of the agglomerated particle were Si, K, and Ca, with regard to any proportion of the alumina bed and temperature. In conclusion, low temperature agglomerate formation can be explained by a K2O-CaO-Si2O phase diagram. The results from this investigation can be applied to biomass-fluidized bed gasification, where bed agglomeration entails a plant shutdown and is expensive in terms of maintenance.

50

Ban H Alasaad, Ahmed S Obaid, Maysaa.R. Naeemah, Diana Nasir Hashem and Sala Sami Hamza. Effect of cold plasma on the levels mineral blood components in vivo

Abstract. This study illustrate effect of cold plasma CAP on the mineral blood components in vivo. the mineral blood component (Ca,Na,Cl,K and Fe) are used. Floating Electrode-Dielectric Barrier Discharge (FE-DBD) system of probe diameter 4cm is used for this purpose, and variable voltage (0-20) kV and variable frequency (0-30) kHz, the output power was ranged from (10 - 70) W. the effect of cold atmospheric plasma on mineral blood is studied with different exposure durations (30,45,60) sec. As the plasma exposure duration increases, the calcium, potassium and iron components in the blood increased, while The sodium and chlorine elements decreased. These results give an indication of the cold plasma receptor to be used to treat many diseases related to mineral blood components.

51

Mohammad M. Farhan, Ban H Adil, Ahmed S Obaid, Maream Khaess and Alzahraa Fadhel Adnan. Effect gold nanoparticles generated by Cold Plasma for mineral blood

Abstract. In the present study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared using a simple low cost method synthesized cold plasma at different exposure time . The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The prepared AuNPs showed surface Plasmon resonance centered at 530, 540,and 533 nm. The XRD pattern showed that the strong intense peaks indicate crystalline nature and face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles for all samples were prepared .The average crystallite size of the AuNPs was 20-40 nm. Morphology of the AuNPs were carried out using FESEM. Observations show that the AuNPs synthesized we well dispersed with and particle sizes ranging from 9 to 31 nm with spherical shapes which are clearly observed.The effect of AuNPs on mineral blood is studied with different doses durations (130,260,520) ppm. As the AuNPs doses increases, the Fe and Ca components in the blood increased, while The Na,Cl and K, and chlorine elements decreased. These results give an indication of the nanoparticles receptor to be used to treat many diseases related to mineral blood components.

52

Kadhim A. Aadim, Rafel H. Jassem, Ban H. Adil, Mohammad M Farhan and Salah M. Al-Chalabi. Synthesis of Zinc Nanoparticles by Laser Induced Plasma and its Effects on Levels of Thyroid Hormones

Abstract. In the present study, the effect of Zinc nanoparticles on levels of (T3 , T4 and TSH) hormones was investigated. Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized by Laser induced plasma.The Nd: YAG Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used to generate nanomaterials of the elements (zinc) upon collision with target atoms. Plasma generated by different laser intensity is generated. After confirming the preparation of zinc nanoparticles, XRD, AFM was examined, and the effect of these substances on the thyroid gland (T3, T4, TSH) was observed for two doses of each component (1 ml / kg, 4 ml / kg) after conducting a cytotoxicity examination of the lymphocytes of the rats extracted from Rat spleen was 1.8% less toxic to zinc, and as noted The relative weight of rats for each group to monitor the effect of manufactured nanomaterials on metabolism. The results obtained give an indication that the mentioned nanomaterials have a promising future for treating thyroid problems

53

Nehad Jarboo’a and Abdalhameed Al-Sarraf. Influence of adding Nano / micro hydroxyapatite (HA) particles on tribological characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

Abstract. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of reinforcement of the denture base resin PMMA, using biocompatible hydroxyapatite HA material, where two particles sizes (micro and nanoparticles) were used and different weight fractions (1,2,3,4 and 5)for the 50 nm HA, (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) for the 80µm HA. As percentages of a composite. The values of hardness, shock resistance, wear rate, and thermal conductivity were measured in the first part of the research. The results showed that the best combination of properties appeared at the two concentrations 4% in nanoparticles and at 10% of micro-particles. In the second part of this paper, TMA and DSC tests were performed on the previous two best results composites, in addition to a pure resin sample to evaluate the thermal properties such as the linear expansion coefficient and the glass transition temperature.

54

Teerawat Sema, Pipat Na Ranong, Thanthip Kiattinirachara, Pattaraporn Posoknistakul, Ratana Jiraratananon and Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul. Absorption Kinetics of CO2 in Novel Formulated 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol and N-Methyl-4-Piperidinol Solvent

Abstract. In the present study, kinetics of CO2 absorption in novel formulated AMP-MPDL solvent was investigated in a stirred tank reactor over ranges of temperature (303-333 K) and concentration (5% wt. AMP-25% wt. MPDL, 10% wt. AMP-20% wt. MPDL, and 15% wt. AMP-15% wt. MPDL). A drop of pressure method was used to determine the kinetics of CO2 absorption in terms of overall reaction kinetics constant (kov) through a slope of the drop of pressure plot. It was found that the kov increased as temperature increased and increased as concentration of AMP in AMP-MPDL increased over ranges of studied temperature and concentration. The results also showed that 15% wt. AMP-15% wt. MPDL possessed the highest CO2 absorption kinetics among the three concentrations. Additionally, the novel formulated 15% wt. AMP-15% wt. MPDL solvent had a faster CO2 absorption than conventional 15% wt. AMP-15% wt. TEA and 30% wt. TEA solvents, respectively. Thus, it can be implied from the experimental data presented in this work that novel formulated AMP-MPDL has a great potential to be used as an alternative solvent for capturing CO2 in terms of reaction kinetics.

56

Abdelah Nafil and Mostafa Bouzi. Comparative Study of Forecasting Methods for Energy Demand in Morocco

Abstract. Nowadays, electricity generation is constantly discussed in climate and environment debates. Energy consumption accounts for 80% of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, these emissions are the main cause of global warming and climate change. In Morocco, the government attaches vital attention to the energy sector. Indeed, the ambitious energy strategy adopted in March 2009, aims to reach 52% penetration rate of renewable energies by 2030. To reach this purpose, mid-term energy forecasts are prerequisites to have visibility on energy demand growth. This paper contrasts three forecasting methods (ARIMA, Temporal causality modeling, and Exponential smoothing) to calculate the energy demand forecasts of Morocco in 2020. This study aims to provide more elements to the Moroccan private sector and government to anticipate future consumption and production scenarios and plan the necessary investments in the energy sector. Furthermore, this work will supply researches on the massive integration of renewable energies by providing researchers with a comparative analysis between forecasting methods.

57

Bilal Nasir and Raid Daoud. Modeling of Wind Turbine-Self Excited Induction Generator System with Pitch Angle and Excitation Capacitance Control

Abstract. The three-phase self-excited induction generator (SEIG) plays a basic rule in sources of renewable energy, such as wind turbines (WT). His main defect is poor regulation of output voltage and frequency under variable rotor speed and load conditions at stand-alone and isolated area operation mode. In this paper, a complete dynamic model of the SEIG-WT system is performed to analyze and study the system performance under transient and steady-state conditions. This dynamic model considers into account the effect of saturation in magnetizing inductance, cross-coupling magnetizing inductance, stator, and rotor leakage inductances, iron core resistance, and mechanical (friction and windage ) loss resistance, as well as the effect of stray load resistance, are considered in this model. New analytical formulas are used to accurate calculation of minimum and maximum values of excitation capacitance and generator rotor cut-off and maximum speed. The results of the dynamic model are partially compared with experimental results, and accurate agree are shown.

58

Ahmed Ghdhban Al-Ziaydi, Mohammed I. Hamzah, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari, Haider Sabah Kadhim and Majid Jabir. The Anti-proliferative Activity of D- Mannoheptulose against Breast Cancer Cell line through Glycolysis Inhibition

Abstract. Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. We investigated the effects of D-mannoheptulose (MH) as the inhibitor of hexokinase on glycolysis metabolism and apoptosis to prevent the proliferation and inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells (AMJ13 and MCF7) in vitro. Cancer cells were compared with a normal embryo fibroblast (REF) cell line via MTT cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 of different MH concentrations (13.125 - 1680 μg/ml) and treated with specific concentrations (250, 125, and 62.5 µg/ml) after incubation for 72h at 37 °C. Morphological changes were evaluated by crystal violet staining, apoptosis was detected by acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Hexokinase activity, pyruvate, ATP concentration, and acidity were measured in treated and untreated breast cancer and normal cells after treatment with 62.5 µg /ml MH for 72 h at 37 °C. Our findings showed that MH inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines and induced morphological changes and apoptosis by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis and decreasing hexokinase activity, pyruvate concentration, ATP, and acidity compared with the normal cell line. In addition, MH had low toxicity against normal cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that MH inhibits the glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hexokinase in breast cancer cells and their proliferation. Therefore, MH can be considered a promising treatment for breast cancer.

60

Eleni Tsalera, Andreas Papadakis and Maria Samarakou. Urban environmental noise monitoring, profiling and classification

Abstract. Environmental noise is a key factor affecting the quality of life in modern societies as they influence an extended set of human activities. Unwanted sounds, typically characterized as noise, can be of many types and vary in their impact and the ways to be confronted on behalf of competent public authorities. In this work we investigate ways used to describe environmental noise in a qualitative manner going beyond the measurement of the intensity. Considering a set of 8 discriminant types of unwanted sounds, typically met in urban environments, we specify a methodology of matching environmental noise into these categories. We consider an extensive set of time and frequency features for the description of the sounds. Leveraging training data from public databases, we use the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) Artificial Intelligence algorithm. Employing three distance metrics i.e. Euclidean, Chebyshev and cosine and considering from 1 to 3 neighbors, we have built 9 models that achieve performance between 70% and 85%.

62

Wahraan Hussein, Souad Khalil and Abdulhussein Elttayef. Study the effect of nanomaterial [Ti, TiO2, TiO2: Ag, Ag] on different type of bacterial

Abstract. In this research synthesis of titanium dioxide TiO2 using Sol-Gel method we prepared titanium nanoparticle oxide particles, then mixed the powder with other nanomaterials such as nanoscale silver at different rates by R.F sputtering technique. Then we studied the effect of nanomaterials on three types of living bacteria and when the nanoscale silver found, the percentage of killing bacteria increased The following conclusions can be made based on the study. The effect of silver nanoparticle was time and dose dependent.

63

Husham Mahmood and Thair Alaish. Design and stimulated the detectors of high-power lasers DHPL

Abstract. One of the most important problems fronting the design of optical detectors that operate at the high power; was the inability to withstand the high temperature caused by the interaction between the material of the detector and the high-power laser beam. In this paper, the goal is to design and study a high-power laser detector. Which is bases on the principle of the internal photoelectric effect and is made of a material with a high melting point to prevent its collapse and destruction when high-power laser radiation falls on it. By using specific techniques to reduce the intensity and energy of laser radiation by simulation using the Matlab program (2019), which includes several parameters to calculate the highest energy borne, response and efficiency of the detector. To achieve this, a high-power laser system based on the free electron laser will be design and simulated using the Matlab program (2019), which includes several parameters to calculate the energy and wavelength of the laser outside, in addition to calculating the attenuation factors that occur when the laser signal interacts with the atmosphere.

65

Nithiwadee Inmanee, Pilaiwan Chaiwang, Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan and Pornpote Piumsomboon. Equilibrium curve of carbon dioxide adsorption-desorption using potassium carbonate on gamma-alumina in fluidized bed reactor

Abstract. At present, the global warming becomes a major problem affecting the world in many ways. The main cause is the releasing of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. The reduction of CO2 is thus a tremendous challenge. One of the CO2 capture processes based on adsorption-desorption process are then invented to mitigate this problem. An essential basic information for designing and operating of these separation processes is the adsorption-desorption equilibrium. In this study, the equilibrium isotherms of potassium carbonate on gamma-alumina (K2CO3/gamma-Al2O3) solid sorbent were carried out and correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth models. The CO2 sorption capacities were measured with pressures at different system temperatures (45 - 90°C). From the result, it was found that Sips isotherm was the suitable model (R2 ranged between 0.91-0.99 with error less than 2.09%). When comparing the CO2 capture capacity with pure K2CO3, the obtained CO2 capture capacities were improved by impregnating K2CO3 on the gamma-Al2O3 support.

67

Ghuzlan Ahmed, Bushra Al-Maiyaly, Bushra Hussein and Hanan Hassun. Opto- Electrical properties of p-SnSe:S /n-Si heterojunction for solar cell application

Abstract. Pure SnSe thin film and doped with S at different percentage (0,3,5,7)% were deposited from alloy by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature with 400±20nm thickness .The influences of S dopant ratio on characterization of SnSe thin film Nano crystalline was investigated by using Atomic force microscopy(AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Hall Effect measurement, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study morphological, structural, electrical and optical properties respectively .The XRD showed that all the films have polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure, with preferred orientation along (111)plane .These films was manufactured of very fine crystalline size in the range of (18.167-51.126)nm, depending on the S ratio doping, the results of AFM indicated that these films were Nano crystalline with grain size (60.12-84.25)nm .Direct band gap values with range(1.5-1.68)eV were gotten from optical absorption measurements. I-V characteristics for p- SnSe:S/n-Si heterojunctions show the efficiency of solar cell increase with increase doping ratio and the highest value at films doped with ratio (7%S). C-V measurements show that all junctions were an abrupt type.

68

Sarah Yaseen and Auday Shaban. Detection of altered water content of AlHammar marshes

Abstract. The marshes of Mesopotamia are distinguished by their environmental and biological diversity and of economic and natural importance as they are considered one of the largest wetlands in East Asia, and significant changes have occurred in them during the last period, this paper aims to know and determine the extent of the changes in the land cover and the main features (water, cane, plant, soil) for AlHammar marsh in southern Iraq, and to achieve this object, the Landsat 8 satellite images was used for the years (OLI) 2018,2019. And remote sensing techniques were adopted here using the three-way supervised classification technique (maximum likelihood, minimum distance, parallelepiped) and applied Three color combinations Various are (432), (451) and (452) through the (ENVI) program, and also the (ArcGIS 10.4.1 "arcMap") program was used to cut off the study area and to extract maps, the results showed that there were major changes in the flooded areas of the marshes.

69

Ban Alasaad, Sara Mohmmed and Basim Rejah. Study the effect gamma radiation on blood thinning drugs (Aspirin)

Abstract. In this work, the effect of gamma rays on blood thinning drugs was studied using the drug (Aspirin), where gamma rays were spread with the drug using a radioactive source (Co60), and 15,000 grams of Aspirin were placed in the device (gamma chamber 900). The drug was subjected to different irradiation doses (5 KGy, 10 KGy, 15 KGy) and the amount of absorption of the drug was observed in the gamma for different doses and the study of x-rays. After confirming the absorption of the drug to radiation, the effect of the drug on blood thinning was calculated using the rat model and compared with the same drug and the same dose but without exposing the drug to radiation and comparing all results with the control group. The way drugs absorbed radiation and the radiation within the organism through drugs can be used to treat many incurable diseases and cancerous tumors.

71

Muna Mohammed and Amal Hatem. change detection of the land cover for three decades using remote sensing data and geographic information system

Abstract. The changes in the land cover using geographical information systems and remote sensing techniques for the period (1990 - 2019) for part of the Baghdad governorate in central Iraq are detected and monitored. In this research, four satellite scenes with different sensors were used the TM, ETM+, and OLI, which were obtained by Landsat-5, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 satellites, respectively. Maximum likelihood method supervised classification is adopted as the main classifier to distinguish different land cover types in the study region. The results showed that there are ten different classes in the values of their reflectance. This study proved that any landcover of the earth's surface can be studied and determined by its spectral characteristics. The change for each class of the land cover for the study area was determined within the study period. The results of the study confirmed the possibility of identifying the types of land cover and finding the percentage of changes that occur in it and detecting it with high efficiency using the remote sensing technique.

72

Nisreen Abdalameer, Sabah Mazhir and Kadhim Aadim. The effect of ZnSe Core/shell on the properties of the window layer of the solar cell and its applications in solar energy and medicine

Abstract. In this paper, ZnSe nanoparticles (ZnSe -NPs) were prepared by selenium nitrate and zinc metal sheets to improve the absorption coefficient that affects the efficiency of the solar cell at the same time to reduce the selenium toxicity. Also, core–shell structured ZnSe was prepared by atmospheric pressure plasma jet system. The structure and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and absorbance measurements of ZnSe NPs. Liver cancer (hepG2) and breast cancer (MDA) cell lines were exposed to the ZnSe-NPs, and the percentage of growth of cancerous cells was suppressed after 24, 48 and 72 h. of exposure. The induced cytotoxicity at 72h after exposure to ZnSe green NPs was found to be 70.3% in hepG2 72h and 66.8% in MDA cell lines. However, the maximum cytotoxicity values in the normal cell line (REF) were 42.62% and 16.6% following exposure to ZnSe and ZnSe green NPs, respectively

73

Chaiwat Soanuch, Krittin Korkerd, Pornpote Piumsomboon and Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan. Minimum fluidization velocities of binary and ternary biomass mixtures with silica sand

Abstract. Minimum fluidization velocity is an important property which can influence the hydrodynamics and chemical conversion in fluidized bed reactor. Most of the fluidized bed boilers usually mix raw biomass solid particles with medium silica sand solid particles. This is because the biomass supply is varied with the season and location. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of binary and ternary biomass mixtures with medium solid particles on the obtained minimum fluidization velocity. The experiment was conducted with three types of biomass including, wood chip, rice husk and palm shell waste, together with silica sand. The biomass mixtures were mixed according to the mixture experimental design. The results showed that the mixture of biomass could improve the hydrodynamics inside the system. The minimum fluidization velocity was thus decreased when conducting the experiment with the binary and ternary biomass-silica sand mixtures. The obtained minimum fluidization velocity range was 0.19 to 0.37 m/s.

74

Suha Fadaam, Hiba Ali, Auday Shaban and Saja Ahmed. Improving Efficiency of Solar Cell for MnS through Annealing

Abstract. The demands for energy are getting bigger with the increasing of the development of life’s technology. The renewable sources of energy are connected to the main one which is solar energy. So, its obvious that the best approaches for gathering the energy is from solar light directly. The device that collect energy is solar cells and these devices having a limit for this conversion due to their efficiencies. The main approach of this article is to investigate a way to evaluate the efficiency of Manganese Sulfide-Silicon solar cells. The samples were prepared by vacuum evaporation technology, the samples were annealed at 300°C temperature for one hour. The structure and optical properties were investigated, with X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Ultra-Violet-Visible, and I-V characteristics under dark and illumination. The results showed the structure of the Manganese Sulfide films are cubic, and the AFM images shows the perfect homogeneity of the films surface. The energy gap values for the films was found at (2.7 and 2.9) eV for (as prepared, 300°C) respectively, where it increases by increasing the temperature of the annealing. The solar cells efficiency where increased after annealing by 300°C and it reach (4.71%).

75

Zainab Qassim and Hameed Abduljabbar. Land Cover Change for Baghdad City in the Period 1986 to 2019

Abstract. In this study, the earth cover of the city of Baghdad was studied exclusively within its administrative border during the period 1986-2019 using satellite scenes every five years, as Landsat TM5 and OLI8 satellite images were used. The land has been classified into ten subclasses according to the characteristics of the land cover and was classified using the Maximum Likelihood classifier. A study of the changing urban reality of the city of Baghdad during that period and the change of vegetation due to environmental factors, human influences and some human phenomena that affected the accuracy of the classification for some areas east of the city of Baghdad is presented. The year 2019 has been highlighted because of its privacy in changing the land cover of the city of Baghdad because of the amount of rain that exceeded its natural levels by far.

76

Zainab Abdullah and Hameed Abduljabbar. The Water Bodies in the Southern East of Iraq Before and After 2018

Abstract. This study is concerned with the recent changes that occurred in the last three years (2017-2019) in the marshes region in southern Iraq as a result of the changes in the global climate, the study included all the water bodies in the five governorates that are located in the southern regions of Iraq (Wasit, Maysan, Dhi-Qar, Qadisiyah and Basrah), which represent the marshes lands in Iraq. Scenes of the Landsat 8 satellite are used to create a mosaic to cover the five governorates within a time window with the slightest difference between the date of the scene capture, not to exceed 8 days. The results of calculating the changes in water areas were obtained using the classifier support vector machine, where high accuracy ratios were recorded in the study area classification for the three years. The study showed that the year 2019 represents a turning point in the behavior of the marshes, which were suffering from a period of drought, as the area of the marshes increased twice as much as in 2018 and a third of what they were in 2017, as well as the recovery of marshes that had ceased due to the previous drought period.

77

Maria Cairoli and Lamberto TronchinThe architectural and acoustic quality for theatres hosting animals

Abstract. The paper investigates the optimal acoustic characteristics for theatres that include animals in their shows, especially horses, seeking for the maximum comfort both for people and for animals. Recommendations and indications might become guidelines for a possible architectural acoustic design. The interest to design theatres to host animals arises from some existing buildings which seldom host animal shows together with musical performances, which represents a hybrid solution between theatres and circuses. These buildings might help especially young people having some mental disorders to improve their living quality. One example is represented by the Emilia Bosis Foundation in Verdello (Bergamo, Italy), a non-profit organization that deals with people with mental disorders, to develop a space where to set up projects that include arts, animals ( horses in particular), and other cultural and social activities.

78

Paraschiv Spiru, Nicoleta Bărbuţă-Mişu and Simona Lizica Paraschiv. Technical and economic analysis of a solar air heating system integration in a residential building wall to increase energy efficiency by solar heat gain and thermal insulation

Abstract. Typically, investors will consider making investments in solar air heating systems only if it is profitable, i.e. savings gained using this system are higher than other generated by similar systems. The main objective of evaluation of this investment is to determine the expected cash flows (savings) according to the moment of realising of investment characterised by a solar intensity and the indicators of selecting investments in order to determine whether the investment will be suitable for the investor and the right moment of doing this investment. The technical and economic analysis is usually performed for one year, and depending on the year under analysis, the investment decision may be positive or negative because it depends on factors that are very variable from one year to another (solar radiation, air temperature, etc.). The analysis performed in this study was conducted for the period 2005-2019. The annual energy savings associated with the SAHS system is determined by subtracting the thermal energy produced and building heat loss recovered by the SAHS system from the base case thermal energy consumption. The calculation of monetary savings for the solar air heating system, for each year, took into account a variety of factors, including location climate data (air temperature, solar radiation), energy required to heat the building, energy delivered by solar air heating system, conventional fuel costs (natural gas), indoor air temperature which was set at 22 °C, energy and system performance. Treated as a financial investment, the attractiveness of residential solar air heating systems depends on the following parameters: the initial cost of system, maintenance costs, the lifespan of the system, the amount and type of energy used in the base case, the concordance between solar energy captured and load, the cost of supply the energy consumed using conventional energy and also awarded grants. Investment valuation methods applied in this study include four important indicators: net present value (NPV), savings to investment ratio (SIR), payback period in versions: simple payback period (SPB), discounted payback period (DPB) and modified discounted payback period (MDPB), and internal rate of return (IRR), in accordance with possible lifespan period of maximum 30 years. The minimum value of discounted payback period is 12 years and 6 months for 2007 and the maximum value of 15 years and 8 months was found for 2014 when considering 0% subsidies. An average discounted payback period in the other years was determined to be approximately 13 years and 8 months. The discounted payback period for solar systems installed in 2014 is higher by 24.8% compared to the 2007, and by 14.54% compared to the average discounted payback period registered in all years. The internal rate of return without subsidies (IRR-S0%) for an exploitation period of 20 years varies between 6.89% (2014) and 8.96% (2007) and for a lifespan of 30 years IRR-S0% is ranging between 8.57% and 10.36%.

79

Prathana Nimmanterdwong, Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan and Pornpote Piumsomboon. Simplified Empirical Model to Predict Biomass Thermal Conversion Products

Abstract. Currently, various biomass conversion technologies are available in order to create potential renewable products. The objective of this study was to provide the regression model for predicting the obtained products from lignocellulosic biomass through alternative technologies. To build the regression model, 330 case studies i.e., the use of 66 lignocellulosic biomasses in 5 technologies, were simulated using Aspen plus 11.0 software. Five correlations between biomass characteristics and five product yields were then successfully developed. The results indicated that lignocellulosic biomass that gave the highest syngas, hydrogen, power and liquid fuels product yields was almond shell which had high VM, C, H contents and low FC, O, N contents. The model obtained can be applied for further studies to provide the insight information for bio-refinery optimization and planning where suitable biomass characteristics are necessary for the conversion pathways to achieve the target products.

81

Kiattikhoon Phuakpunk, Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan and Suttichai Assabumrungrat. Comparison of chemical reaction kinetic models for corn cob pyrolysis

Abstract. This study used thermogravimetric analysis to investigate activation energy and pre-exponential factor of corn cob pyrolysis via various model-free methods. For applying kinetics of pyrolysis reaction in commercial simulation tools, a representative single reaction of overall pyrolysis reaction would be preferable in provided toolboxes. However, the kinetic parameters for this single reaction should be suitable to cover all the conversion range. Thus, the kinetic parameters were developed as polynomial regression models. The results showed that verification of using the quadratic regression models derived via Friedman method (Ea = -488.68X^2+587.78X+64.104 and lnA = -106.58X^2+116.71X+17.232) had very close agreement with the experiments in entire range of conversion. These regression models could be widely applied in slow pyrolysis and gasification. However, the constants derived via Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method (Ea = 248.05 kJ∙mol-1 and A = 3.05x10^22 min-1) were simpler for use in some applications which had no effect of pyrolysis at temparature below 300oC or conversion below 50%, like fluidized bed pyrolysis/gasification.

83

Sambeet Mishra, Esin Oren, Chiara Bordin, Fushuan Wen and Ivo Palu. Features Extraction of Wind Power Ramp Events

Abstract. The power generation output from a wind farm varies with time, and this intermittent characteristic imposes a challenge for full utilization of renewable wind resource. The power system operator needs to ensure power supply of demand. Accurate estimation of power output from a non-dispatchable generation resource such as a wind farm is essential for the operator to ensure the supply-demand balance and reserve required power capacity. Existing methods of feature extraction and prediction such as linear regression often overlook the significant swings or utilize in the model building. However, this method misinterprets the trend in data. Understanding the properties of the variations in more details would reduce the uncertainty and significantly improve the feature extraction and predictions. The objective of the paper is to present the RBA model that identifies and quantifies the intermittent characteristics of the time series data. The variations are classified into major and stationary events. The former refers to the significant swings and the latter refers to the swings that are relatively within limits. The features include start time, end time, power variation, persistence of event and angle at which the event took place. The proposed model also evaluates frequency of occurrence of features of the event. In addition, the rain-flow cycles are calculated to extract half cycles and full cycles in reference to the events. The model is applied to wind power production data and the results are elaborated. The results clearly demonstrate the precise and accurate identification of major and stationary events.

84

Rana Mazban and Iman Hameed. The effect of doping process on the structural and optical properties of Ag2Se thin films.

Abstract. Ag2Se alloys have been prepared, thin films of this compound have been deposited by the thermal evaporation method under a vacuum of 10-5 Torr, on coring glass substrate at room temperature. They have a thickness of (500±10) nm and rate of deposition (2.07813nm Sec-1). The Ag2Se films has been doped by different elements (Al, Bi, Sb, and Cd) with a constant ratio 2% by thermal diffusion method. The structure of the alloys and the thin films have been examined by the XRD method show that the thin films have (Orthorhombic) structure, the doping of all the elements in general caused to conform the crystalline nature. The optical properties of the prepared films have been investigated. The optical absorption coefficient (α) of the films was determined from absorbance spectra in the range of wavelength (200-1100) nm. The optical energy gap was found to allow direct transition, which decreases with the doping process, also the optical constant have been calculated. The grain size and roughness have been measured with AFM.

85

Bahaa Kathim and May Mohammed. Study the Effect of Heat Treatment and Pressure on Some of The Structural Properties and Electrical Conductivity for The Nano Carbon Nylon66

Abstract. In this paper, the synthetic properties that included x-ray diffraction and electrical properties; were studied. Those properties included all electrical conductivity real and imaginary dielectric constant, and the loss factor of the nylon66 polymer that is carbonized under the influence of temperature and pressure. Such that the pressure values in this research (61,65,69,73,78) M pa and the temperature values (60,120,180,240,300) o C. The parameters were calculated with x-ray diffraction for both degree of crystalline, grain size and inter-chain distance. It has been found that the degree of crystalline increases with the increasing temperature and pressure. the values of the grain size, inter chain _distance are increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing pressure. the results of the electrical properties showed that the electrical conductivity values increase with increasing pressure, temperature and frequency, but the values of the loose factor and the dielectric constant electrical circuit has inversely varied with frequency are directly proportional to the pressure and heat.

86

Maria Cairoli and Francesca MerliFrom the architectural acoustic design to measurements: the auditorium Arvedi case study

Abstract. The Giovanni Arvedi Auditorium is a musical space that was born inside the Cremona Violin Museum, to enhance the sound of the violins and the other instruments collected there. Through this study, the Arvedi turns out to be an auditorium with high potential, flexible characteristics as a multifunctional hall. The paper describes the project and characterizes the sound field through measures. The description of the sound quality has required numerous objective parameters, the main ones of them are already identified for other types of buildings. The measures allow us to highlight the peculiarities of this space and to better define its possible uses.

87

Israa Akram Abbas and Salah Hazaa. Influence of Annealing on the Structural, Morphology and Optical Properties of TiO2 Thin Films

Abstract. TiO2 thin films were deposited by Spray Pyrolysis with thickness ((350±25) nm) onto glass substrates at (350℃). The influence of annealing temperatures (400,450 and 500℃) on the structural, morphology and optical properties of the films were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and UV–Visible spectrometry respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses appeared that the as- deposited thin films have an amorphous structure, with annealing the amorphous phase was crystallized into tetragonal TiO2 phase, and the size of the crystallites increased from (8.28 to 10.37) nm. Atomic force Microscopy and UV–Visible spectrometry analysis of TiO2 thin films showed that the roughness increased (2.96 to7.63) nm and optical energy gap shift to higher energies with increasing annealing temperature.

88

Osi Fayomi, O Agboola, Ig Godwin and Ao Emmanuel. Challenges of Coatings in Aerospace, Automobile and Marine Industries

Abstract. Coatings are multifaceted having raw materials combined and utilized to a prepared substrate by allowing it to be dried and cured to obtain effectiveness. Majority of coating challenges occurs in coating manufacturing and its application in different environment not shielded away from the impact of rain, sunlight, wind, heat, cold, humidity, and oxygen. Few coatings, including those applied in marine, aerospace, automobile and medical cannot resist some difficulties arising from corrosion. This paper focuses on identifying the challenges in marine, aerospace and automobile. In marine, the antifouling coating at the watertight body of the ship destroy organisms before they get close to it. Tributyltin (TBT), which is released to the ocean or the sea happens to be the most effective compound used for antifouling coating but its pose serious problems to marine organism due to its toxic substance .In automobile, application of chromium coating is the main source of exposure for workers leading to sneezing, headache, skin irritation, ulcers and respiratory disorder because of its ions that comes in contact with the environment in form of chromate and dichromate anions from the sewage while in aerospace ,movements of a aircraft structural joint would deform, elongate the coating system making the structural component of the aircraft coating system a major challenge in determining aircraft joint displacement. The essence of identifying coatings challenges is to find measure of ensuring substrate are improve in terms of ;appearance, bonding, moisture ability, resistance to wear etc. Hard chromium coated constituents can now find application in agricultural equipment’s, aircraft industry, automobile, marine and other industries.

89

Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande, Uc Esse and S Oladipupo. Examining the Roles and Challenges of Human Capital Influence on 4th Industrial Revolution

Abstract. Industrialization is an improvement of existing manufacturing processes through invention or the creation of new technologies to make activities easier for human to execute. The fourth industrial revolution has several technical factors that needs to be studied properly to ensure it safety and feasibility, however the inclusion of the human component as the central and main focus in this revolution is rarely mentioned. This overview critically examines roles and challenges encountered by man in the new industrial revolution. The collaboration of human-machine component and their performance was also in this paper.

90

Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande and So Oyedepo. Prospective of Product Development and Improved Production Processes

Abstract. Product development is an integral part of an organization that plans to stay relevant and competitive in today’s world. Several companies have research and development section which are most times responsible for developing new products but there are other processes such as technology development, technology acquisition, capacity acquisition and project management in which product development can be achieved. Improved product development processes such as lean manufacturing, six sigma and also a hybrid of the two known as lean six sigma (LSS) are platforms that enhances product development which helps organizations in remaining relevant.

91

Osi Fayomi, T Awodolu, O Agboola, J Oyebanji and Api Popoola. A Paradigm Shift on the Impact of Synthetic Agro Waste Nanoparticles Materials for Engineering Diversity: A mini overview

Abstract. An estimated140 billion metric tons of agricultural waste is produced yearly due to the increase in the number of activities that occurs in the agricultural sector. Most of these wastes are sourced from agricultural produce which includes wheat and rice husk and straw, groundnut shell, sugarcane bagasse, jute fiber, coconut husk and so on. However, the improper management of agricultural waste associated with the disposal and burning of agro waste in open air, especially in developing countries has greatly contributed to greenhouse emission raising an environmental concern. Proper management utilization and conversion of these wastes into sustainable, energy efficient materials can be a possible solution to the problem of pollution and natural resource conservation for future purposes. This review presents various composite materials for sustainability, impact and its application.

92

Osi Fayomi, Mo Nkiko, Ig Akande and Aa Noiki. An Overview of the Influence of Agro Waste Reinforcement on Aluminium Matrix Composites

Abstract. The rise in demand for cheap and high performing engineering products for numerous application has continually attract the researcher’s attention in the field of material science. The recent projections of eco-friendly, sustainable, future green and renewable manufactured goods allude increase in the use of agricultural waste in the upcoming decades. However, the high cost of synthetic reinforcement is a challenge, hence the need to source locally for an alternative reinforcement, cheap and readily available. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of studies carried out by several authors on the influence of various agro waste used in reinforcement of Aluminium matrix composites, highlights their influence on the mechanical properties, various applications of AMC and challenges encountered in the development of reinforced AMC.

93

Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande and Ao Emmanuel. Aluminium Alloys as Advanced Materials

Abstract. Aluminum alloys have been one of the main structural materials for several years as a result of their common mechanical behaviour, design, production processes and inspection techniques. However, it has gained much fame and occurrence in manufacturers of automobiles due to its low mass and resistance to deterioration. Wrought aluminium alloys which happens to be part of its classes from study has shown to be an advanced material as a result of its excellent extrudability, good corrosion resistance and high strength. In the improvement of 7000 series, Al-Zn alloys have greater strength relative to other classes of aluminium alloy. Minimizing the mass to volume ratio of materials is considered one of the ways of reducing the weight of engineering materials, especially aircraft. This paper presents a brief study on aluminum alloys, as well as their application as advanced material for production in vehicles and ship industry. This study showed that significant improvements in aluminum aerospace alloys are due to obtain quality equilibrium of properties.

96

O Kilanko, Osi Fayomi, Ig Akande, O Shopeju and Api Popoola. Examining the Impact of Quality Failure in a Controlled Environment

Abstract. The issue of poor quality is a contentious one in a controlled system as far as engineering is concerned. It is true that quality has different definitions in several industries but we must note that there is a minimum standard which must be adhered to ascertain ‘good quality’. This study focuses mainly on the cost of failure in quality in a regulated industry; the Nigerian construction industry. The construction industry in Nigeria has been facing challenges owing to building collapse. In engineering and construction, collapse is often seen as a mechanical failure of structures. The source of both the general and specific causes of failure of construction components has been traced to majorly substandard materials. From analysis, we can see that building materials are subject to stress or failure at varying rates depending on the methods of design construction, materials, designs and the mode of application. The underlying reasons building components failure, asides that of substandard materials and errors in designs, can be primarily linked to construction process and the utilization of several building components. Non-compliance to regulatory standards and specifications is another factor that has severe consequences on the successful outcome of a construction project/structural outfit

97

Yutaro Akimoto, Hinato Takezawa, Yosuke Iijima, Shin-Nosuke Suzuki and Keiichi Okajima. Comparative Analysis of Fuel Cell and Battery Energy Systems for IoT devices

Abstract. Most Internet of Things (IoT) devices are powered by electrical grids. Therefore, the supply of power to these devices is interrupted by critical grid failures, which can occur during natural disasters. To support the development of IoT devices that can operate during disasters, the most commonly used energy systems were evaluated. In this study, lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells were compared to evaluate and compare their operation time, output power, and general technical specifications. Moreover, an IoT device using Raspberry Pi was evaluated to determine the optimal energy system.

98

Kanit Soongprasit, Viboon Sricharoenchaikul and Duangduen Atong. Phenol-derived Products from Fast Pyrolysis of Organosolv Lignin

Abstract. Lignin is the largest aromatic bio-polymer feedstock with great potential to be refined for aromatic chemical platform and building block. Organosolv process for lignin extraction shows low impact on environment due to its low chemical requirement, absence of sulfur and more practical for chemical recovery. In this study, sugarcane bagasse from local sugar manufacturer in Thailand was selected as feedstock for lignin extraction by ethanol and water, noted as BG-lignin. Chemical composition of this lignin was slightly different when compared to commercial organosolv lignin, noted as Comm-OS-lignin that BG-lignin have more combustible constituents (volatile organic compounds and fixed carbon) of 96.14% and low ash content of 0.09%. Chemical structure of BG-lignin contains higher aliphatic hydrocarbon and aliphatic hydroxy side chain than Comm-OS-lignin which confirmed by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses. Study on fast pyrolysis of lignin using Py-GCMS technique found 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran as a major constituent at any tested pyrolysis temperature. H-unit, G-unit, and S-unit are distributed in resemble fraction with H/G/S ratio of 1/1/0.7 and 0.8/1/1 for Comm-OS-lignin and BG-lignin, respectively, at pyrolysis temperature of 400-600ºC and H-unit was enhanced at 700ºC to 28.82% of Comm-OS-lignin and 29.66% of BG-lignin. Phenolic selectivity of pyrolyzed products at 400-600ºC are mainly methoxy phenol (Ph-OCH3) and alkylated phenol (R-Ph-OCH3). Higher pyrolysis temperature to 700ºC led to elimination of aromatic side group and more favorable in alkyl phenol (R-Ph) and phenol selectivity. However, reduction of phenolic compound was observed with higher temperature due to thermal fragmentation of C-C linkage of aromatic structure. Products selectivity related to lignin feedstock related and pyrolysis temperature could be applied as a conceptual guideline for further study on chemical upgrading process to high-value biochemical products.

99

Watchara Uraisakul, Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan and Pornpote Piumsomboon. Hydrodynamics of dual circulating fluidized bed reactor for chemical looping combustion

Abstract. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasingly released to environment with the increased electricity demand. The environmental crisis is thus still a global problem. The alternative solution for handling this crisis is the combustion unit that prevents CO2 releasing. Chemical looping combustion is the combustion unit that can achieve this objective and provides high purity CO2 product for meaningful uses. The high efficiency of the process is achieved by designing good reactor hydrodynamics. A dual circulating fluidized bed reactor was then investigated in this study. The two parameters were studied; the temperature of reactor (A) and the ratio of coal velocity to the weight of oxygen carrier (B). The two responses were analyzed; combustible gas percentage from a fuel reactor, and CO2 percentage from an air reactor. The 3k factorial experimental was used for systematic experimental design which included the curvature behavior of the result. The results indicated that parameters A and B affected combustible gas percentage from the fuel reactor. However, only B affected CO2 percentage from the air reactor. The high A and B gave high combustible gas percentage from the fuel reactor and high CO2 percentage from the air reactor. The high combustible gas percentage from the fuel reactor indicated the incomplete combustion and the high CO2 percentage from the air reactor indicated the high CO2 releasing to the environment. The low A and B then supported the good behavior in these reactors.

100

Sergio Copiello and Carlo Grillenzoni. Economic development and climate change. Which is the cause and which the effect?

Abstract. Energy efficiency has established as a trending topic in scholarly research in the last four decades. Initially, under the pressure of growing energy prices during the seventies, the aim was mainly focused on energy savings. Subsequently, the purpose of that research strand has broadened so to tackle the increase of greenhouse gas emissions and the issues related to climate change. The reason for that shift lies in the fact that human beings and their mass production and consumption activities are thought to be a primary source of climate-altering emissions. However, that assumption has been seldom tested, primarily due to data constraints, such as the lack of long-term time series. Here we aim to provide a methodological and empirical framework to check for the causal nexus that allegedly ties together demographic growth, economic development, and climate change. The analysis is based on historically reconstructed series of several variables (solar radiation, temperature, population, proxies of economic development, and so forth) that span over the last centuries. The results show evidence for bidirectional causation between human growth and climate change. The analysis we carry out suggests framing climate change within a set of long-run trends. However, the study of macro trends requires to be enhanced by considering data also at the meso- and micro-scale, so to achieve more conclusive findings.

101

Nektarios Giannopoulos, George Ioannidis, George Vokas and Constantinos Psomopoulos. Autonomous Active Current Balancing method for parallel-connected silicon carbide MOSFETs

Abstract. In medium and high-power applications, where Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs are usually used and their parallelization is quite often required, the performance of the power switches is affected by an inevitable current unbalance which may occur not only during turn-on and turn-off transients but during on steady state, as well. Over the last decade, several researchers have proposed numerous techniques capable of suppressing one or even both of the aforementioned current unbalances for a number of discrete parallel SiC MOSFETs. Some of these techniques deal with the problem by continuously inspecting the current sharing state between the parallel devices and eliminating their transient current unbalance. However, in order for these kinds of techniques to be realized, screening of power devices is required, but being a time-consuming process, it adds extra cost to the system. In this way, the implementation of such a technique becomes difficult, reducing its possibilities of being implemented in power electronics applications. In this paper, a differential Active Current Balancing technique is presented. The proposed method is capable of sensing and eliminating current unbalance not only during transient states but also during on steady state automatically, actively and independently of the cause, requiring no device screening. These merits make the proposed method more realistic and increase its potential to deal with the requirements of the industry applications. The performance of the proposed technique is verified through simulations, proving its feasibility and effectiveness.

102

Alexis Kosmidis, George Ioannidis, Constantinos Psomopoulos and George Vokas. Analysis and Simulation of Four-Wheel Independent Steering Control for Electric Vehicles

Abstract. Four-wheel steering (4WS) is not a new idea. The company Honda manufactured the first four-wheel steering (4WS) car in 1987 (Honda Prelude). After that, also few companies provide 4WS cars with Mechanical, Electric-Hydraulic or Electromechanical construction methods. 4WS systems control both front and rear steering angles as a function of driver input and vehicle dynamics. At low-speed wheel movement is pronounced, so that rear wheels are steered in the opposite direction to that of front wheels. At high speed, when steering adjustments are subtle, the front wheels and rear wheels turn in the same direction. Nowadays, the most conventional steering system is the two-wheel steering (2WS), but this system presents the weakness of understeer and oversteer. In the other hand, 4WS-equiped vehicle derives superior cornering stability, improved steering responsiveness and precision, high-speed straight-line stability, notable improvement in rapid lane changing manoeuvres and smaller turning radius and tight-space maneuverability at low vehicle speed range. The answer to why the 2WS steering system has prevailed over 4WS is that because the construction of 4WS requires many new and complex components becomes more expensive. The solution to this problem comes from hub (in-wheel) brushless DC (BLDC) motors in collaboration with stepper motors. With the hub BLDC motors there is no need yet for using complex transmission system in order to transmit the movement from motor to the wheels, because every wheel is powered by a separate motor. Also, the steering command is electrically transmitted by an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to the four-stepper motor which executing the steering command at the driven wheels. These systems do not have any mechanical connection between steering wheel and driven wheels and called Steer by Wire (SBW) method. In this paper, the operation of 4WS with SBW system shall be analyzed. Specially, the advantages, the modes of operation, the applications, steering geometry and vehicle dynamics equation will be reported. Finally, a proposed 4WS SBW control system will be presented and simulated with NEDC Driving cycle.

103

Lahoud Chawki, Marwan Brouche, Mirna F. Lahoud and Christy Lahoud. Performance comparison between direct and combined solar drying with underfloor heating

Abstract. Solar drying is a highly feasible and economic system, but this process applied for different products can be interrupted during cloudy and rainy days, as well at night. In this paper, a heat transfer study of a combined solar dryer will be presented in detail. Then, a performance comparison between the combined solar dryer and the direct solar dryer is conducted in order to show the advantages of combined dryer in terms of decreasing drying time of the product dried. At the end, the simulations will highlight the enhancement of performance of the combined drying system

104

Jaafar Muhammad, Kareem Jasim and Auday Shaban. Determining Heavy Metals and Other Elements Concentrations in the Soil at Baquba-Iraq

Abstract. The present study aims to determine and calculate the concentration of some heavy elements (Pb, Hg, Cu, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Cd) in addition to the elements (Mg, Na, Ca, CL, K, C, S and SI), which are Possible sources of soil pollution in downtown (Baquba, Canaan, Muhammad Sakran, and Al-Mamal area), Diyala Governorate in Iraq. To achieve this goal, 5 samples of Diyala soil were collected. Soil samples included areas (industrial, residential, agricultural) with an average sample rate for each region with a depth (0-10 cm). After collecting the samples, they were sorted and compressed to prepare them for measurement by dispersive spectroscopy of X-ray energy (EDX) After obtaining the results, they are compared with the global determinants (WHO), and through these results we find that most of the heavy elements of the areas studied are recorded a significant rise for the element (pb), while the rise of (Cd) was recorded in the regions of Baquba and the Al-mameail region area also recorded an increase ( Cr) in the Canaan region, as well as the rise of some elements in the study area because they are residential and industrial areas and the use of fuels will be significant, while others found the lowest concentrations in agricultural areas with good vegetation knowing (Fe) was the lowest concentration in the study area.

105

Haithem Abbas and Inbethaq Abdulameer. A Study of the climate change impacts on Al Shuwayja marsh – Wasit Provence using Satellite Remote Sensing

Abstract. A study was described and analysed using the Landsat series of images to detect flood waters in Al shuwayja marsh, monitor the spatial scale and spread of flooding. The images were first classified in two ways unsupervised and supervised. Subsequently, QGIS was applied to extract the area of submerged areas from the Landsat images. These spaces were analysed to determine the nature of the spatial scale and duration of the flood and to show how the flood spread over time. This study demonstrates that it can use satellite images with geographic information systems to effectively monitor and analyze the spread of flood waters in an area prone to flooding. Therefore, the results of this study will help to take an initiative to reduce the impact of flood risks and increase flexibility in flood management.

106

Irina FilimonovaAnna KomarovaIrina ProvornayaYury Dzyuba and Arina Link. Efficiency of oil companies in Russia in context of sustainable development

Abstract. The fundamental indicator of stable growth, economic efficiency, and the ultimate financial goal of any company is profit. Investors, creditors, auditors, company management, and others look at the financial results of the company. The efficiency of the activities of oil companies in Russia is also of interest to the government, due to tax revenues to the federal budget of the country. In this article, using panel data analysis, we study the impact of various institutional, macroeconomic, and microeconomic factors on the profits of domestic and foreign oil companies. In this study, we also compare domestic and foreign companies in the oil and gas sector and identify the distinctive features of each group. In this paper, we have constructed models of the dependence of net profit on various macroeconomic, microeconomic, institutional, and additional factors. The basic panel data model is tested, taking into account fixed and random individual effects. Our results show that the profit of each large oil and gas company is affected by revenue, production costs, and tax deductions. For the activities of oil and gas companies, the refinancing rate set by the Central Bank is also important. A distinctive factor for corporations is the negative impact of financial leverage on the profits of domestic companies and the negative impact of investment in the environmental sphere for foreign companies.

107

Irina ProvornayaIrina FilimonovaVasiliy NemovAnna Komarova and Yury DzyubaEnergy policy of oil product pricing in Russia, USA, and Saudi Arabia

Abstract. The main trend in the development of global energy throughout human history is the continuous growth of energy production and consumption. At the same time, we can see the transformation of the regional and species structure of production and consumption of energy sources under the influence of technological, geopolitical, financial, economic, and environmental factors. In this article, the authors evaluated the impact of price formation factors on oil products in the three largest oil-producing and exporting countries in the world: Russia, the United States, and Saudi Arabia. Based on a retrospective study of prices for petroleum products, significant factors have been identified to determine the peculiarities of the structure of prices for petroleum products in different countries. The authors have established the patterns of pricing in the analyzed market, arising due to the different levels of economic development of the countries concerned, differences in taxation systems of the oil and gas sector, and due to the different rates of depletion of hydrocarbon reserves. The authors used the systematization and ordering of data in tabular and graphical form to identify stable patterns and trends in the pricing of oil products in the context of the main oil-producing countries.

109

Toni Khalil, Fabrice Monteiro, Abbas Dandache and Chafic Salame. Review of Flat Panel Detectors Technique for Medical Imaging Quality Improvement

Abstract. This review consists on the progress of flat-panel detectors for digital radiography based on amorphous materials; flat panel detectors remain the essential element for radiography improvement. The X-ray converter and the readout pixel array consists the most important components of flat-panel detectors where their parameters and developments will be described. This review also presents the innovative development perceptions of new detectors. In addition, we will define the cascaded linear systems method because it is a very influential tool for improving the design and assessment of X-ray imaging detector systems.

110

Akram Jabur, Emad S. Al- Hassani and Saja A. Moosa. Preparation and Physical Properties of PCL-Metoprolol Tartrate Electospun Nanofibers as Drug Delivery System

Abstract. Electrospinning is considered a promising technology for encapsulating and loading various drugs into nanofibers. Metoprolol tartrate (MPT), hydrophilic therapy, was used as model drug. Metoprolol tartrate was loaded into poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) via blend and emulsion electospinning. The preparation processes, morphology, chemical structure thermal properties were evaluated. FESEM showed that emulsion electospinning produce larger fiber diameters when compared to fibers produced by blend electrospinning. Our study demonstrated the possibility of using electrospinning with a promising good potential toward sustained and controlled drug delivery system.

111

Nour-Eddine Id Omar, Lahcen Boukhattem, Fahd Oudrhiri Hassani, Amin Bennouna and Aziz Oukennou. Outdoor performance analysis of different PV technologies under hot semi-arid climate

Abstract. The outdoor performance evaluation of a 5.94 kWp grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system, implemented on the rooftop of the National School of Applied Sciences of Safi (NSASS) Morocco, has been carried out under hot semi-arid climate. The PV plant contains three silicon-based PV panels: mono-crystalline (m-Si), poly-crystalline (p-Si) and amorphous (a-Si). A one-year measured data from June 2018 to May 2019 were analyzed. The performance parameters such as reference yield, final yield, system efficiency, performance ratio, capacity factor, energy density and environmental benefits were assessed under IEC 61724 standards. Performance parameters results show that m-Si technology is the most suitable one for this location followed by p-Si. Knowing that m-Si’s price is relatively higher than that of p-Si, the latter can further be considered as the most appropriate technology to the hot semi-arid climate of Safi region. Thereafter, the amount of CO2 emissions that could be avoided can reach 9.69 tons per year. Outcomes also indicate that grid connected PV plants are feasible in the hot semi-arid climate of Safi region for electricity generation and may contribute to the future energy mix of the country.

112

Osi Fayomi, O Oyedepo, Ig Akande, Ko Babaremu and Uc Esse. Productivity Index of the Nigeria Power Sector

Abstract. The Nigerian power sector has been plagued with numerous challenges characterized by poor generation transmission and distribution facilities. This is mainly due to the poor policies in place that has consistently frustrated the penetration of reliable investors who are able to bring transformation. This study highlights the challenges faced in the industry and the opportunities for sustainable growth. The only way there can be an increase in productivity in the energy sector is the adoption of new and sustainable technologies from current best practices. This can only be actualized through a careful review of the policies regulating operators in the industry. With Nigeria’s growing population expected to hit over 400 million in 2050 to become the third most populous country in the world, following India and China in the second and first positions respectively, something has to be done now. The government has introduced different strategies to curb this problem including encouraging the participation of private investors, diversification of the available sources of energy and promoting efficiency for development. In addition to this, the government has invested billions of dollars on the acquisition of generation, transmission and distribution facilities. The conclusive part of this study revealed that renewable energy as an alternative energy source is required by Nigeria to complement other sources of energy to stimulate sustainable growth and development.

113

Gu Fayomi, Se Mini, Osi Fayomi, A Odunlami and Oo Oyeleke. Sustainability and Clean Technology: A Technological Perspective

Abstract. Sustainability and the need to ensure sustainable development is an ever-important issue in this present age and time, owing to the ever-increasing demand for the earth’s resources, coupled with an increase in human population, human demand for rapid industrialization and the demand for energy, these have all led to adverse negative impact on the immediate environment, as a result of the strain imposed on the environmental limits of the earth’s carrying capacity. A thin line needs to be drawn, and this paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review on the subject matter of sustainability, including the different dimensions and the cross-disciplinary views on sustainability, the inter-dependence and inter-relationships between these dimensions, human effort in ensuring sustainability across all facets, the development of the sustainable development goals, and the challenges faced in the actualization and implementation of these goals. The achievements of the sustainable development goals were examined as well as the possible trade-offs resulting from limited resource use in the SDGs, the role of technology was also examined and how modern science and innovation can be used in driving our sustainable future.

114

Osi Fayomi, O Agboola, Uc Esse, So Oyedeo and Ig Akande. Energy Sector Effectiveness and Impact of Its Competitiveness in the Nigerian Economy

Abstract. The Nigerian power sector has been plagued with numerous challenges characterized by poor generation transmission and distribution facilities. This is mainly due to the poor policies in place that has consistently frustrated the penetration of reliable investors. This study highlights the challenges faced in the industry, its competitiveness and the impact in Nigeria Economy. It also presented the way forward towards the improvement of power supply for sustainable industrial development, enhancement of economy and development of alternative sources of energy which are crucial for industrial growth and reduction in the unpredictable supply of energy.

115

Emmanouil Gryparis, Perikles Papadopoulos, Helen C. Leligkou and Constantinos Psomopoulos. Electricity demand and carbon emission in power generation under high penetration of electric vehicles. An EU perspective.

Abstract. The European Union has set goals to combat energy problems, but also to reduce greenhouse gases as the main cause of environmental pollution. The transport sector is particularly exacerbating the above problems. Focusing on their fight, European authorities have invested and continue to invest in electric propulsion. In the European Union, electric mobility has grown tremendously in the last decade. Specifically, more and more automobile industries are turning their interest in electric technology to replace conventional cars which they use internal combustion engine. This study contains three different key elements. First, the penetration of electric vehicles into the Union, then the electricity that is exploited by every European country and finally the emission of carbon dioxide gases based on official data. With proper use of the above elements will investigate the case to whether future electrification in transportation can help to improve the atmosphere air in parallel with the reduction or the increase of demand of electric power by consumers.

116

Simona Lizica Paraschiv, Nicoleta Acomi, Alexandru Serban and Spiru Paraschiv. A web application for analysis of heat transfer through building walls and calculation of optimal insulation thickness

Abstract. This application allows users to analyze heat transfer in steady-state conditions through the walls of a building and determine the heat flux density, total heat flux, overall heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistances, and temperatures on the lateral and contact surfaces of the wall. The user can analyze the one-dimensional steady-state heat transfer through homogeneous and nonhomogeneous walls (up to 7 layers) of the buildings. The application allows the user, after defining the cross section's geometry, materials properties, and boundary conditions, to calculate the thermal insulation thickness.

117

Petros Karaisas and Horia BalanStudy of Bypass Circuits of Power Breakers in High Voltage Direct Current Networks

Abstract. DC voltage circuit breakers, initially intended for protecting and disconnecting the rectifiers, have a wide utilization in high voltage systems. This paper presents the results of By-Pass with current injection circuit simulation with Matlab software, which is connected in parallel with the main contacts of a circuit breaker. The semiconductor devices, used in the module are thyristors, adopted because of the low switching frequency and the high capacity to withstand overcurrents, much higher than the rated value, close to the short circuit current. This paper shows in which way the direct current commutation problem is related to HVDC systems, with voltages of 100 kV and current values higher than 10 kA. In order to solve DC switching problems methods of creating a zero point of short circuit current focusing on inverse current injection method are presented. The simulation results show that the value of the reverse injected current is significant relative to the short-circuit current. As further work, the authors intend to determine the maximum value of the reverse current injected relative to the short-circuit current value and to analyze the situation in which the value of the injected reverse current equals the value of the short circuit current.

118

Petros Karaisas and Mircea BuzduganHarmonic Tests in Electric Power Quality

Abstract. The paper deals with harmonic tests performed in power quality analysis. The introductory section presents some aspects related to the motivation of the increasingly concern for a detailed power quality analysis. The second section focuses on the debate regarding the resolution of power that lasts for almost a century and seems to culminate somehow with the new resolution of power in non-sinusoidal single-phase systems, delivered by the standard IEEE Std 1459-2010. This resolution pleads clearly, once again, for the importance of harmonic analysis in the study of electric power quality. That is why, the next sections of the paper present the harmonic analysis test equipment along with a few relevant cases in this matter performed in single-phase systems supplied with sinusoidal and distorted voltage as well.

119

Laince Pierre Moulebe, Abdelwahed Touati and Nabila Rabbah. Implementation of a system for reducing the cost of PEM hydrogen storage by photovoltaics in a building through a cogeneration system

Abstract. The development of renewable energies in the world continues to increase. As such, the tertiary sector and manufacturers are constantly encouraged to use it. However, the problem of production injection poses problems due to the instability of renewable energies which generate penalties. One of the solutions to date is the use of storage systems but knowing that the fight against CO2 is one of the priorities of our time, it is advisable to resort to a clean storage system which is of the hydrogen produced by the water electrolysis called Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). However, the cost linked to this solution remains significant, which is why, in this article, we describe the modeling and simulation of a photovoltaic system producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water (PEM), intended to supply the electrical and thermal loads of a building, where thermal energy is supplied by a solar thermal collector. The stored hydrogen is used to power the fuel batteries in order to maintain the conditions for injecting surplus production into the network or for self-consumption. Knowing that the energy expenditure in heating is important, in this study we take into account an improvement in energy efficiency by cogeneration on the thermal contribution of a building by using a system of heat recovery from the electrolysis of the water to heat a floor for example and thus reduce energy bills and therefore implicitly reduce the cost of PEM storage. The work is mainly carried out on Matlab Simulink

120

Carine Zaraket, Panagiotis Papageorgas, Michel Aillerie, Kyriakos Agavanakis and Chafic Salame. Cyber Security Vulnerabilities of Smart Metering Based on LPWAN Wireless Communication Technologies

Abstract. Abstract. Smart Metering permits utilities to get a remote and instant reading of the electronic meters used for Electricity power consumption and water utilization. Despite all the advantages presented by the smart metering system, there are always some challenges to be faced, such as security and communication. Cyber-attacks not only may threaten the consumer's privacy but they can even lead to a compromised system with direct implications on people safety and society activities. On the other hand, nodes Geo-location may also impose problems, when nodes are geographically dispersed and hard to reach from usual cluster. The provisioning of such a large number of smart meters directly affects the operational cost expenditures. The same is true when there is not currently appropriate communication infrastructure. Wireless technology offers an easier, faster and cost effective approach. To discuss and answer the above challenges, low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies are considered, with special focus on LoRa/LoRaWAN technology which facilitates long-range wireless, as they seem promising to anticipate for many of the recognized problems. Accordingly, for building such a reliable smart metering infrastructure using the LPWAN, applicability, feasibility and cyber security vulnerabilities have to be examined using the existing literature.

121

Nadia M. Eshra and Mariam G. Salem. Solar Energy Application in Drainage Pumping Station to Save Water and reducing the CO2 emission

Abstract. Freshwater resources in Egypt are very limited. Additionally drains are an important source of non-conventional water resources. The objectives of this paper divided into two goals; save an amount of freshwater by reducing the evaporation from the drainage channels and reducing the CO2 emission by replacing the traditional fuel of pump station in the drainage by renewable energy. Many of drainage pumps in Egypt are old and caused CO2 emission estimated by tons. Solar cell power represents the save of alternative fuel resources for these drainage pumps, as well as reducing the emissions. The pump station on the Algharak drain in Egypt was studied as a sample for the drainage systems. Climate data as solar irradiation, evaporation, air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed were collected. The pump station data as pump discharge, number of units, and the head was collected. Two scenarios were studied of the pumping operation of the pump stations on Algharak drain. In each scenario, the solar pumping power, area of solar cells, safe in evaporation loss, and the value of reducing of CO2 were estimated. The results of this research could be used in the whole country to help for saving an amount of nun-conventional water resources.

122

Punchaluck Sirinwaranon, Duangduen Atong and Viboon Sricharoenchaikul. Gasification of torrefied cassava rhizome with Ni/MCM-41 catalyst derived from illite waste

Abstract. In this work, torrefaction of cassava rhizome (CR) under nitrogen gas and a simulated flue gas atmosphere was examined in a downflow reactor at 260ºC for a residence time of 60 minutes to produce a superior solid fuel for subsequent 5Ni/MCM-41 catalytic gasification of CR utilization. Mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41 zeolite) was synthesized from illite waste as a silica source. The MCM-41 synthesis was carried out by hydrothermal and post-synthesis for Ni loading. Various characterization techniques, such as XRD, SEM, and BET were employed to thoroughly characterize catalyst. High surface area (737.88 m2/g) of obtained 5Ni/MCM-41 catalyst is reported by N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Catalyst characterization and discussion of results are presented in this work. 5Ni/MCM-41 catalyst strongly enhances the H2 and CO production from gasification of torrefied CR at a temperature of 700ºC. Carbon and hydrogen conversions were 80.17% and 27.39%, respectively while liquid yield was lower than 10 wt.%. The syngas from the conversion maintained H2/CO ratio of 0.55 with the highest gaseous efficiency of 49.35%. Obviously, synergy of synthesized 5Ni/MCM-41 catalyst and torrefied CR with gasification is valuable useful as potential renewable energy generation process.

123

Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Georgios Vokas and Constantinos Psomopoulos. Pumped hydro energy storage schemes to support high RES penetration in the electric power system of Greece

Abstract. According to Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, for Greece the target of RES penetration into gross final energy consumption in 2020 is set at 18%. The contribution of RES to energy consumption in Greece during the period 2006-2016 showed a significant increase. More specifically, the total contribution of RES as a share of gross final energy consumption in the year 2016 was 15.2%, more than doubling the relative share corresponding to RES in 2006. Similarly, the share of electricity from RES to gross electricity consumption in the year 2016 stood at 23.8%. In the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) prepared and submitted to the European Commission in January 2019 on the basis of Regulation EU) 2018/1999 on the governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action and Directive (EU) 2018/2001 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, a target for the RES share in the gross final energy consumption in 2030 is set at 31%and respectivelya target for the RES share in the gross final electricity consumption is set at 55%. More specifically,in order to achieve the above target in the electricity sector, it is estimated that more than 9 GW of variable RES plants (wind and photovoltaic plants) must be installed. In order to reach such high levels of variable RES penetration into the gross final electricity consumption, energy storage needs arise. For several decades, Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) is the most widespread international format for large-scale storage of electricity. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the status and prospects of PHES in Greece. It also tries to identify obstacles in installing and operating PHES in Greece using experience from other countries.

124

Hanan Hassun, Bushra Hussein, Bushra Al-Maiyaly and Auday Shaban. Influence of Cu on Enhance Efficiency of SnS:Cu Thin Film and Solar cell

Abstract. Tin sulfide SnS thin-films solar cell were prepared on two types of substrates n-type Si and glass by thermal evaporation with (500) nm thickness at R.T. Then doped with different ratios of Cu (X=0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) with a vacuum of 4*10-6 mbar. (X-ray diffraction and AFM) for Structural properties, UV/Visible for optical properties and Hall Effect for electrical properties of the thin films were examined for glass substrates. Current-voltage characteristics of the P-type SnS as ratios of Cu increased demonstrate good photovoltaic effect deposited on n-type Si .The efficiency of SnS:Cu /Si was 3.5% for the solar cell fabricated where 0.05 of Cu.

125

Christoforos SpyrouPanagiotis PapageorgasGeorgios Vokas and Antonios MoronisTechno-Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Power Supply System on a Telecom Site

Abstract. The subscriptions of mobile phones exceeded the population of the planet and are getting bigger and bigger by the pass of time. This trend leads the telecom sector to a continuous increase in electrical energy consumption. The implementation of off-grid BTS was unavoidable for the providers in order to cover the demand in remote areas in the past years. The basic energy supply on these sites is provided by 24 hours running a diesel generator and a battery bank as a backup unit. The mentioned state means high off-grid station’s operational expenditures, due to frequent diesel generator maintenance and difficulties on fuel delivery. This paper evaluates the incorporation effectiveness of a PV system, wind turbine, and fuel cell as alternative technologies of power supply on off-grid BTS. A thorough comparison between the conventional system and the hybrid solution is developed. The technical and financial benefits of upgrading the power converter of the system by a retrofit scheme are also analyzed

126

Omaima El Alani, Abdellatif Ghennioui, Hicham Ghennioui, Yves-Maries Saint-Drenan and Philippe Blanc. Evaluation of 24-hour forecasts of global solar irradiation from Helioclim3, GFS and McClear models

Abstract. The knowledge of the global solar irradiation available at ground level is a key element in many fields, environment, agriculture, architecture, health, and photovoltaic power generation where the knowledge of the amount of radiation available on the earth's surface a few hours in advance allows investment decision-making, electricity grid management, and better management of the energy produced. Different methods are used to forecast global solar radiation. The objective of this study is to validate three different models for forecasting solar radiation. This paper presents the validation results of the hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) forecasts by three models: GFS (Global Forecasting System) which is a numerical prediction model, HelioClim3 (HC3) that is a database based on the geostationary meteorological satellite images Météosat Second Generation (MSG) and McClear which is a physical model of irradiance in the cloud-free conditions (clear sky), mainly based on look-up tables computed from the libRadtran radiative transfer model. The validation was done by comparing the 24 hours ahead forecasts of these models with high performances ground data derived from four meteorological stations installed in Morocco. The validation is carried out for all-sky conditions, as well as for cloud-free conditions, given that Morocco is characterized by a high frequency of cloud-free conditions. In this case, the comparisons were made for automatically selected cloudless moments from all-sky pyranometric measurements. For all-sky conditions, HC3 and GFS perform satisfactorily, in most cases HC3 surpasses GFS with a Mean Bias Error (MBE) ranging from -3.23 W/m2 and 11.85 W/m2 versus -1.96 W/m2 and 26.92 W/m2 for GFS and a correlation coefficient (CC) between 0.93 and 0.98 for HC3 versus 0.83 and 0.95 for GFS. For clear sky conditions, McClear exhibits the best performances outperforming GFS with a CC ranging between 0.92 and 0.99 versus 0.78 and 0.98 for GFS. The HC3 model also performs well under clear sky conditions that exceed the GFS with a CC ranging between 0.92 and 0.99. The validation results are satisfactory, for all-sky conditions HC3 and GFS proved their ability to capture the temporal variability of GHI, and for clear sky conditions. The comparison between McClear forecasts and GHI measurements performed well for all stations sky conditions, where McClear exhibits the best results. On the whole, the three databases are reliable sources for solar radiation forecasting for Morocco.

127

Vasilios Orfanos, Stavros Kaminaris, Dimitrios Piromalis and Panagiotis PapageorgasSmart Home Automation in the IoT Era: A Communication Technologies review

Abstract. The rapid evolution in internet communication technologies resulted in an increased interest for Home Automation Systems providing unpreceded levels of interaction for the consumers and the professionals in the industry/business sectors. With the wide adoption of IoT (Internet of Things) technologies critical sensing and actuation components have become affordable and interconnected, enabling Machine-to-Machine (M2M) scenarios and the implementation of standardized Home Automation Systems, utilizing interoperable components and not proprietary and lock-up solutions. As a result, in the last ten years, a plethora of home automation systems is presented in the market, causing consumers confused about the pros and cons of the selection on which is the optimal solution. In this article, the important metrics concerning the communication technologies used are presented by providing a more consolidated view of the most known technologies including open-source, proprietary, and standardized implementations. In the first part of the article, a short review of the available technologies is presented followed by a more detailed comparison after the classification in four basic categories concerning: User interface, technical characteristics, security/quality, and cost, for wired and wireless technologies. Finally, appropriate metrics for the optimal selection are introduced.

128

Saowaluck Haosagul, Peerada Prommeenate and Nipon Pisutpaisal. Microarray detection of sulfur oxidizing bacteria in industrial scale biotrickling filter removing H2S from biogas

Abstract. Knowledge of gene function and coexistence in the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) communities plays a significant role in driving the sulfide oxidation process in biogas, including the stability and balance within the system. Microarray techniques can be responding to achieve as specific-detection, quantitative-identification, and high-throughput tools for microbial characterization in various environments. This research design the microarray for monitoring SOB bacteria based on the entire genome and functional genes: soxAXBYZ and fccAB, using genome sequencing of non-SOB as a negative control, and then SOB microarray used to detect and identify SOB species-strain in the starch industry. The design of the DNA microarray revealed 61,788 probes which covered 722 strains of SOB and 35 strains of non-SOB. The quality test results demonstrated the DNA concentration, specific activity, and yield of the genomic DNA had high-quality and could be repeated in the future with little noise signal. The expression level of recirculating sludge have increased in level of expression than the starting sludge. Thiothrix, Syntrophomonas, Paracoccus Magnetospirillum, Arcobacter, Sulfuricurvum, Acinetobacter, and Hydrogenophaga gained the gene expression level that involved with sulfide oxidation. The reason for overexpression could due to the biotrickling filter have more nutrients and optimal conditions for SOB growth to synthesize the necessary proteins for cell adaptation, such as SoxXA, SoxYZ, SoxB, and FccAB related to bacterial activity that oxidized the H2S in biogas.

129

Saowaluck Haosagul and Nipon Pisutpaisal. Ethanol Production from Waste Glycerol Using Co-carbon Sources

Abstract. This research aimed to study ethanol production from waste glycerol derived from the biodiesel production process, by co-fermentation of glycerol-glucose using Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR 1468. The initial experiments were setup with waste glycerol as a carbon source with initial concentration ranged from 0, 8.7, 23.4, 43.4, and 63.1 g L-1 in 100 mL serum bottles, the working volume of 50 mL and controlled condition at 30°C for 240 hr of fermentation period. During the fermentation, the liquid samples were collected to quantitatively analyze concentrations of volatile fatty acids and glycerol, and gas samples were collected to analyze its compositions. E. aerogenes TISTR 1468 produced maximum ethanol concentration of 215.1 mM and ethanol yield was 0.71 mol mol-1 at fermentation period 72 hr, initial waste glycerol concentration 63.1 g L-1 (79.11 g COD L-1). The ethanol production by the co-fermentation of glycerol-glucose was setup based on the initial total carbon source concentration of 79.11 g COD L-1 with the varying glycerol-glucose ratios of 1:1, 10:1, and 100:1. At the ratio of 100:1, ethanol production from co-fermentation with glycerol-glucose produced maximum ethanol concentration of 232.8 mM and ethanol yield was 0.59 mol mol-1 at fermentation period of 24 hr. The ethanol production from co-fermentation with glycerol-glucose improve the increase of higher ethanol concentration.

130

Christos Varsamis, Christina Valvi, Nick Makris and Efstratios Kamitsos. Synthesis and Characterization of Multilayered ZnO/glass/ZnO Varistors

Abstract. Low-voltage surge filters are technologically important for the protection of modern computing and telecommunication systems operating at low voltages. In this context the design and characterization of varistors operating at low voltages constitutes a continuous challenge. In the present investigation, composite materials with the multilayered structure ZnO/glass/ZnO were prepared and characterized by current-voltage, I-V, electrical measurements. It was found that a prerequisite for the composite materials to exhibit non-linear electrical properties is the doping of ZnO crystals with Co2+ cations. Whenever composite materials act as varistors, the breakdown voltage is at ca. 3V and shows negligible dependence on the temperature and the polarity of bias voltage. On the contrary, the quality of the resistor to conductor transition, as measured by its steepness, strongly depends on the polarity of the ZnO crystals. The optimum characteristics of the varistors are obtained when both ZnO crystals have an O-face polarity. Finally, non-linear electrical properties are correlated with the formation of a Bi2O3-like pseudo-phase in the borate glass network.

131

Marwan Brouche, Lahoud Chawki, Mirna F. Lahoud and Christy Lahoud. Solar Drying Simulation of Different Products: Lebanese Case

Abstract. Solar radiation is used for drying different products from thousands of years. Solar energy was the only energy used until the discovery of fossil fuels sources. These dryers are not very commercialized, and their designs are based on empirical and semi-empirical systems. Therefore, theoretical studies will be of high importance in this field. In this article a simulation of a direct solar dryer system is developed based on the heat transfers phenomena inside and outside the dryer. This study is applied on five different products to determine instant temperatures of the product, of the internal air of the dryer and of its cover, in addition to the instant water content of the product dried. Finally, a relation between the thermal capacity of the product dried and a defined drying characteristic time will be highlighted.

132

Muhammad R. Abdussami, Md. Ibrahim Adham and Hossam A.Gabbar. Modeling and performance analysis of nuclear-renewable micro hybrid energy system based on different coupling methods

Abstract. This paper proposes three methods, called Direct Coupling, Single Resource and Multiple products-based Coupling, and Multiple Resources and Multiple products-based Coupling, of hybridization for optimal planning of Nuclear-Renewable Micro Hybrid Energy System (N-R MHES). In N-R MHES, Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) is coupled with Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) to provide a reliable, resilient, and sustainable solution to energy crisis at remote locations. Complex mathematical modeling of N-R MHES, based on proposed hybridization methods, is carried out in this paper. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to achieve optimal system configuration and to assess the effectiveness and performability of different N-R MHESs. The objective of the optimization problem is to obtain the lowest Net Present Cost (NPC). The simulation results show that multiple resources and multiple products-based N-R MHES provides the lowest NPC with an acceptable margin of reliability. System reliability is evaluated based on a technical Key Performance Indicator (KPI), named Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP). A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted to evaluate the impacts of different system parameters on NPC.

133

Vasiliki Rokani and Stavros Kaminaris. Power Transformers Fault Diagnosis Using AI Techniques

Abstract. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a novel branch in science and engineering. AI techniques constitute the most cutting- edge method in Power Transformers Fault Diagnosis. When a transformer fails, some gases are produced and dissolved in the insulating oil, and Gas Chromatography detects them. It is a technique of separation, identification, and quantification of mixtures of gases. The analysis of these gases helps to identify the incipient fault types. The conventional method widely adopted is the Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). All the conventional methods have limitations because they cannot analyze all faults accurately. It usually happens when more than one fault occurs in a transformer or when the concentration of gases is near the threshold. To deal with this problem and to improve the reliability and the accuracy of fault diagnosis, various Artificial Intelligence techniques are proposed. In this paper three AI methods are employed, a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in order to enhance the accuracy of conventional Rogers Ratio method, that evaluates the DGA. All these techniques are simulated using MATLAB software. Real samples of dissolved gases that have been generated in failure transformers and have been obtained from the HEDNO (Hellenic Electricity Distribution Network Operator ) are used. Finally, a comparison of the FIS, ANN, ANFIS, and the conventional Rogers Ratio method is presented.

134

Jose C. AlvarezCarlos RaymundoGianpierre Zapata and Julio RoncerosPatented portable spirometer based in fluid mechanics to monitor rehabilitation of patients Covid-19

Abstract. Covid-19 convalescent patients require monitoring of the evolution of their respiratory capacity, which is not feasible due to the lack of personal spirometers that prevent contamination. Given this, the development of a portable and personal spirometer is proposed, based on the parabolic movement of a drop of fluid driven by the expired air whose distance traveled is correlated with speed and therefore with volume. The results are the patented conceptual design and the determination of the feasibility of the concept.

135

Yuri Arbuzov, Vladimir Evdokimov and Olga Shepovalova. Theory of concentration rate distribution over the surface of axisymmetrical receiver in cylindrical parabolic mirror-type solar energy concentrator

Abstract. In his work cylindrical parabolic concentrator of solar radiation with axisymmetrical (cylindrical) radiation receiver has been studied. Design of a trough-shaped mirror-type solar energy concentrator with axisymmetrical radiation receiver has been developed and its operation has been analyzed. Optical-energy system of concentrator has been designed. Mathematical physics equations have been deduced that describe the specifics of incident radiation flux reflection from the concentrator’s surface and falling onto that of axisymmetrical radiation receiver. PV module with cooling or without it, solar collector, PVT module, etc. may be applied as radiation receivers. Concentration rate distribution over the surface of radiation receiver, for incident radiation, has been estimated, for various concentrator design parameters and various positions of receiver axis in relation to the focus of reflecting surface, on the symmetry plane. The ways to improve the uniformity of distribution of radiation concentration rate have been studied.

136

Dmitry Tikhomirov, Stanislav Trunov, Aleksey Kuzmichev, Sergey Rastimeshin and Olga Shepovalova. Energy-efficient thermoelectric unit for microclimate control in cattle breeding premises

Abstract. The importance and timeliness of the problem of microclimate control and maintaining optimal conditions for agricultural animals and service personnel have been supported. The existing methods for air drying and heating have been analyzed in relation to the conditions and specifics of cattle-breeding premises and their effectiveness have been evaluated. Results of physical simulations of air drying and heating processes along with the parameters and operating modes of plant on the basis of Peltier thermoelectric elements have been reported. Functional-technological diagram and calculation methods have been developed for parameters of thermoelectric plant designed for air drying, heating and disinfecting, in cattle-breeding premises. Design structure of operating sample of thermoelectric plant and the results of its testing have been described. Implementation of the presented technical solution will contribute to the transition to a high-productivity and environmentally effective agriculture and resources-saving power industry.

137

Olga Shepovalova, Alexander Belenov and Sergei Sergei Chirkov. Review of photovoltaic water pumping system research

Abstract. Currently a considerable and the most economically justified potential of making the solar energy conversion more efficient and making the solar energy more attractive for consumers involves the coordination of the entire equipment from generation to consumption while considering all this equipment as a unified system and taking the degree of satisfaction of the consumer needs as the measure of efficiency. A photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) is the first and one of few types of ground PV systems where the consumption equipment was always considered from the onset as part of the system. So a retrospective analysis of PVWPS research is of particular interest. This article contains the PVWPS research analysis beginning with the first research conducted in 1964-1966 to date. Discussed herein are the main problems that arose in the PVWPS development, operation, and optimization as well as options of their solution. Various areas of PVWPS improvement research were analyzed, including research involving PV array structure and PV modules interconnection; development and improvement of special structures of any components (pumps and invertors, etc.); improvement of PV array and electric motor interaction, electric motor and pump interaction against the backdrop of irradiance variation and in conjunction with consumption optimization and control improvement, to start with maximum power point tracing.

138

Olga Shepovalova and Alexey Ivanov. Compliance Confirmation and Certification Mechanics of Photovoltaic Equipment in Russia

Abstract. In this article, mechanics used in Russia and CIS countries to prove the compliance of photovoltaic equipment with the requirements of standards have been studied and certification concept has been analyzed. The compliance confirmation systems currently adhered to in RF and in the Customs Union have been discussed and compared with those based on the IEC standards. The existing problems and ways of their solution have been discussed. This work is dedicated to the analysis of photoelectric equipment compliance confirmation mechanisms, in Russia, in terms of their drawbacks and possible perspective ways to improve them in order to raise the effectiveness of photoelectric equipment application and to create favorable conditions for PE wide-scale implementation. It will help to meet the needs of consumers on a higher level.

139

Anestis Anastasiadis, Ioannis Oikonomou, Dimitrios Barkas, Georgios Vokas and Constantinos Psomopoulos. Microgrids Protection Schemes, Challenges and Strategies

Abstract. A Microgrid (MG) is a Low level Voltage (LV) or Medium level Voltage (MV) Distribution Network system (DN) with Distributed Generation Units (DGs) (e.g. PV units, Wind Power Units, Fuel Cells, Micro turbines, Electric Vehicles, micro Combined Heat and Power systems, controllable smart loads, storage units etc.). A LV MG can operate connected to the upstream MV grid (Mode 1) or islanded (Mode 2) in a controlled and coordinated way. The most important technical challenges of a MG are its smart protection system. Basically, the protection system has to react both to distribution network operation and to MG faults. Most of the DGs units are being dominated by Power Electronics (PE). PE might lead to protection failures. As more MGs have PE interfaces the procedure of fault detection is a very crucial. Most of the traditional protection devices cannot ensure the protection of a MG. The scope of this review is to present briefly a collection of protection schemes, challenges, strategies and solutions for both two types of a MG (AC and DC).

140

Georgios Deiktas, Anestis Anastasiadis and Georgios Vokas. Economic Feasibility Investigation of a Vanadium Redox BESS for the Exploitation of Wind Power Rejections in Isolated Medium Size Greek Island

Abstract. Greece has plenty of electrically isolated Islands. Most of them, like Crete, Lesvos, and Chios have a great Aeolian Potential which remains un-exploitable due to Power Grid limitations. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of integration a Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in order to minimize the unharnessed wind power owing to the local power grid limitations. For this purpose, real time series data of wind power rejections of two Wind Parks operated in a Medium Size Greek Island which reached the 10% of their theoretical production capability will be used. Additionally, the Island load demand hourly variation coming from the archives of the private company that owns the wind parks are used. Based on these data and the electrical model of the Vanadium Redox Batteries several simulations for various VRB power / energy capacity combinations were conducted and their capabilities in wind energy recovery are estimated. In addition, the simulated systems were examined from the aspect of economic viability with the use of economic indices such as the Internal Rate of Return and the Net Present Value. Finally, the influence on the feasibility of such an investment of factors such as the selling price of energy provided to the grid and the VRB sale price were examined.

141

Rabeb Belghouthi and Michel AillerieEnhanced ZnO Based Solar Cell Efficiency by Piezo-Phototronic Effect

Abstract. We report the piezotronic effects on the electrical properties of a Schottky contact metal/ZnO(n) solar cell. The purpose of the present study is to determinate the influence of piezoelectric polarization on the electrical characteristics of this solar cell. Results show that the stress causes an increase of the electric field in the region where the piezoelectric fields are located. The sign of the stress proves that if it is positive (extensive strain), the effective barrier height increases which reduces the flow of electrons and thereafter is considered as a limiting factor for photovoltaic conversion, However, if the stress is negative (compression strain), a significant improvement of photovoltaic efficiency is obtained. Using the piezoelectric effects created by an external stress, our study provides not only a theoretical understanding about the piezotronic effects on the characteristics of a solar cell but also assists for the possible design improvement allowing to increase